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Full-Text Articles in Education

Transitional Periods Of Individuals With Autism: A Parental Perspective On Services, Kennedy Rogers Apr 2024

Transitional Periods Of Individuals With Autism: A Parental Perspective On Services, Kennedy Rogers

Senior Theses and Projects

This study looks at the experiences and perceptions of parents with children who are diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) aged eighteen or older and have experienced a significant transition out of high school. By using a qualitative method of interviews and analysis, as well as two rounds of coding, I explored the nature of program options as well as the challenges of the individuals with Autism during this time of their life. This study looked at the challenges in the transition as well as some potential insights to helping ease the challenges.


Eds 702: The Young Child With Special Needs, Lingyu Li Apr 2024

Eds 702: The Young Child With Special Needs, Lingyu Li

Open Educational Resources

This introductory course addresses the concept of disability and the field of special education. It will also consider the social, cultural, and economic context surrounding the education of young children (birth to 8 years) with a wide range of developmental delays and disability conditions. Pertinent legislation, intervention with families, developing Individualized Family Service Plans (IFSPs), Individualized Education Programs (IEPs), and issues of advocacy will be studied within the context of the continuum of service delivery (home-based, center-based, and school-based interventions). (15 fieldwork hours required.)


Inclusive Settings In Belizean Primary Schools: A Focus On Teacher Practices, Katherine A. Curry, Jentre Olsen, Ed Harris, Candy Garnett, Dian Danderson Mar 2024

Inclusive Settings In Belizean Primary Schools: A Focus On Teacher Practices, Katherine A. Curry, Jentre Olsen, Ed Harris, Candy Garnett, Dian Danderson

Journal of Global Education and Research

Educators in Belize are charged with ensuring that all Belizeans are given an opportunity to acquire a quality education that promotes personal development and productive citizenship. Consequently, Belizean law now requires all children from ages five through fourteen to attend at least eight years of primary school. Students with special needs have historically not received accommodations in the education system, so many teachers struggle with meeting the needs of students with learning disabilities in these inclusive settings. This qualitative case study explored teaching strategies and contextual factors in inclusive primary classrooms in Belize and was conducted in the form of …


Solving Word Problems With Rads: Read, Ask Questions, Draw And Solve, Tolulope Sulaimon, Sheila Alber-Morgan, Moira Konrad Feb 2024

Solving Word Problems With Rads: Read, Ask Questions, Draw And Solve, Tolulope Sulaimon, Sheila Alber-Morgan, Moira Konrad

Constellations: Online STEM Teacher Education Journal

Addressing the inherent complexity of word problem solving (WPS) in mathematics education requires a multifaceted approach. While recent research has predominantly emphasized problem representation, the often-overlooked process of problem comprehension is equally crucial. One promising strategy is the integration of self-questioning from a schema perspective, which empowers students to activate their prior knowledge, enhance comprehension, and construct meaningful problem representations. Additionally, the RADS (Read, Ask Questions, Draw, and Solve) framework provides a structured and systematic approach to WPS, combining schema-based instruction and self-questioning to equip students with a comprehensive problem-solving toolkit. By integrating self-questioning into RADS, educators can guide students …


A Mixed Method Study Of Teachers' Perception Of Positive Reinforcement For Behavior Management, Maricela B. Aceves Ed.D., Debra L. Cote Ph.D., Sue Singh Ph.D., Ayako Shweikle Ph.D., Shannon L. Sparks Ph.D. Feb 2024

A Mixed Method Study Of Teachers' Perception Of Positive Reinforcement For Behavior Management, Maricela B. Aceves Ed.D., Debra L. Cote Ph.D., Sue Singh Ph.D., Ayako Shweikle Ph.D., Shannon L. Sparks Ph.D.

