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Articles 1 - 30 of 2038

Full-Text Articles in History

The Rise Of The Bentley And Broad War Boys: Converting Nascent Automotive And Computer Technologies Into Mainstream Sports, Amee Kim, Elton G. Mcgoun Sep 2021

The Rise Of The Bentley And Broad War Boys: Converting Nascent Automotive And Computer Technologies Into Mainstream Sports, Amee Kim, Elton G. Mcgoun

Journal of Motorsport Culture & History

No abstract provided.


Finding The Formula: The Convoluted Chronicle Of The Creation Of The 1938 Formule Internationale, Richard Armstrong Sep 2021

Finding The Formula: The Convoluted Chronicle Of The Creation Of The 1938 Formule Internationale, Richard Armstrong

Journal of Motorsport Culture & History

No abstract provided.


Environmental Sustainability And The Framing Of Formula E Motor Racing In Uk And Flemish Newspapers, Timothy Robeers Sep 2021

Environmental Sustainability And The Framing Of Formula E Motor Racing In Uk And Flemish Newspapers, Timothy Robeers

Journal of Motorsport Culture & History

Developed in cooperation with the Fédération Internationale d’Automobile (FIA) as motor sport’s governing body, the fully electric racing series Formula E represents itself as a driving force in making the motor sport and automotive industries more environmentally sustainable (hereafter: ES). However, the question remains whether such ES efforts are picked up on by the media, and more specifically newspapers that are still considered a benchmark for in-depth and reflective journalism, despite a dramatic rise of online and social media coverage of sport. Combining a quantitative content analysis with a qualitative framing analysis, this article identified, compared and contrasted ...


The Weight Of Silk: An Exploratory Account Into The Developing Relations Between Byzantium And China, Jeanna Lee Jul 2021

The Weight Of Silk: An Exploratory Account Into The Developing Relations Between Byzantium And China, Jeanna Lee

History in the Making

History has repeatedly proven that the nation, country, or region that controls the most key raw materials will dominate the surrounding global networks, be they economic, diplomatic, or political. When narrowing this focus to ancient Eurasian cultures, there are two obvious global powers: The Eastern Roman Empire (Byzantium) in the West and the Chinese Empire in the East (the Han Dynasty). While the scholarly independent research conducted on these powers is incredibly rich, what is understood about their interactions is limited and constantly evolving. Evidence explained later in this article shows that there was little more than an awareness of ...


Playing With Fire: The Medieval Judicial Ordeals And Their Downfall, Aaron Larson Jul 2021

Playing With Fire: The Medieval Judicial Ordeals And Their Downfall, Aaron Larson

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Trials by ordeal in the Middle Ages prove to be some of the most complex secular trials in all of history. Both trial by fire, and trial by water looked to call God's judgment into play, hoping that He would make the decisions of guilt or innocence. God is all-knowing. He is all-powerful. Therefore He has all of the relevant information to determine the fates of those who go through the ordeals. Despite this, the theologians in the medieval Church looked to lessen clerical involvement in the ordeals. In 1215, the Fourth Lateran Council met, and the ordeals ceased ...


Attitude Towards Cross-Culture Exchange In The 1685 French Embassy To The Kingdom Of Siam, Benjamin M. Beese Jul 2021

Attitude Towards Cross-Culture Exchange In The 1685 French Embassy To The Kingdom Of Siam, Benjamin M. Beese

Swarthmore Undergraduate History Journal

Traditional histories of Early Modern exchange tend to emphasize the dispersion and adoption (or rejection) of European science and culture. More recently, there has been an historiographical trend to see early modern international interactions as multi-direction exchanges in which all parties are altered in each interaction. The 1685 French-Jesuit Embassy to Siam provides an interesting opportunity to explore the implications of this multi-directional approach. Although this exchange had no significant, lasting impact on either Siam or France, the dynamics at play demonstrate how each party’s attitude towards the exchange impacted their ability to achieve their aims. This paper uses ...


