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Full-Text Articles in History

The Weight Of Silk: An Exploratory Account Into The Developing Relations Between Byzantium And China, Jeanna Lee Jul 2021

The Weight Of Silk: An Exploratory Account Into The Developing Relations Between Byzantium And China, Jeanna Lee

History in the Making

History has repeatedly proven that the nation, country, or region that controls the most key raw materials will dominate the surrounding global networks, be they economic, diplomatic, or political. When narrowing this focus to ancient Eurasian cultures, there are two obvious global powers: The Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) in the West and the Chinese Empire in the East (the Han Dynasty). While the scholarly independent research conducted on these powers is incredibly rich, what is understood about their interactions is limited and constantly evolving. Evidence explained later in this article shows that there was little more than an awareness of ...


A Just And True Return: A Dataset Of Pennsylvania's Surviving County Slave Registries, Cory James Young Jul 2021

A Just And True Return: A Dataset Of Pennsylvania's Surviving County Slave Registries, Cory James Young

The Magazine of Early American Datasets (MEAD)

This dataset contains information on more than 6,000 Black people and their enslavers compiled from extant registries in twelve Pennsylvania counties: Adams, Allegheny, Bedford, Bucks, Centre, Chester, Cumberland, Dauphin, Fayette, Lancaster, Washington, and Westmoreland. Pennsylvania's 1780 gradual abolition law required enslavers to register with their county clerk any people they wished to continue holding in lifetime slavery. A 1788 law required that they do the same for any children they wished to hold in twenty-eight-year term slavery. Complete registries provide the name, place of residence, and occupation of enslavers; the date they filed their registration; and the name ...


The Impact Of Napoleon Bonaparte In Egypt, Alexandra Bell Jul 2021

The Impact Of Napoleon Bonaparte In Egypt, Alexandra Bell

Phi Alpha Theta

In 1789 the French Directory authorized Napoleon Bonaparte to invade Egypt, thus introducing Egypt to modern French civilization. At this time Egypt was still ruled by the Mamluks who served under the Sublime Porte of the Ottoman Empire with little to no interference from the far away Porte. As explained by Jeremy Black, neither the Directory nor Napoleon were overly concerned with making enemies of the dying Ottoman Empire: “Napoleon assumed that the Turks could be intimidated or bribed into accepting the French invasion…”1 . This adverse view of the Porte demonstrates the typical Western behavior and stereotypes towards Muslims ...


Playing With Fire: The Medieval Judicial Ordeals And Their Downfall, Aaron Larson Jul 2021

Playing With Fire: The Medieval Judicial Ordeals And Their Downfall, Aaron Larson

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Trials by ordeal in the Middle Ages prove to be some of the most complex secular trials in all of history. Both trial by fire, and trial by water looked to call God's judgment into play, hoping that He would make the decisions of guilt or innocence. God is all-knowing. He is all-powerful. Therefore He has all of the relevant information to determine the fates of those who go through the ordeals. Despite this, the theologians in the medieval Church looked to lessen clerical involvement in the ordeals. In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council met, and the ordeals ceased ...


Attitude Towards Cross-Culture Exchange In The 1685 French Embassy To The Kingdom Of Siam, Benjamin M. Beese Jul 2021

Attitude Towards Cross-Culture Exchange In The 1685 French Embassy To The Kingdom Of Siam, Benjamin M. Beese

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Traditional histories of Early Modern exchange tend to emphasize the dispersion and adoption (or rejection) of European science and culture. More recently, there has been an historiographical trend to see early modern international interactions as multi-direction exchanges in which all parties are altered in each interaction. The 1685 French-Jesuit Embassy to Siam provides an interesting opportunity to explore the implications of this multi-directional approach. Although this exchange had no significant, lasting impact on either Siam or France, the dynamics at play demonstrate how each party’s attitude towards the exchange impacted their ability to achieve their aims. This paper uses ...


