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Full-Text Articles in Education

A Community-Based Parenting Program With Low-Income Mothers Of Young Children, Bonnie Nicholson, Viktor Brenner, Robert A. Fox Nov 2012

A Community-Based Parenting Program With Low-Income Mothers Of Young Children, Bonnie Nicholson, Viktor Brenner, Robert A. Fox

Robert Fox

Research has established a significant relationship between certain parental characteristics. such as income or parenting practices, and the development of child behavior problems. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a parenting program for low-income parents of children one to five years old which was offered through community-based family resource centers. Seventy-one mothers completed the program and showed significant decreases in their use of verbal and corporal punishment and significant increases in nurturing behaviors: their children’s behavior also improved significantly. Forty-five percent of parents also met Jacobson and Truax’s (1991) criteria for clinically significant change. Implications for practitioners working ...


Treatment Or Accommodation For Adults With Challenging Behaviors, Robert A. Fox Nov 2012

Treatment Or Accommodation For Adults With Challenging Behaviors, Robert A. Fox

Robert Fox

No abstract provided.


A Community-Based Accommodation Program For Adults With Autism And Mental Retardation, Robert A. Fox, Casey A. Holtz, Amie M. Moist Nov 2012

A Community-Based Accommodation Program For Adults With Autism And Mental Retardation, Robert A. Fox, Casey A. Holtz, Amie M. Moist

Robert Fox

There is a paucity of treatment literature for significant and intractable behavior problems in adults with autism and mental retardation. Four adults with autism, severe to profound mental retardation, and serious, long-term behavior problems participated in an accommodation training program as an adjunct to more traditional behavioral and medical treatments. The accommodation program consisted of designing highly structured and predictable daily routines to reduce the impact of environmental factors that had previously resulted in behavior problems. Following three to six years of participation in the accommodation program, a significant treatment effect size was obtained for all participants. The benefits of ...


Incidence Of Obesity Among Mentally Retarded Children, Robert A. Fox, Constanz W. Hartney, Anthony F. Rotatori, Elke M. Kurpiers Nov 2012

Incidence Of Obesity Among Mentally Retarded Children, Robert A. Fox, Constanz W. Hartney, Anthony F. Rotatori, Elke M. Kurpiers

Robert Fox

An international survey of professionals in the field of mental retardation was conducted to determine significant research priorities in the education of students with mild retardation. A total of 67 individuals responded to survey which represented 83.7% of those contacted. Among the issues rated most highly were two clusters: vocational, career education and post-school adjustment and long term effects and generalization of effects of programs. Implications of the survey data are discussed and recommendations are provided.


Deinstitutionalization As A Function Of Interagency Planning: A Case Study, Robert A. Fox, Orv C. Karan Nov 2012

Deinstitutionalization As A Function Of Interagency Planning: A Case Study, Robert A. Fox, Orv C. Karan

Robert Fox

No abstract provided.


Parenting Latino Toddlers And Preschoolers: Clinical And Nonclinical Samples, Marie E. Perez, Robert A. Fox Nov 2012

Parenting Latino Toddlers And Preschoolers: Clinical And Nonclinical Samples, Marie E. Perez, Robert A. Fox

Robert Fox

Parenting practices contribute significantly to the social-emotional development of young children. There is limited literature that addresses the role of culture in parenting, particularly among Latino families who have very young children with significant behavior problems. The current study compared the parenting practices of 30 low-income Latino mothers whose young children had been referred for mental health services for their behavior problems with a similar group of 30 mothers of children without behavior problems. Results showed that mothers in the clinical sample nurtured their children less often and used more frequent verbal and corporal punishment as discipline than the nonclinical ...


