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No. 14: The Impact Of Proximity To Wet Markets And Supermarkets On Household Dietary Diversity In Nanjing City, China, Taiyang Zhong, Zhenzhong Si, Jonathan Crush, Zhiying Zu, Xianjin Huang, Steffanie Scott, Shuangshuang Tang, Xiang Zhang Feb 2018

No. 14: The Impact Of Proximity To Wet Markets And Supermarkets On Household Dietary Diversity In Nanjing City, China, Taiyang Zhong, Zhenzhong Si, Jonathan Crush, Zhiying Zu, Xianjin Huang, Steffanie Scott, Shuangshuang Tang, Xiang Zhang

Hungry Cities Partnership

Existing studies suggest that despite the proliferation of supermarkets, traditional wet markets have persisted in many countries and have been playing an important role in people’s daily food access. Yet, studies investigating the issue of food access and its influences on food security have mainly focused on food deserts and the proximity to supermarkets, with limited focus on wet markets and other food outlets. This study investigates the influence of the proximity to wet markets and supermarkets on urban household dietary diversity in Nanjing. Based on the data collected through a citywide survey in 2015 and the map data ...


No. 09: The State Of Household Food Security In Nanjing, China, Zhenzhong Si, Taiyang Zhong Jan 2018

No. 09: The State Of Household Food Security In Nanjing, China, Zhenzhong Si, Taiyang Zhong

Hungry Cities Partnership

This report on the state of food security in Nanjing, China, is based on a 2015 city-wide survey conducted by Nanjing University and the Hungry Cities Partnership. The research found that most of the city’s residents are food secure, with access to desirable foods and high dietary diversity throughout the year. Nanjing has a high level of economic development, low unemployment, and spatially dense food supply networks. However, a high average level of food security obscures the finding that about one household in five is food insecure according to the Household Food Insecurity Access Prevalence indicator. Female-centred households, households ...


No. 08: The Urban Food System Of Windhoek, Namibia, Ndeyapo Nickanor, Lawrence Kazembe, Jonathan Crush, Jeremy Wagner Jan 2018

No. 08: The Urban Food System Of Windhoek, Namibia, Ndeyapo Nickanor, Lawrence Kazembe, Jonathan Crush, Jeremy Wagner

Hungry Cities Partnership

The surprisingly high rate of supermarket patronage in low-income areas of Windhoek, Namibia’s capital and largest city, is at odds with conventional wisdom that supermarkets in African cities are primarily patronized by middle and high-income residents and therefore target their neighbourhoods. What is happening in Namibia and other Southern African countries that make supermarkets so much more accessible to the urban poor? What are they buying at supermarkets and how frequently do they shop there? Further, what is the impact of supermarket expansion on informal food vendors? This report, which presents the findings of the South African Supermarkets in ...


No. 11: The State Of Household Food Security In Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel Owuor Jan 2018

No. 11: The State Of Household Food Security In Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel Owuor

Hungry Cities Partnership

This report presents the results of a city-wide household food security survey of 1,434 Nairobi households, conducted by the Hungry Cities Partnership and the University of Nairobi. Among the key findings was that 70% of households in Kenya’s capital experience food insecurity, with one-quarter severely food insecure. As the first city-wide survey of household food security in Nairobi, this report provides researchers and policy-makers with detailed data and information about the overall food security picture, as well as important insights into the operation of the city’s food system. In particular, the report demonstrates the vital importance of ...


No. 10: The State Of Household Food Security In Maputo, Mozambique, Inês Raimundo, Cameron Mccordic, Abel Chikanda Jan 2018

No. 10: The State Of Household Food Security In Maputo, Mozambique, Inês Raimundo, Cameron Mccordic, Abel Chikanda

Hungry Cities Partnership

The Hungry Cities Partnership aims to promote inclusive growth in urban food systems in Maputo and other cities of the Global South. The production of new empirical knowledge about the levels of household food security and the various facets of the urban food system is a core component of this effort. This report presents and analyses findings from a city-wide survey of 2,071 households that found that most Maputo households are food insecure and that more than a third can be categorized as severely food insecure. Dietary diversity in the city is extremely low and almost half of households ...


No. 13: The Growth Of Food Banking In Cities Of The Global South, Daniel N. Warshawsky Jan 2018

No. 13: The Growth Of Food Banking In Cities Of The Global South, Daniel N. Warshawsky

Hungry Cities Partnership

As the number and size of food banks increase globally, it is critical to research how food banks fit into existing food systems and their role in reducing food insecurity and food waste. After examining the political ecology of urban food waste in food systems, this discussion paper examines the globalization of food banking and its growth in the Global South. Through a case study of FoodForward SA, it critically analyzes the roles that urban food banks play in cities of the Global South. Since many countries in the South have both the highest levels of food insecurity and the ...