Irrational Philosophy? Kronecker's Constructive Philosophy And Finding The Real Roots Of A Polynomial, Richard B. Schneider Jul 2021

Irrational Philosophy? Kronecker's Constructive Philosophy And Finding The Real Roots Of A Polynomial, Richard B. Schneider

Rose-Hulman Undergraduate Mathematics Journal

The prominent mathematician Leopold Kronecker (1823 – 1891) is often relegated to footnotes and mainly remembered for his strict philosophical position on the foundation of mathematics. He held that only the natural numbers are intuitive, thus the only basis for all mathematical objects. In fact, Kronecker developed a complete school of thought on mathematical foundations and wrote many significant algebraic works, but his enigmatic writing style led to his historical marginalization. In 1887, Kronecker published an extended version of his paper, “On the Concept of Number,” translated into English in 2010 for the first time by Edward T. Dean, who confirms ...


Not So Dystopian: A Historical Reading Of Eugenics In Science Fiction, Riley Sanders Jun 2021

Not So Dystopian: A Historical Reading Of Eugenics In Science Fiction, Riley Sanders

The Forum: Journal of History

Broadly, this paper is an effort in complicating traditional readings of eugenic themes in science fiction. Two landmark novels, Wells’ The Island of Dr. Moreau (1896) and Huxley’s Brave New World (1932), are highlighted as representative of the early and late stages of eugenics. By focusing on the troubling historical context surrounding these authors, I denounce the simple reading of these works as merely “dystopian”. Scholars like Francis Fukuyama advance these simplistic readings by instinctively assuming that Wells and Huxley were against eugenics. This paper continues the tradition that David Bradshaw popularized in his book The Hidden Huxley, which ...


The Literary Controversies Of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling, Victoria Duehring Jun 2021

The Literary Controversies Of Michelangelo's Sistine Ceiling, Victoria Duehring

The Forum: Journal of History

This literary review will focus on Michelangelo’s most significant work of color: the Sistine ceiling. Michelangelo’s work has spawned a plethora of literature, but this paper will focus on three main controversial topics: assistants (or lack thereof), the ignudi’s purpose, and restoration. I will also apply a psycho-historical approach to these controversies and identify potential avenues for future research.


A Lifeline For Millions: American Relief In An Age Of Isolationism, Matteo Marsella Jun 2021

A Lifeline For Millions: American Relief In An Age Of Isolationism, Matteo Marsella

The Forum: Journal of History

American military involvement in the Great War is a widely discussed aspect of the conflict. The period following the war is often considered an example of American isolationist foreign policy. Lesser well known are American efforts to provide food relief to starving populations in Europe, which began during and continued well after the war's conclusion. This paper seeks to locate American relief efforts within broader postwar foreign policy. Although President Harding’s 1920 election victory on a platform of a “return to normalcy” is often construed as a rejection of Wilsonian internationalism and a return to prewar isolationism, there ...


Medieval Infertility: Treatments, Cures, And Consequences, Zia Simpson Jun 2021

Medieval Infertility: Treatments, Cures, And Consequences, Zia Simpson

The Forum: Journal of History

Since the first civilizations emerged, reproductive ability has been one of the most prominent elements in assessing a woman’s value to society. Other characteristics such as beauty, intelligence, and wealth may have been granted comparable consequence, but those are arbitrary and improvable. Fertility is genetic, and for centuries it was beyond human control. Among the medieval European nobility, fertility held even greater power. The absence of an heir could, either directly or indirectly, bring about war, economic depression, and social disorder. Catholicism provided a refuge by allowing barren women to retain their hopes, while simultaneously enriching Rome’s coffers ...


The Purpose Of Shanties From The Time Of Sailors To The Musical Masters Of The Twentieth Century, Madison Grant Jun 2021

The Purpose Of Shanties From The Time Of Sailors To The Musical Masters Of The Twentieth Century, Madison Grant

The Forum: Journal of History

The folk songs of the high seas traveled across hundreds of ships, changed in sound and lyric, and ultimately became known today as maritime folk music. Although many historians choose to analyze maritime history through physical artifacts, one less-appreciated aspect of the sea is known as the sea shanty. With modern musicians paying homage to their older nautical counterparts, the revival of shanty tunes sprung forth an almost lost appreciation into the lives of both historians and musicians alike. Referenced in this essay is the James Madison Carpenter Collection, an array of recorded and inscribed sources of shanty tunes that ...