Irrational Philosophy? Kronecker's Constructive Philosophy And Finding The Real Roots Of A Polynomial, Richard B. Schneider Jul 2021

Irrational Philosophy? Kronecker's Constructive Philosophy And Finding The Real Roots Of A Polynomial, Richard B. Schneider

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal

The prominent mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823 – 1891) is often relegated to footnotes and mainly remembered for his strict philosophical position on the foundation of mathematics. He held that only the natural numbers are intuitive, thus the only basis for all mathematical objects. In fact, Kronecker developed a complete school of thought on mathematical foundations and wrote many significant algebraic works, but his enigmatic writing style led to his historical marginalization. In 1887, Kronecker published an extended version of his paper, “On the Concept of Number,” translated into English in 2010 for the first time by Edward T. Dean, who confirms ...


Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith Jul 2021

Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith

The Magazine of Early American Datasets (MEAD)

We created two datasets about fugitives and captives in eighteenth-century Jamaica, one of the most violent systems of racial bondage in the Atlantic World. To produce the first dataset as an Excel file, we organized and recorded information contained in hundreds of newspaper advertisements offering rewards for the return of escaped slaves in Jamaica between 1718 and 1795. While there are some gaps in the records because of missing newspapers, there are still a considerable number of advertisements included. One feature of the ads is that many identify the African ethnicity of runaway and captured slaves. The second dataset also ...


A Network Of Thrones: Kinship And Conflict In Europe, 1495–1918, Seth G. Benzell, Kevin Cooke Jul 2021

A Network Of Thrones: Kinship And Conflict In Europe, 1495–1918, Seth G. Benzell, Kevin Cooke

Economics Faculty Articles and Research

We construct a database linking European royal kinship networks, monarchies, and wars to study the effect of family ties on conflict. To establish causality, we exploit decreases in connection caused by apolitical deaths of rulers' mutual relatives. These deaths are associated with substantial increases in the frequency and duration of war. We provide evidence that these deaths affect conflict only through changing the kinship network. Over our period of interest, the percentage of European monarchs with kinship ties increased threefold. Together, these findings help explain the well-documented decrease in European war frequency.


German Odysseys Of The First World War, David Terence Hillman Jul 2021

German Odysseys Of The First World War, David Terence Hillman

Honors Theses

This thesis examines the journeys of four separate German military units away from the European theater and forced to operate without aid or allies in the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic Oceans, as well as in Africa. Each group had a clear goal to accomplish, to strengthen the German war effort from abroad, either by disrupting, evading, or diverting Allied personnel and war materiel. To accomplish this, each group required cunning, discipline, deception, and strong leadership. These odysseys, although more aptly compared to Xenophon’s Anabasis, demonstrate the global nature of the First World War, the deterioration of international good will ...


Not So Dystopian: A Historical Reading Of Eugenics In Science Fiction, Riley Sanders Jun 2021

Not So Dystopian: A Historical Reading Of Eugenics In Science Fiction, Riley Sanders

The Forum: Journal of History

Broadly, this paper is an effort in complicating traditional readings of eugenic themes in science fiction. Two landmark novels, Wells’ The Island of Dr. Moreau (1896) and Huxley’s Brave New World (1932), are highlighted as representative of the early and late stages of eugenics. By focusing on the troubling historical context surrounding these authors, I denounce the simple reading of these works as merely “dystopian”. Scholars like Francis Fukuyama advance these simplistic readings by instinctively assuming that Wells and Huxley were against eugenics. This paper continues the tradition that David Bradshaw popularized in his book The Hidden Huxley, which ...


The Literary Controversies Of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling, Victoria Duehring Jun 2021

The Literary Controversies Of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling, Victoria Duehring

The Forum: Journal of History

This literary review will focus on Michelangelo’s most significant work of color: the Sistine ceiling. Michelangelo’s work has spawned a plethora of literature, but this paper will focus on three main controversial topics: assistants (or lack thereof), the ignudi’s purpose, and restoration. I will also apply a psycho-historical approach to these controversies and identify potential avenues for future research.