Journal of Critical Issues in Educational Practice

Abstract

Positive reinforcement is a behavior management technique supported by empirical evidence, known to enhance student performance and their outcomes (Alberto et al., 2022; Fabiano & Pelham, 2003; Scheuermann, 2022). However, many teachers encounter difficulties in effectively implementing this tool in their everyday classroom teaching practices. This mixed methods study aimed to contribute to existing literature focusing on instructional behavior of credentialed teachers. The findings revealed that teachers who received training in PBIS (Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports) observed the following: (1) the overall benefits of rewarding appropriate student behavior with activities, (2) the significance of having adequate resources and …


Community Of Inquiry: Designing Quality Online Instruction For Special Educator Preparation, Haidee Jackson, Sohyun Yang Feb 2024

Community Of Inquiry: Designing Quality Online Instruction For Special Educator Preparation, Haidee Jackson, Sohyun Yang

Advanced Education Programs Faculty Publications

Online education programs are on the rise and institutions of higher learning are utilizing Learning Management Systems (LMS) to facilitate online learning. The Community of Inquiry (CoI; Garrison et al., 1999) framework identifies three categories of cognitive presence, social presence, and teaching presence to guide the development of online instruction and has been adopted by numerous institutions of higher learning. This article identifies instructional strategies conducive to the design of online presence using the CoI framework to ensure quality learning experiences in online special educator preparation programs. We address some of the features of LMS system tools present in Canvas …


“We’Re Not Walking Schools”: Storying The Pandemic Schooling Experiences Of Mothers Of Children With Disabilities, Kristi Cheyney-Collante, Lindsey Chapman, Shaunté Duggins Feb 2024

“We’Re Not Walking Schools”: Storying The Pandemic Schooling Experiences Of Mothers Of Children With Disabilities, Kristi Cheyney-Collante, Lindsey Chapman, Shaunté Duggins

The Qualitative Report

This article describes a study designed to better understand the fallout of extended school closures and staggered re-openings for one group heavily impacted by the pandemic, mothers of children with disabilities. Using feminist ways of knowing as the backdrop, we explored how a small group of mothers experienced pandemic-related educational shifts. We aimed to provide solidarity and a space of care. We employed narrative methods to support the storying of their individual and collective experiences. Data were synthesized vis-à-vis participants’ ethic of care, particularly in relationship to the power structures they traversed. Taking a deep dive into the experiences of …


Your Story, Your Life, Your Learning: Autobiography Reveals Basis For Supporting Personalized, Holistic Pedagogy, Michael Maser Feb 2024

Your Story, Your Life, Your Learning: Autobiography Reveals Basis For Supporting Personalized, Holistic Pedagogy, Michael Maser

Journal of Contemplative and Holistic Education

Each person ongoingly experiences the world uniquely through vital processes shaping their subjectivity, personhood and sense of self. Learning, an innate characteristic or modality of each human life, of living, likewise arises subjectively or idiosyncratically. In this paper, a phenomenological lens is applied to auto/biographical excerpts concerned with various learning experiences to help reveal essential, subjective characteristics of emergent learning. The insights help establish a basis for challenging the primacy of objectivist learning evaluations. The insights also confirm the importance of personalizing learning as a pedagogical gesture nurturing and enfranchising student learning in significant ways beyond conventional educational approaches …


A Phenomenological Study Exploring The Factors That Contribute To Persistence In Online Doctoral Programs For Students With Learning Disabilities Or Adhd, Jerry L. Pitts Feb 2024

A Phenomenological Study Exploring The Factors That Contribute To Persistence In Online Doctoral Programs For Students With Learning Disabilities Or Adhd, Jerry L. Pitts

Doctoral Dissertations and Projects

The purpose of this transcendental phenomenological study was to discover the factors that contributed to persistence in online doctoral programs for students with learning disabilities (LD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The theory guiding this study was Tinto’s theory of student persistence, as it suggested the more students were academically and socially integrated into their institution, the more likely they were to persist in their studies. The Central research question of this study is, “What are the factors that contribute to persistence in online doctoral programs for students with LD and ADHD?” Participants in this study consisted of seven …


Knowledge And Skills Of Special Education Teachers In Implementing Evidence-Based Practices, Fatmah R. Almutiri, Sultanah F. Alotaibi, Norah A. Albaz, Sarah S. Alfawaz Jan 2024

Knowledge And Skills Of Special Education Teachers In Implementing Evidence-Based Practices, Fatmah R. Almutiri, Sultanah F. Alotaibi, Norah A. Albaz, Sarah S. Alfawaz

International Journal for Research in Education

This study aimed at knowing the reality of special education teachers’ knowledge and skills in implementing evidence-based practices, the factors contributing to this knowledge, and its impact on implementing these practices. The mixed-methods sequential explanatory design was used with its two phases: In the quantitative phase, a descriptive survey was used through a questionnaire that was distributed to (311) male and female teachers in the three school levels in Riyadh. Results showed that the teachers’ knowledge of evidence-based practices was medium. However, the results revealed that their implementation skills level of evidence-based practices was low. There were statistically significant differences …