Full Issue Jun 2021

Full Issue

The Forum: Journal of History

No abstract provided.


A Requiem For The Ussr: From Atheism To Secularity, Oksana Nesterenko Jun 2021

A Requiem For The Ussr: From Atheism To Secularity, Oksana Nesterenko

Yale Journal of Music & Religion

This article examines performance and reception of music of sacred tradition in the Soviet Union in the 1970s-80s, with the focus on two works composed in the genre of Catholic Requiem Mass, Alfred Schnittke’s Requiem (1975) and Vyacheslav Artyomov’s Requiem (1988). The article recounts the history of Soviet atheism that, as a result of state’s failure to eradicate religion, evolved into a form of secular modernity, and outlines the music culture in which Schnittke and Artyomov lived. The official reception of the two requiems, which changed dramatically within twelve years, illustrates the state’s changing attitude to ...


Front Matter Jun 2021

Front Matter

Swiss American Historical Society Review

No abstract provided.


To Touch The Heavens: A Short Story, Sarah Hedrick Jun 2021

To Touch The Heavens: A Short Story, Sarah Hedrick

Swiss American Historical Society Review

A light Swiss breeze blew through Heidi’s curly blonde hair as she and her grandfather Adolph walked along the mountain path. They had been walking up the mountainside for several hours and were nearing the top. Heidi couldn’t wait to get to the mountaintop; it was the one part of the mountain that she had never been to before. Her grandfather told her that when you were at the top, you’re up so high that you can almost reach up and touch the heavens. However, the trek was quite long, and Heidi had never gone that far ...


Switzerland In The Life And Works Of . . . John Le Carré (1931-2020), Matthias Lerf, Richard Hacken, Translator, Annotator Jun 2021

Switzerland In The Life And Works Of . . . John Le Carré (1931-2020), Matthias Lerf, Richard Hacken, Translator, Annotator

Swiss American Historical Society Review

John le Carré lived at the southwestern tip of England in Cornwall while his masterful spy novels take place all around the world. Yet he always emphasized that Switzerland was his second home, and he spoke excellent German. During an interview in Bern’s Hotel Bellevue in 2010, on which this article is based, he even sprinkled in a few dialect phrases. He said he speaks “es bitzeli” [a bit of] Bernese German, but in general he avoided it, since it would call forth a torrent of words in response that he could not handle. In other matters as well ...


Book Review: Seidler-Hux, Monica, Gottfried Kellers Feuriger Freund: Johann Ulrich Müller––Romanfigur, Baumeister Und Kartograf Der Usa [Gottfried Keller’S Fiery Friend: Johann Ulrich Müller–– Character In A Novel, Architect, Builder And Cartographer Of The Usa], Richard Hacken Jun 2021

Book Review: Seidler-Hux, Monica, Gottfried Kellers Feuriger Freund: Johann Ulrich Müller––Romanfigur, Baumeister Und Kartograf Der Usa [Gottfried Keller’S Fiery Friend: Johann Ulrich Müller–– Character In A Novel, Architect, Builder And Cartographer Of The Usa], Richard Hacken

Swiss American Historical Society Review

It is safe to say that an investigation into the life of Johann Ulrich Müller would scarcely warrant the rapt scholarly attention that it does were it not for the presumptive impact of that individual on Gottfried Keller––who was and is perhaps the prime Swiss exponent of literary realism in the eyes of the world. It has been established that Keller’s novel, Der grüne Heinrich [Green Henry], closely parallels the novelist’s own life story, episodically shifting into near-direct autobiography. One memorable character in the novel is closely based on Keller’s friendship with Müller, which had originally ...