A Lifeline For Millions: American Relief In An Age Of Isolationism, Matteo Marsella Jun 2021

A Lifeline For Millions: American Relief In An Age Of Isolationism, Matteo Marsella

The Forum: Journal of History

American military involvement in the Great War is a widely discussed aspect of the conflict. The period following the war is often considered an example of American isolationist foreign policy. Lesser well known are American efforts to provide food relief to starving populations in Europe, which began during and continued well after the war's conclusion. This paper seeks to locate American relief efforts within broader postwar foreign policy. Although President Harding’s 1920 election victory on a platform of a “return to normalcy” is often construed as a rejection of Wilsonian internationalism and a return to prewar isolationism, there ...


Medieval Infertility: Treatments, Cures, And Consequences, Zia Simpson Jun 2021

Medieval Infertility: Treatments, Cures, And Consequences, Zia Simpson

The Forum: Journal of History

Since the first civilizations emerged, reproductive ability has been one of the most prominent elements in assessing a woman’s value to society. Other characteristics such as beauty, intelligence, and wealth may have been granted comparable consequence, but those are arbitrary and improvable. Fertility is genetic, and for centuries it was beyond human control. Among the medieval European nobility, fertility held even greater power. The absence of an heir could, either directly or indirectly, bring about war, economic depression, and social disorder. Catholicism provided a refuge by allowing barren women to retain their hopes, while simultaneously enriching Rome’s coffers ...


The Purpose Of Shanties From The Time Of Sailors To The Musical Masters Of The Twentieth Century, Madison Grant Jun 2021

The Purpose Of Shanties From The Time Of Sailors To The Musical Masters Of The Twentieth Century, Madison Grant

The Forum: Journal of History

The folk songs of the high seas traveled across hundreds of ships, changed in sound and lyric, and ultimately became known today as maritime folk music. Although many historians choose to analyze maritime history through physical artifacts, one less-appreciated aspect of the sea is known as the sea shanty. With modern musicians paying homage to their older nautical counterparts, the revival of shanty tunes sprung forth an almost lost appreciation into the lives of both historians and musicians alike. Referenced in this essay is the James Madison Carpenter Collection, an array of recorded and inscribed sources of shanty tunes that ...


Full Issue Jun 2021

Full Issue

The Forum: Journal of History

No abstract provided.


Vestiges Of Propaganda: Postage Stamps Issued By The Third Reich In Poland And The Netherlands During The Second World War, Olivia Phillips Jun 2021

Vestiges Of Propaganda: Postage Stamps Issued By The Third Reich In Poland And The Netherlands During The Second World War, Olivia Phillips

University Honors Theses

This thesis hopes to bridge the gap between philately and history and examines how postage stamps issued by the Third Reich during the Second World War portrayed their colonial and racial policy in the Netherlands and Poland. Through my research where I examine Nazi primary source documents and rely on an expansive discourse community whose focus is communications theory, postal history, and colonial history, I focus on how these stamps were an extension of the Reich’s Ministry for Propaganda. Dutch stamps closely align with German-issued stamps from the same period, through the depiction of hypermasculine men in a rural ...


A Requiem For The Ussr: From Atheism To Secularity, Oksana Nesterenko Jun 2021

A Requiem For The Ussr: From Atheism To Secularity, Oksana Nesterenko

Yale Journal of Music & Religion

This article examines performance and reception of music of sacred tradition in the Soviet Union in the 1970s-80s, with the focus on two works composed in the genre of Catholic Requiem Mass, Alfred Schnittke’s Requiem (1975) and Vyacheslav Artyomov’s Requiem (1988). The article recounts the history of Soviet atheism that, as a result of state’s failure to eradicate religion, evolved into a form of secular modernity, and outlines the music culture in which Schnittke and Artyomov lived. The official reception of the two requiems, which changed dramatically within twelve years, illustrates the state’s changing attitude to ...


Eis Ein Vergessenes Ladungsgut, Ingo Heidbrink Jun 2021

Eis Ein Vergessenes Ladungsgut, Ingo Heidbrink

History Faculty Publications

Natural ice was an important maritime cargo throughout the 19th and 20th century with Norway being the largest European ice exporting nation in Europe. This trade was mainly operated with small to medium size wooden sailing vessels and often secured long time survival of these craft. Although it is not known if any of today's historic sailing ships operating in European waters, has ever actually transported natural ice, this trade among others contributed to the survival of the fleet. While today ice is mainly considered as an obstacle for the operation of historic watercraft, it was actually one of ...