Ethnic-Racial Socialization Experiences Of Mexican American Youth, Katherine J. Bingham, Elizabeth A. Cutrer-Párraga, Timothy B. Smith Jan 2024

Ethnic-Racial Socialization Experiences Of Mexican American Youth, Katherine J. Bingham, Elizabeth A. Cutrer-Párraga, Timothy B. Smith

Faculty Publications

Research has shown that ethnic–racial socialization (ERS) predicts education and mental health outcomes for adolescents. However, limited research has evaluated the ERS experiences of Latinx students. The current study examined ERS experiences of Mexican American youth in four focus group interviews that were transcribed and analyzed at both the individual and group level using interpretive phenomenological analysis. Main themes included feeling like an outsider, navigating discrimination, encountering social/emotional difficulties, and achieving a positive identity. Each theme contained two to three subcategories that provide further insight into the Mexican Americans' ERS experiences. Participants reported within-group discrimination, motivation to disprove stereotypes, and …


Qualitative Evaluation Of Interprofessional Education Experiential Learning (Ipeel) For Health Professional Students, Kelle Deboth Foust, Madalynn Wendland, John Schaefer, Suzanne Giuffre, Donald Allensworth-Davies Jan 2024

Qualitative Evaluation Of Interprofessional Education Experiential Learning (Ipeel) For Health Professional Students, Kelle Deboth Foust, Madalynn Wendland, John Schaefer, Suzanne Giuffre, Donald Allensworth-Davies

Journal of Occupational Therapy Education

Interprofessional education (IPE) is critical for health professional students to form professional identities and develop collaborative skills. Although accrediting bodies mandate incorporating IPE, the effects of IPE programming on health professional students and the best pedagogical approach for achieving desirable outcomes are still unclear. In addition, specific effects of IPE within the context of experiential learning are not fully understood. That is, the literature has not presented a clear framework for structuring IPE programs, nor have outcome measures for IPE utilizing experiential learning (IPEEL) been established. The purpose of this study was to complete a grounded theory qualitative analysis of …


Paraprofessionals In A Special Education Setting: A Qualitative Exploration Of Their Perceptions, Chana S. Max, Keisha Mccoy-Dailey Jan 2024

Paraprofessionals In A Special Education Setting: A Qualitative Exploration Of Their Perceptions, Chana S. Max, Keisha Mccoy-Dailey

The Qualitative Report

Paraprofessionals support teachers and students in the classroom. Their roles and responsibilities vary; however, their goal is always to improve student achievement. The purpose of the study was to fill a gap in the literature related to special education paraprofessionals’ perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs on the support and trainings they receive prior to and during their job as a paraprofessional for students in a special education setting. Generic qualitative methodology was used to capture the thoughts, experience, and perceptions of 42 paraprofessionals across the United States. Data collection included an eight-question online questionnaire. Results of the study revealed five patterns …


A Digital Qualitative Ethnographic Study Of Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives And Experiences Of Teaching From To-Be Teachers, Mohamed Abdullahi Ali Dec 2023

A Digital Qualitative Ethnographic Study Of Preservice Teachers’ Perspectives And Experiences Of Teaching From To-Be Teachers, Mohamed Abdullahi Ali

Journal of Research Initiatives

This digital ethnographic study aimed to understand how and why college students decide to be teachers while many trained teachers leave the profession every year in the United States. A purposive sampling technique enabled 30 prospective teachers in a college of education to participate in this study. The research questions that guided the study were: 1) How and why did preservice teachers choose teaching as a career? 2) How did preservice teachers' perception of the drawbacks of teaching and the opportunities to support them in becoming teachers influence their decisions? The conceptual framework to understand the phenomena came from educational …


The Impact Of Teacher Preparedness And Professional Development On Fourth-Grade Students' Science Achievement, Craig L. Mayo, Faye Bradley Dec 2023

The Impact Of Teacher Preparedness And Professional Development On Fourth-Grade Students' Science Achievement, Craig L. Mayo, Faye Bradley