No. 15: The Food Security Implications Of Gendered Access To Education And Employment In Maputo, Cameron Mccordic, Liam Riley, Inês Raimundo Jan 2018

No. 15: The Food Security Implications Of Gendered Access To Education And Employment In Maputo, Cameron Mccordic, Liam Riley, Inês Raimundo

Hungry Cities Partnership

The multiple linkages between gender and household food security in cities have been observed in diverse settings, at multiple scales, and through a variety of disciplinary lenses. The Hungry Cities Partnership is rooted in the importance of inclusive growth of cities, which includes a fundamental concern with genderbased injustices that reduce inclusivity, sustainability and food security by underpinning structural poverty. This discussion paper is motivated by the gap in policy-ready quantitative data needed to identify the ways in which gender inequality, food insecurity, and public policy are interconnected. Analysis of the 2014 survey of household food security in Maputo identified ...


No. 12: Compounding Vulnerability: A Model Of Urban Household Food Security, Cameron Mccordic Dec 2017

No. 12: Compounding Vulnerability: A Model Of Urban Household Food Security, Cameron Mccordic

Hungry Cities Partnership

The efficiency of the infrastructure systems in cities will define the extent to which dystopic visions of urban futures become a reality. At the level of the individual household, vulnerability to hazards in cities is defined, in part, by the ability to access essential resources and services. This discussion paper proposes a model to help explain the relationship between access to urban infrastructure systems and household vulnerability to food insecurity. Food access in cities is primarily achieved through food purchases, where households convert assets into food at retail locations. When a household falls into food insecurity through trading household assets ...


No. 11: Urban Food Security, Rural Bias And The Global Development Agenda, Jonathan Crush, Liam Riley Sep 2017

No. 11: Urban Food Security, Rural Bias And The Global Development Agenda, Jonathan Crush, Liam Riley

Hungry Cities Partnership

This discussion paper sets out the global, African, and South African contexts within which both urban development and food security agendas in Africa are framed. It argues that the pervasive rural bias and anti-urbanism identified in the international and regional food security agendas in the first decade of the 21st century have persisted into the second. In examining whether the last decade has brought any significant changes to the dominant discourse and its accompanying sidelining of urbanization and urban food security in policy debate and formulation, the authors find that there are promising signs for cracks in the edifice but ...


No. 10: The Hungry Cities Food Purchases Matrix: A Measure Of Urban Household Food Security And Food System Interactions, Jonathan Crush, Cameron Mccordic May 2017

No. 10: The Hungry Cities Food Purchases Matrix: A Measure Of Urban Household Food Security And Food System Interactions, Jonathan Crush, Cameron Mccordic

Hungry Cities Partnership

Recent theoretical work has suggested that urban food security is the result of food system interactions. This work highlights the challenge of assessing household-level food insecurity and relating it to the broader food system. One priority is to develop food security metrics that incorporate household interactions with the food system retail environment. The Hungry Cities Food Purchases Matrix (HCFPM) is one such metric that has been developed for situating household food sourcing behaviour within the urban food system. The matrix has been successfully administered in a number of cities in the Global South by the Hungry Cities Partnership. This paper ...


No. 09: Comparing Household Food Security In Cities Of The Global South Through A Gender Lens, Liam Riley, Mary Caesar Apr 2017

No. 09: Comparing Household Food Security In Cities Of The Global South Through A Gender Lens, Liam Riley, Mary Caesar

Hungry Cities Partnership

Understanding the determinants of urban food insecurity requires sensitivity to local cultural contexts and taking into account a globally relevant framework for analysis. A gender lens is amenable to this kind of analysis because it is rooted in local configurations of households, livelihoods and consumption patterns, while also being animated by a longstanding global effort to create a world in which men and women are equal. This discussion paper is aimed at academic researchers and development practitioners concerned with urban food insecurity. It demonstrates the usefulness of a gender lens of analysis for generating new insights and questions about household ...