The Effect Of Two Weight Reduction Maintenance Strategies For Moderately/Mildly Retarded Adults, Anthony F. Rotatori, Stephen Zinkgraf, Johnny Matson, Robert Fox, David Sexton, Patricia Wade Nov 2012

The Effect Of Two Weight Reduction Maintenance Strategies For Moderately/Mildly Retarded Adults, Anthony F. Rotatori, Stephen Zinkgraf, Johnny Matson, Robert Fox, David Sexton, Patricia Wade

Robert Fox

Thirteen retarded adult subjects were first exposed to a 12-week behavior therapy weight reduction program followed by a ten-month weekly weigh-in. Then the subjects were randomly assigned to an experimental maintenance booster session group (n=7) or a control post-treatment maintenance group (n=6) for 12 months. The results indicated that when weight control or maintenance procedures were in effect, the subjects lost weight. However, a 12-month follow-up check revealed that the long-term success of the treatment and maintenance procedures was not well maintaned.


The Integrated Basic Education And Skills Training (I-Best) Program: Equiping All Adults For The Global Economy, Robert W. Fox, Mitchell R. Williams Nov 2012

The Integrated Basic Education And Skills Training (I-Best) Program: Equiping All Adults For The Global Economy, Robert W. Fox, Mitchell R. Williams

Robert Fox

Abstract In 2004, educational leaders in Washington State, recognizing the necessity of rapidly equipping adults with career skills, developed the Integrated Basic Education and Skills Training (I-BEST) program to meet workforce needs. I-BEST is now operational in all 34 of the State’s community colleges. I-BEST is an instructional method which provides basic skills support to ABE and ESL students while they receive career training. I-BEST uniquely pairs a basic skills instructor with a vocational instructor in the classroom at the same time. Previous research on the I-BEST program has been positive, but it has ignored the pivotal role instructors ...


Challenging Behaviors In Young Children: The Father's Role, Ann D. Burbach, Robert A. Fox, Bonnie C. Nicholson Nov 2012

Challenging Behaviors In Young Children: The Father's Role, Ann D. Burbach, Robert A. Fox, Bonnie C. Nicholson

Robert Fox

In this study, the authors examined the parenting practices, developmental expectations, and stress levels of 136 fathers and the challenging and prosocial behaviors of their 1- to 5-year-old children. In addition, the authors systematically addressed fathers' qualitative concerns about their parenting. The authors divided the participants into 4 groups and controlled for family socioeconomic status (SES) and the focus child's gender. Results showed a significantly higher use of corporal and verbal punishment and parenting stress among lower income fathers. Secondary analyses demonstrated a significant effect of paternal disciplinary practices that emphasized the frequent use of corporal and verbal punishment ...


A Mental Health Clinic For Toddlers With Developmental Delays And Behavior Problems, Robert A. Fox, Kathryn M. Keller, Patricia L. Grede, Ann M. Bartosz Nov 2012

A Mental Health Clinic For Toddlers With Developmental Delays And Behavior Problems, Robert A. Fox, Kathryn M. Keller, Patricia L. Grede, Ann M. Bartosz

Robert Fox

A mental health clinic was developed for toddlers with developmental disabilities and significant behavior problems from families living in poverty. The clinic was a collaborative effort between a community-based Birth-to-Three agency and a university. The purpose of this clinic was threefold: to provide direct mental health services for these young children, to train graduate students to work with this population, and to begin to contribute to the limited research available in this area. This paper describes the clinical intake procedures and outcomes for the 81 children served by the clinic over a 2-year period. Referral concerns included tantrums, aggression, oppositional ...


Changes In Biomedical And Physical Correlates In Behavioral Weight Loss With Retarded Youths, Anthony F. Rotatori, Robert A. Fox, Johnny Matson, Sudha Mehta, Annetta Baker, Wanda R. Lopuch Nov 2012

Changes In Biomedical And Physical Correlates In Behavioral Weight Loss With Retarded Youths, Anthony F. Rotatori, Robert A. Fox, Johnny Matson, Sudha Mehta, Annetta Baker, Wanda R. Lopuch

Robert Fox

Seventeen trainable mentally retarded youths were assigned to either a behavior therapy (N = 6), an obese wait·list control group (N = 5) or a normal weight control group (N = 6). The behavior therapy subjects lost significantly more weight than the two control groups who gained weight. The behavior therapy subjects achieved significant reductions in tricep skin· fold thickness, abdominal circumferences, and diastolic blood pressure measures by the end of the 21·week treatment program. The advantages of using multiple dependent measures is discussed.