Journal of Research Initiatives

Science scores among US fourth-grade students have declined compared to their international counterparts in recent years. Recent results show that teachers are the most impactful influence on student success and accountability. Teacher preparedness and professional development are two key areas that serve as indicators of providing relevant and essential information for students' success. A correlational quantitative study was conducted to assess the relationship between teacher preparedness and professional development on fourth-grade students’ science achievement. The TIMSS 2019 data were secured from the Boston College, TIMSS, and PIRLS International websites. The data was evaluated using the SPSS 27 Hierarchical Linear Regression. …


Best Practices For English Learners With Disabilities In Us Schools – A Systematic Review, Samiratu Bashiru, Jennifer E. Smith Dec 2023

Best Practices For English Learners With Disabilities In Us Schools – A Systematic Review, Samiratu Bashiru, Jennifer E. Smith

Journal of English Learner Education

This systematic review investigated best practices for enhancing academic achievement among English Learners with Disabilities (ELDs) in US schools. By examining 17 peer-reviewed articles and comparing them to the CEC 2014 Quality Indicators, the study identifies significant practices, including culturally responsive methods, technology integration, evidence-based strategies, addressing service delivery challenges, and improving assessment tools. This review has limitations related to inconsistent terminology and highlights the need for standardized language and continued research. It recommends integrating culturally responsive practices, leveraging technology, and refining inclusive assessment tools. This review provides educators, policymakers, and researchers insights, emphasizing ongoing teacher development and policy alignment …


6 Strategies To Increase Your Classroom And School’S Culture And Climate, Stacey Keown-Murray, Rob Carroll, Kristi Livingston Dec 2023

6 Strategies To Increase Your Classroom And School’S Culture And Climate, Stacey Keown-Murray, Rob Carroll, Kristi Livingston

Kentucky Teacher Education Journal: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Kentucky Council for Exceptional Children

Creating a positive culture and climate in the classroom and school environment is crucial for fostering student engagement, well-being, and academic success. This article presents six effective strategies that educators can implement to enhance the culture and climate within their classrooms and schools. The strategies focus on promoting a sense of belonging, establishing clear expectations, fostering positive relationships, celebrating diversity, empowering student voice, and encouraging collaboration and teamwork. By implementing these strategies, educators can cultivate a supportive and inclusive environment that nurtures the holistic development of students and promotes a positive learning experience. The abstract provides a concise overview of …


Triumph Through Tragedy, One Student At At Time, Chanel M. Schwenck Dec 2023

Triumph Through Tragedy, One Student At At Time, Chanel M. Schwenck

Kentucky Teacher Education Journal: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Kentucky Council for Exceptional Children

The EF-4 tornado that struck Mayfield, Kentucky on the evening of December 10, 2021 caused tremendous destruction to the entire community of Mayfield. Two education professors at a neighboring university sought to help students in the Mayfield Independent School District and were able to do so via funding from a KEEP mini-grant. 81 of their college students were trained in Response to Intervention (RtI) practices and provided individual and small group instruction to students in Mayfield for 2 hours a week for 17 weeks during the 2022-2023 school year. Altogether, struggling students in Mayfield received 1,377 hours of RtI instruction …


One Step Forward For Inclusion: Integrating Assistive Technology Across Teacher Preparation Program, Jiyeon Park, Marie L. Manning Dr. Dec 2023

One Step Forward For Inclusion: Integrating Assistive Technology Across Teacher Preparation Program, Jiyeon Park, Marie L. Manning Dr.

Kentucky Teacher Education Journal: The Journal of the Teacher Education Division of the Kentucky Council for Exceptional Children

Assistive Technology (AT) is recognized as a valuable tool for supporting their access to the curriculum. However, many educators lack experience and competence in AT implementation. This study examines the effects of a modified technology course on preservice teachers' preparedness for and perceptions of AT in inclusive classrooms. We modified Instructional Technology Course, which is mandatory for pre-service teachers across programs. After receiving the modified technology course, pre-service teachers show a significant improvement in their AT competence and a positive shift regarding inclusion.