Compromised Values: Charlotte Posenenske, 1966–Present, Ian Wallace Jun 2021

Compromised Values: Charlotte Posenenske, 1966–Present, Ian Wallace

Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Fabricated in unlimited series and sold at cost, the sculptures produced by Charlotte Posenenske between 1966 and 1967—modular wall reliefs, interactive cubic structures, and tubular geometric units whose installation requires collective decision making—were meant to confront both the artwork’s commodity status and the limitation of its consumption to a privileged elite. Nevertheless, Posenenske’s work has been effectively recuperated by the art system: first, in the 1980s, through a series of exhibitions and publications organized by her estate; and second, with her inclusion in Documenta 12 in 2007, which reintroduced her work to the market. Since the ...


To Touch The Heavens: A Short Story, Sarah Hedrick Jun 2021

To Touch The Heavens: A Short Story, Sarah Hedrick

Swiss American Historical Society Review

A light Swiss breeze blew through Heidi’s curly blonde hair as she and her grandfather Adolph walked along the mountain path. They had been walking up the mountainside for several hours and were nearing the top. Heidi couldn’t wait to get to the mountaintop; it was the one part of the mountain that she had never been to before. Her grandfather told her that when you were at the top, you’re up so high that you can almost reach up and touch the heavens. However, the trek was quite long, and Heidi had never gone that far ...


End Matter Jun 2021

End Matter

Swiss American Historical Society Review

No abstract provided.


Front Matter Jun 2021

Front Matter

Swiss American Historical Society Review

No abstract provided.


Book Review: Seidler-Hux, Monica, Gottfried Kellers Feuriger Freund: Johann Ulrich Müller––Romanfigur, Baumeister Und Kartograf Der Usa [Gottfried Keller’S Fiery Friend: Johann Ulrich Müller–– Character In A Novel, Architect, Builder And Cartographer Of The Usa], Richard Hacken Jun 2021

Book Review: Seidler-Hux, Monica, Gottfried Kellers Feuriger Freund: Johann Ulrich Müller––Romanfigur, Baumeister Und Kartograf Der Usa [Gottfried Keller’S Fiery Friend: Johann Ulrich Müller–– Character In A Novel, Architect, Builder And Cartographer Of The Usa], Richard Hacken

Swiss American Historical Society Review

It is safe to say that an investigation into the life of Johann Ulrich Müller would scarcely warrant the rapt scholarly attention that it does were it not for the presumptive impact of that individual on Gottfried Keller––who was and is perhaps the prime Swiss exponent of literary realism in the eyes of the world. It has been established that Keller’s novel, Der grüne Heinrich [Green Henry], closely parallels the novelist’s own life story, episodically shifting into near-direct autobiography. One memorable character in the novel is closely based on Keller’s friendship with Müller, which had originally ...


Book Review: Marie-Angèle Lovis. Un Village Suisse Émigré: Le Cas De Cornol Dans Le Canton Du Jura (1815-1956), Dwight Page Jun 2021

Book Review: Marie-Angèle Lovis. Un Village Suisse Émigré: Le Cas De Cornol Dans Le Canton Du Jura (1815-1956), Dwight Page

Swiss American Historical Society Review

A great deal has been published concerning emigration from German-speaking, Alemannic Switzerland. The present book fulfills the great need to give more attention to the French speaking cantons of the western part of Switzerland, La Suisse romande.


From Redemptive Suffering To Redemptive Reconciliation In The Authorship Of Johanna Spyri, Frederick Hale Jun 2021

From Redemptive Suffering To Redemptive Reconciliation In The Authorship Of Johanna Spyri, Frederick Hale

Swiss American Historical Society Review

That Johanna Spyri (1827-1901), best known for her Heidi books, gained renown as one of Switzerland’s most popular and widely translated authors is beyond dispute. The two companion volumes Heidi’s Lehr- und Wanderjahre and Heidi kann brauchen, was es gelernt hat were published in Germany in 1880 and 1881, respectively, and have been reprinted and published in more abridgements, translations, and cultural adaptations than nearly all other works of their era. Several of Spyri’s many other books also enjoyed popularity and were read not only in German, but also in various other languages on both sides of ...