From Redemptive Suffering To Redemptive Reconciliation In The Authorship Of Johanna Spyri, Frederick Hale Jun 2021

From Redemptive Suffering To Redemptive Reconciliation In The Authorship Of Johanna Spyri, Frederick Hale

Swiss American Historical Society Review

That Johanna Spyri (1827-1901), best known for her Heidi books, gained renown as one of Switzerland’s most popular and widely translated authors is beyond dispute. The two companion volumes Heidi’s Lehr- und Wanderjahre and Heidi kann brauchen, was es gelernt hat were published in Germany in 1880 and 1881, respectively, and have been reprinted and published in more abridgements, translations, and cultural adaptations than nearly all other works of their era. Several of Spyri’s many other books also enjoyed popularity and were read not only in German, but also in various other languages on both sides of ...


Beyond Muesli And Fondue -- The Swiss Contribution To Culinary History: A Summary Of Ambassador Martin Dahinden’S Book, C. Naseer Ahmad Jun 2021

Beyond Muesli And Fondue -- The Swiss Contribution To Culinary History: A Summary Of Ambassador Martin Dahinden’S Book, C. Naseer Ahmad

Swiss American Historical Society Review

Breaking bread together has deep rooted spiritual foundations for strengthening fellowship and in easing tensions among people of different persuasions. So, it is propitious that former Swiss Ambassador to United States Dr. Martin Dahinden, who is a seasoned Swiss diplomat with exquisite tastes and a vast reservoir of knowledge and experience wrote a book Beyond Muesli and Fondue, which describes Swiss contributions to culinary history.


Book Review: Marie-Angèle Lovis. Un Village Suisse Émigré: Le Cas De Cornol Dans Le Canton Du Jura (1815-1956), Dwight Page Jun 2021

Book Review: Marie-Angèle Lovis. Un Village Suisse Émigré: Le Cas De Cornol Dans Le Canton Du Jura (1815-1956), Dwight Page

Swiss American Historical Society Review

A great deal has been published concerning emigration from German-speaking, Alemannic Switzerland. The present book fulfills the great need to give more attention to the French speaking cantons of the western part of Switzerland, La Suisse romande.


End Matter Jun 2021

End Matter

Swiss American Historical Society Review

No abstract provided.


East Germany's Angela Davis, Ross T. Parks May 2021

East Germany's Angela Davis, Ross T. Parks

Vernacular: New Connections in Language, Literature, & Culture

Angela Davis is arguably the most famous member of the Black Panther movement. She reached prominence within the United States as a political dissident, educator, activist, and prisoner in the early 1970s. However, the United States government was not the only one with an eye on Davis.

The Black Panther movement is well-known within the United States, with a complicated reputation among the public. Often framed as far-left radicals, the group and many of its members were heavily targeted by the FBI throughout its existence. The movement’s efforts are often categorized as the most extreme example of the Civil ...


A Distinction Without A Difference: Vietnam, Sir Robert Thompson, And The Policing Failures Of Vietnam, Mark J. Rothermel May 2021

A Distinction Without A Difference: Vietnam, Sir Robert Thompson, And The Policing Failures Of Vietnam, Mark J. Rothermel

Madison Historical Review

The scholarship analyzing the failure of the American involvement in Vietnam began even before the war finished. Whether the Orthodox School which considered the war unwinnable or the revisionist which argued there was a path to victory for the Americans, there have been libraries of tomes arguing who or what was to blame for the American defeat. An increased amount of scholarship recently has been written regarding the influence of British officer Sir Robert Thompson and his attempt to advise both the South Vietnamese and American war efforts.

Thompson, who gained fame as one of the key leaders for the ...


The Third Plague Pandemic And British India: A Transformation Of Science, Policy, And Indian Society, Rebecca L. Burrows Apr 2021

The Third Plague Pandemic And British India: A Transformation Of Science, Policy, And Indian Society, Rebecca L. Burrows

Tenor of Our Times

This paper seeks to understand the role of the Third Plague Pandemic's overwhelming devastation in colonial India, specifically through the new advancements in scientific understanding, unheard of proactive prevention measures, and increased separation between the colonial powers of Great Britain and the common people of India.