Klondike Elementary School: Serving Purdue And The Local Community And Empowering Students From Around The Globe Through High-Quality Learning Experiences Accenting Diversity And Inclusion, Jingyuan Zhang, Yan Ping Xin Dec 2023

Klondike Elementary School: Serving Purdue And The Local Community And Empowering Students From Around The Globe Through High-Quality Learning Experiences Accenting Diversity And Inclusion, Jingyuan Zhang, Yan Ping Xin

Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement

Disabilities Awareness Program (DAP) aims to cultivate an understanding of disability and inclusion among young children through accessible instructions, age-appropriate activities, and engaging discussions. We want to take this opportunity to introduce one of our school partners - Klondike Elementary School (KES), to recognize its contributions to DAP in providing service-learning opportunities and showcase KES as one of the community partners.


Inclusive Education For All: Identifying Teacher Beliefs About Working With Students With Disabilities, Chelsea Sharek Dec 2023

Inclusive Education For All: Identifying Teacher Beliefs About Working With Students With Disabilities, Chelsea Sharek

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The purpose of this study was to investigate the beliefs K-12 teachers have when working with students with disabilities in a rural Pennsylvania school district. This study aimed to identify if teachers’ personal beliefs created biases about their students and school systems; thus, forming barriers and preventing an inclusive education when working with disabled students. Instrumentation for this quantitative study is the Multidimensional Attitudes Towards Inclusive Education Scale (MATIES) survey. Findings suggest that some teachers at Sunnyside School District (pseudonym) hold personal beliefs that could create biases about their students and school system that may form barriers when working with …


Changing The Face Of Reading Instruction: Do Culturally Relevant Passages Increase The Effects Of The Repeated Reading Intervention For Middle School Black Girls With Reading Difficulties (Bgrds)?, Olajumoke Edith Oshokoya Dec 2023

Changing The Face Of Reading Instruction: Do Culturally Relevant Passages Increase The Effects Of The Repeated Reading Intervention For Middle School Black Girls With Reading Difficulties (Bgrds)?, Olajumoke Edith Oshokoya

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Research has shown that fewer studies have focused on improving the reading abilities of middle school Black girls (Morris, 2007). As BGRDs progress through K – 12 grades, they increasingly rely on basic and advanced reading skills (i.e., oral reading fluency [ORF] and comprehension) to learn. Providing BGRDs with engaging reading passages that are relevant to their prior knowledge, background, interests, and experiences, is more likely to motivate them to read, and eventually improve their reading skills (Cartledge et al., 2015). While there is a growing body of literature focused on Black students’ experiences, currently no study has explored the …


How Will Having A W.I.N Room For Our Emotional And Behavioral Disorder Students To Access When They Are Needing A Break Affects The Number Of Room-Clearing Behaviors In A Week?, Samantha Streed Dec 2023

How Will Having A W.I.N Room For Our Emotional And Behavioral Disorder Students To Access When They Are Needing A Break Affects The Number Of Room-Clearing Behaviors In A Week?, Samantha Streed

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Having the power to create the behavior program from the ground up, starting a “What I Need” (W.I.N) room at the elementary school where the researcher works. This is a sensory type of room with different tools and strategies that the students can use to calm their bodies or as we say have a safe and calm body. This room will be run by the researcher along with a paraprofessional that will be in the room all day to help support the students. This paraprofessional will also supervise the W.I.N Room if the researcher needs to leave to handle a …


Avoiding Burnout: Newsletters That Promote Special Education Teachers Well-Being, Kayler Knott Dec 2023

Avoiding Burnout: Newsletters That Promote Special Education Teachers Well-Being, Kayler Knott

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

With the alarming rate of teachers leaving the educational field, there is a definitive shortage of people entering the field of special education. Educators need access to different tools and resources that will allow them to know about other things that can help limit or reduce the strain of things causing teacher burnout. By sending out these resources to educators and informing them of different tools they can use, we can help alleviate teacher burnout, keep more educators in the fields, and stop losing our young teachers just entering before they have even completed student teaching experiences. Each of these …


Manipulating The Distance Of Inter-Letter And Inter-Word Spacing To Improve Reading Accuracy And Speed In The Dyslexic Student, Jon Roemmich Dec 2023

Manipulating The Distance Of Inter-Letter And Inter-Word Spacing To Improve Reading Accuracy And Speed In The Dyslexic Student, Jon Roemmich