Switzerland In The Life And Works Of . . . John Le Carré (1931-2020), Matthias Lerf, Richard Hacken, Translator, Annotator Jun 2021

Switzerland In The Life And Works Of . . . John Le Carré (1931-2020), Matthias Lerf, Richard Hacken, Translator, Annotator

Swiss American Historical Society Review

John le Carré lived at the southwestern tip of England in Cornwall while his masterful spy novels take place all around the world. Yet he always emphasized that Switzerland was his second home, and he spoke excellent German. During an interview in Bern’s Hotel Bellevue in 2010, on which this article is based, he even sprinkled in a few dialect phrases. He said he speaks “es bitzeli” [a bit of] Bernese German, but in general he avoided it, since it would call forth a torrent of words in response that he could not handle. In other matters as well ...


Beyond Muesli And Fondue -- The Swiss Contribution To Culinary History: A Summary Of Ambassador Martin Dahinden’S Book, C. Naseer Ahmad Jun 2021

Beyond Muesli And Fondue -- The Swiss Contribution To Culinary History: A Summary Of Ambassador Martin Dahinden’S Book, C. Naseer Ahmad

Swiss American Historical Society Review

Breaking bread together has deep rooted spiritual foundations for strengthening fellowship and in easing tensions among people of different persuasions. So, it is propitious that former Swiss Ambassador to United States Dr. Martin Dahinden, who is a seasoned Swiss diplomat with exquisite tastes and a vast reservoir of knowledge and experience wrote a book Beyond Muesli and Fondue, which describes Swiss contributions to culinary history.


The Thematic Changes In Defa Cinema, David Hillman Jun 2021

The Thematic Changes In Defa Cinema, David Hillman

Honors Theses

This presentation examines the evolving themes in the films produced by the German Democratic Republic’s (GDR) film monopoly Deutsche Film-Aktiengesellschaft (DEFA) from its founding in 1946 through German Reunification in 1990. It analyzes ten films that span a variety of genres, including the ‘rubble films’ (Trümmerfilme), fairy tale films (Märchenfilme), and the GDR-American westerns (Indianerfilme). They are also reflective of the different periods of GDR politics in which they were made, such as the brief GDR ‘New Wave’, the banned films of the mid-1960’s, and the push for films addressing contemporary society (Gegenwartsfilme) after 1971. By examining the ...


The Black Experience In Early To Mid-20th-Century Great Britain, France, And Germany: The Positioning Of A Community As The “Other”, Tawreak Gamble-Eddington Jun 2021

The Black Experience In Early To Mid-20th-Century Great Britain, France, And Germany: The Positioning Of A Community As The “Other”, Tawreak Gamble-Eddington

Honors Theses

This essay looks at the experience of Blacks during the early to mid-20th-century in Germany, Great Britain, and France. Drawing on the autobiographies of Black Germans and African-Americans living in France—as well as various secondary sources, government documents, newspaper articles, and accounts from African-American reporters visiting Europe—Blacks can be firmly placed within the context of early to mid-20th-century Europe and more generally European history. Due to the accessibility of primary accounts by mixed-race Europeans in the 20th century, special attention is paid to the experiences of mixed-race members of the Black community and their perception in each country ...


The King Of Witchcraft: Scotland's Witchcraft Crisis And Religious Politics Under King James Vi, Tristan Rimmer May 2021

The King Of Witchcraft: Scotland's Witchcraft Crisis And Religious Politics Under King James Vi, Tristan Rimmer

LSU Master's Theses

In 1590 King James VI of Scotland was the supposed target of diabolical witchcraft; the North Berwick witches were accused of attempting to sink the ship carrying James and his new bride from Copenhagen back to Edinburgh following their marriage. This event set off a widespread witch-hunt in Scotland, one that James took a personal and vested interest in. The hunt continued through 1597, occurring across multiple Scottish locales, resulting in judicial statute rearrangements, and famously inspiring James’ treatise Daemonologie. In addition to Daemonlogie, James also wrote multiple treatises on the theory of divine right in the midst of the ...