Scribes And Soldiers: A Brief Introduction To Seventeenth-Century Military Manuscripts, Lucian Staiano-Daniels Apr 2021

Scribes And Soldiers: A Brief Introduction To Seventeenth-Century Military Manuscripts, Lucian Staiano-Daniels

Manuscript Studies

The history of early-modern European manuscripts has rarely focused on the use of manuscripts in armies. Some historians have even presented early-modern armies as unconcerned with daily records of the common soldiers under their command. Others have used early-modern handwritten documents as sources of information, without examining them as artifacts. But these documents are interesting works of vernacular art, created under difficult circumstances. They also provide clues to things like the literacy rate of some common soldiers. This article introduces early-modern military manuscripts. The focus is on the army of Electoral Saxony during the Thirty Years War (1618-1648).


Provincializing New York: In And Out Of The Geopolitics Of Art After 1945, Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel Apr 2021

Provincializing New York: In And Out Of The Geopolitics Of Art After 1945, Béatrice Joyeux-Prunel

Artl@s Bulletin

In this article, I argue that the putative global centrality of New York in art after 1945 is a construct, as it is for Paris prior to 1945. Monographs and national approaches are unsuccessful in challenging such powerful myths as these. A global, transnational and comparative approach demonstrates that the struggle for centrality was a global phenomenon after 1945, a battle that New York does not win (depending on one’s point of view) until after 1964. Rather than considering centres and peripheries as a fixed category, I propose to consider them as a strategic notion which artists and their ...


How To Build A World Art: The Strategic Universalism Of Colour Reproductions And The Unesco Prize (1953-1968), Chiara Vitali Apr 2021

How To Build A World Art: The Strategic Universalism Of Colour Reproductions And The Unesco Prize (1953-1968), Chiara Vitali

Artl@s Bulletin

What role did UNESCO play in the art world of the post-war era? This article makes use of published and archival sources in order to clarify the utopia of a “World Art” that shaped UNESCO and led to the “Archives of Colour Reproductions of Works of Art”, a project of worldwide collect and diffusion of images of “masterworks” inspired by Malraux’s “Museum without walls”. This case study focuses on one particular aspect of the project, the “UNESCO Prize”, conceived by the Brazilian art critic and Marxist intellectual Mario Pedrosa for the 1953 São Paulo Biennial.


Revising Mary Queen Of Scots: From Protestant Persecution To Patriarchal Struggle, Jennifer M. Desilva, Emily K. Mcguire Mar 2021

Revising Mary Queen Of Scots: From Protestant Persecution To Patriarchal Struggle, Jennifer M. Desilva, Emily K. Mcguire

Journal of Religion & Film

Since Mary Queen of Scots’ execution in 1587, she has become a symbol of Scottish identity, failed female leadership, and Catholic martyrdom. Throughout the twentieth century, Mary was regularly depicted on screen (Ford, 1936; Froelich, 1940; Jarrott, 1971) as a thrice-wed Catholic queen, unable to rule her country due to her feminine nature and Catholic roots. However, with the rise of third wave feminism and postfeminism in media, coupled with the increased influence of female directors and writers, Mary’s characterization has shifted from portraying female/emotional weakness and religious sacrifice to female/collaborative strength in hardship and a struggle ...


A Widened Angle Of View: Teaching Theology And Racial Embodiment, Mara Brecht Mar 2021

A Widened Angle Of View: Teaching Theology And Racial Embodiment, Mara Brecht

Journal of Global Catholicism

Today’s undergraduate students are digital natives, shaped by constant access to information and countless experiences of encountering the world through the convenience of a screen. The ostensible comfort students have with difference gives way to a paradox, and one that’s made especially apparent in the theology classroom: Students are comfortable with seeing difference and particularity at a distance, but not adept at locating difference and particularity “at home.” I contend that Catholics & Cultures can help students from the dominant culture—namely, white students who comprise the vast majority of Catholic college students—destabilize their notion of the Catholic ...