One Family At A Time: A Prevention Program For At-Risk Parents, Bonnie Nicholson, Michelle Anderson, Robert A. Fox, Viktor Brenner Nov 2012

One Family At A Time: A Prevention Program For At-Risk Parents, Bonnie Nicholson, Michelle Anderson, Robert A. Fox, Viktor Brenner

Robert Fox

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a psychoeducational parenting program with at-risk parents of young children. At-risk was defined as excessive parental use of verbal and corporal punishment combined with low-income status. All families were seen for 10 weeks, either individually or in very small groups. Results showed that compared with the control group, parents participating in the program significantly decreased their levels of verbal and corporal punishment, anger, stress, and reported child behavior problems; results were maintained at follow-up. Implications for counselors are provided.


Behavior Problems In Toddlers With And Without Developmental Delays: Comparison Of Treatment Outcomes, Casey A. Holtz, Jennifer M. Carrasco, Ryan Mattek, Robert A. Fox Nov 2012

Behavior Problems In Toddlers With And Without Developmental Delays: Comparison Of Treatment Outcomes, Casey A. Holtz, Jennifer M. Carrasco, Ryan Mattek, Robert A. Fox

Robert Fox

The purpose of this study is to examine the effectiveness of an in-home parent management program for toddlers with behavior problems and developmental delays by comparing outcomes for a group of toddlers with developmental delays (n = 27) and a group of toddlers without developmental delays (n = 27). The majority of children lived in single parent, low-income homes. Results suggest that the parent management program is equally effective for children with and without developmental delays. Parents from both groups reported clinically significant improvement in their children's behavior and parenting practices. Clinical implications regarding the importance of these findings for improving ...


Training Community-Based Professionals To Implement An Empirically Supported Parenting Program, Robert A. Fox, Kathleen M. Duffy, Kathryn M. Keller Nov 2012

Training Community-Based Professionals To Implement An Empirically Supported Parenting Program, Robert A. Fox, Kathleen M. Duffy, Kathryn M. Keller

Robert Fox

Professionals representing 14 community-based organizations were trained at three different sites serving urban and rural families to implement an empirically supported parenting program for families of young children with challenging behaviors. Of the 44 practitioners trained, 23 successfully completed the program, which involved passing a knowledge test and facilitating the entire 10session program with a family. A total of 28, primarily low-income families completed the program. The family outcomes obtained by the facilitators, based on multiple pre-program and post-program measures, were comparable with those reported previously in the literature for facilitators trained in university settings. The challenges inherent in efforts ...


Maternal Factors Related To Parenting Young Children With Congenital Heart Disease, Lynn K. Carey, Bonnie C. Nicholson, Robert A. Fox Nov 2012

Maternal Factors Related To Parenting Young Children With Congenital Heart Disease, Lynn K. Carey, Bonnie C. Nicholson, Robert A. Fox

Robert Fox

The purpose of this study was to compare the early child-rearing practices between mothers of young children with congenital heart disease (CHD) and mothers of healthy children. In addition, maternal stress, parental developmental expectations, and the early behavioral and emotional development of their children were explored. Maccoby’s (1992) socialization theory emphasizing the reciprocal nature of mother-child interactions provided the framework for this study. Findings from quantitative self-report measures and videotaped parent-child interactions showed a remarkable similarity between mothers of children with CHD and mothers of healthy children. In contrast, qualitative data revealed important differences with mothers of CHD children ...