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Abstract

Recent research studies have shown that increased inter-letter and inter-word spacing has a positive effect on the reading speed and accuracy of students with dyslexia. A few of these studies also included the use of increased font size. Research that has included using fonts designed for dyslexics in addition to increased font size has not produced favorable results in increasing reading accuracy and speed. In relationship to previous research our results have shown that a .5 inter-letter and inter-word spacing has a marginal positive effect on reading accuracy and speed. The use of .3 and .7 inter-letter and inter …


Video Coaching For First-Year Special Education Teachers, Katherine Gadient Dec 2023

Video Coaching For First-Year Special Education Teachers, Katherine Gadient

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

Topic:

Video Coaching for First-Year Special Education Teachers

Abstract:

There is a shortage of special education teachers, especially in rural areas (Hopkins, 2023). School districts have attempted to address this shortage by hiring people on a variance and providing them with a specific timeline to obtain a special education teaching license (Tier Requirements, n.d.). Based on my school district and my experience, many of these teachers are hired without formal training in education and/or experience teaching in a special education setting. They may not have background information regarding due process and may need guidance on special education paperwork as well …


Recognizing Teacher Burnout: Utilizing Teacher Retention Strategies To Help Work Life Balance Of Educators, Meghann Downer Dec 2023

Recognizing Teacher Burnout: Utilizing Teacher Retention Strategies To Help Work Life Balance Of Educators, Meghann Downer

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

The ongoing shortage of special education teachers coupled with an increasing attrition rate has prompted many researchers to investigate why teachers are choosing to leave the field. Multiple studies (Lehmann 2008, et al Cheng 2022, et al Bryant 2023) have been conducted to determine the rates of attrition at multiple levels in education. Results of studies (Hughes 2012, et al Robinson 2019, et al Ogakwu 2022) indicate that there has been a statistically significant relationship between job satisfaction and burnout among special education teachers. This project provides a literature review focused on special education teacher burnout and attrition along with …


P-12 Teachers' Perceptions And Knowledge About Students' Mental Health And Their Willingness To Provide Mental Health Supports Within Their Classroom, Tamara Engel Dec 2023

P-12 Teachers' Perceptions And Knowledge About Students' Mental Health And Their Willingness To Provide Mental Health Supports Within Their Classroom, Tamara Engel

Dissertations, Theses, and Projects

P-12 students are experiencing higher rates of mental health needs, which generates a growing concern among teachers, parents, and educational leaders. Students with mental health challenges may struggle socially, emotionally, behaviorally, and academically and become at a risk for lower academic achievement, reduced graduation rates, and increased school suspensions and expulsions. While most of the literature is qualitative and has consistently identified schools as the ideal location to provide targeted mental health supports to students, teachers have reported having insufficient knowledge, skills, and resources to provide these supports to students. This correlational study aimed to move forward the quantitative methodology …


Letter From The Editor In Chief, Jeffrey Lee Dec 2023

Letter From The Editor In Chief, Jeffrey Lee

Transform

The TRANSFORM journal is a space for leaders, mentors, researchers, and practitioners of transformational leadership to be seen, heard, and valued; it is a place for making connections. Relationship-building is central to transformational leadership at all levels of an organization; this fundamental truth is a trending topic in literature. Otherwise, however, leadership can be an isolating experience.

As an ethnographer, I believe the best way to launch an academic, peer-reviewed journal is to do what I do best: storytelling. I want to share my thoughts on transformational leadership through a story in the form of a letter to my younger …


An Individualized Adaptation To The Timely Transition Game To Reduce The Duration Of A Student's Hallway Transitions, Hannah C. Anselment, Agnieszka Kettlewell, Odessa Luna Dec 2023

An Individualized Adaptation To The Timely Transition Game To Reduce The Duration Of A Student's Hallway Transitions, Hannah C. Anselment, Agnieszka Kettlewell, Odessa Luna

SCSU Journal of Student Scholarship

Student inappropriate behavior can increase hallway transition duration and decrease academic time within the classroom. This study used a multiple-baseline design to examine whether an individualized Timely Transition Game (TTG) procedure would aid in the reduction of an eight-year-old’s disruptive hallway behavior and reduce the time spent transitioning between classes. Additionally, a delayed reinforcement procedure was implemented to decrease the latency to on-task behavior within the classroom. The individualized TTG procedure reduced the rate of inappropriate hallway behavior by 78% and decreased overall hallway transitions by 1.4 mins. In addition, the delayed reinforcement procedure reduced the latency to on-task behavior …