Star Parenting: A Program For Helping Parents Effectively Deal With Behavioral Difficulties, Robert A. Fox, Rebecca C. Anderson, Theresa A. Fox, Margaret A. Rodriguez Nov 2012

Star Parenting: A Program For Helping Parents Effectively Deal With Behavioral Difficulties, Robert A. Fox, Rebecca C. Anderson, Theresa A. Fox, Margaret A. Rodriguez

Robert Fox

All children go through difficult times that create challenges for their parents. Parents encounter temper tantrums, whining, noncompliance, sleeping and eating difficulties, aggression, and other "normal" problems in their one- to five-year-old children and often ask preschool teachers for advice. For a number of years there have been books offering guidance to parents and teachers on handling these behaviors, many of them published by NAEYC. Struggling with the difficult feelings and episodes that all young children go through can produce parental stress, a topic that has been recognized in the professional literature for many years. A recent test on the ...


Home-Based Therapy For Young Children In Low-Income Families: A Student Training Program, Ryan Mattek, Elizabeth T. Jorgenson, Robert Fox Nov 2012

Home-Based Therapy For Young Children In Low-Income Families: A Student Training Program, Ryan Mattek, Elizabeth T. Jorgenson, Robert Fox

Robert Fox

The purpose of this project was to develop an internship training program that offered in-home therapy for young children with significant emotional and behavior problems. The children lived in single-parent, low-income homes in unsafe neighborhoods of a large, urban area. A year-long, training and supervision program was implemented with 10 second-year, graduate students enrolled in 5 different university programs that prepared mental health professionals. Students received specialized instruction in working with diverse families living in poverty and in an evidence-based treatment program. They initially observed veteran counselors implementing the treatment program in homes and gradually assumed responsibility for conducting sessions ...


Infant Mental Health: An Emerging Field For Children With Developmental Disabilities, Casey A. Holtz, Robert Fox Nov 2012

Infant Mental Health: An Emerging Field For Children With Developmental Disabilities, Casey A. Holtz, Robert Fox

Robert Fox

Behavior problems are common in toddlers and preschoolers. Richman, Stevenson, and Graham (1975) identified difficulties with eating, sleeping, toileting, temper, fears, peer relations, and activity as typical in this young population. While all young children should be expected to experience behavior problems as part of their normal development, an ongoing challenge in the field has been to determine when these “normal” developmental problems rise to the level of being considered “clinical” behavior problems (Keenan & Wakschlag, 2000). For example, when does a two-year-old child's tantrum behavior, a three-year-old's urinary accidents, and a four-year-old's defiance become clinically significant? To ...


Evaluation Of A University-Community Partnership To Provide Home-Based, Mental Health Services For Children From Families Living In Poverty, Robert A. Fox, Ryan Mattek, Brittany L. Gresl Nov 2012

Evaluation Of A University-Community Partnership To Provide Home-Based, Mental Health Services For Children From Families Living In Poverty, Robert A. Fox, Ryan Mattek, Brittany L. Gresl

Robert Fox

A university-community partnership is described that resulted in the development of community-based mental health services for young children from families living in poverty. The purpose of this pilot project was to implement an evidence-based treatment program in the homes of an at-risk population of children with significant emotional and behavior problems that were further complicated by developmental delays. Outcomes for 237 children who participated in the clinic’s treatment program over a 2 year period are presented. Comparisons are included between treatment completers and non-completers and the issues of subject attrition, potential subject selection bias, and the generalizability of the ...


Treatment Outcomes For Toddlers With Behaviour Problems From Families In Poverty, Robert A. Fox, Casey A. Holtz Nov 2012

Treatment Outcomes For Toddlers With Behaviour Problems From Families In Poverty, Robert A. Fox, Casey A. Holtz

Robert Fox

Background. Relatively few treatment studies address mental health issues in very young children. This study examined the effectiveness of a treatment program for toddlers whose behavior problems were further complicated by living in poverty. Method. An empirically-validated treatment program was adapted for use in the homes of 102 toddlers for an average of 12 weekly sessions. Results. Significant improvements were found for the children’s behavior problems and their compliance to parent requests. Discussion. The inherent challenges in working with at-risk families and the challenges in delivering mental health services for very young children living in poverty are discussed.