No. 06: The Informal Sector’S Role In Food Security: A Missing Link In Policy Debates, Caroline Skinner, Gareth Haysom Mar 2017

No. 06: The Informal Sector’S Role In Food Security: A Missing Link In Policy Debates, Caroline Skinner, Gareth Haysom

Hungry Cities Partnership

This discussion paper aims to review what is currently known about the role played by the informal sector in general, and informal retailers in particular, in the accessibility of food in South Africa. The review seeks to identify policy-relevant research gaps. Drawing on Statistics South Africa data, we show that the informal sector is an important source of employment, dominated by informal trade with the sale of food a significant subsector within this trade. We then turn our attention to what is known about the informal sector’s role in food sourcing of poorer households. Surveys show that urban residents ...


No. 08: International Migration And Urban Food Security In South African Cities, Jonathan Crush, Godfrey Tawodzera Mar 2017

No. 08: International Migration And Urban Food Security In South African Cities, Jonathan Crush, Godfrey Tawodzera

Hungry Cities Partnership

The drivers of food insecurity in rapidly growing urban areas of the Global South are receiving more research and policy attention, but the precise connections between urbanization, urban food security and migration are still largely unexplored. In particular, the levels and causes of food insecurity amongst new migrants to the city have received little consideration. This is in marked contrast to the literature on the food security experience of new immigrants from the South in European and North American cities. This paper aims to contribute to the literature on urban food security in the South by focusing on the case ...


No. 07: Household Food Security And Access To Medical Care In Maputo, Mozambique, Cameron Mccordic Mar 2017

No. 07: Household Food Security And Access To Medical Care In Maputo, Mozambique, Cameron Mccordic

Hungry Cities Partnership

The relationship between household access to medical care and food security is a potentially circuitous and challenging relationship to model. This discussion paper uses multiple modelling techniques to determine the quality of the relationships between these variables using household survey data collected by the Hungry Cities Partnership in 2014 in Maputo, Mozambique. The results of the investigation are framed according to the Sustainable Livelihood Framework and indicate a predictive relationship between household food security status and consistent household medical care access among the sampled households. The results also identify potential conditional independence in the relationship between other demographic variables and ...


No. 07: The Urban Food System Of Mexico City, Mexico, Guénola Capron, Salomón Gonzalez Arellano, Jill Wigle, Ana Luisa Diez, Anavel Monterrubio, Héctor Hidalgo, Jesús Morales, José Castro, Cristina Sánchez-Mejorada, María Concepción Huarte T., María Teresa Esquivel, René Flores Jan 2017

No. 07: The Urban Food System Of Mexico City, Mexico, Guénola Capron, Salomón Gonzalez Arellano, Jill Wigle, Ana Luisa Diez, Anavel Monterrubio, Héctor Hidalgo, Jesús Morales, José Castro, Cristina Sánchez-Mejorada, María Concepción Huarte T., María Teresa Esquivel, René Flores

Hungry Cities Partnership

This report provides an overview of Greater Mexico City and its food system. The city’s history, demographic characteristics, geography and economy are first discussed. The city’s urban food system and urban food security are then examined with a particular focus on formal and informal food retail, food expenditure patterns, and policies to combat hunger and food insecurity. Meeting the daily food demands of Mexico City’s over 20 million inhabitants requires the agricultural production of Mexico’s rural areas, its fishing industry and food imports. Food products arrive in the city from around the country in a combination ...


No. 06: The Urban Food System Of Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel Owuor, Andrea Brown, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Jeremy Wagner Jan 2017

No. 06: The Urban Food System Of Nairobi, Kenya, Samuel Owuor, Andrea Brown, Jonathan Crush, Bruce Frayne, Jeremy Wagner

Hungry Cities Partnership

Nairobi is a city of stark contrasts. Nearly half a million of its three million residents live in abject poverty in some of Africa’s largest slums, yet the Kenyan capital is also an international and regional hub. In East Africa, rapid urbanization is stretching existing food and agriculture systems as growing cities struggle to provide food and nutrition security for their inhabitants. Nairobi is no exception; it is a dynamically growing city and its food supply chains are constantly adapting and responding to changing local conditions. It is also an international city and the extent to which it is ...


No. 05: The Urban Food System Of Bangalore, India, Aditi Surie, Neha Sami Jan 2017

No. 05: The Urban Food System Of Bangalore, India, Aditi Surie, Neha Sami

Hungry Cities Partnership

Bangalore (officially Bangaluru) is one of India’s fastest-growing cities. It is now the fifth-largest urban agglomeration in India, and the capital and primate city of the state of Karnataka in terms of area, population and economic output. With no natural features restricting its development, Bangalore’s spatial growth patterns are characterized by urban sprawl. Although it accounts for only 0.4% of the area of Karnataka and about 16% of the total population of the state, Bangalore has the highest district income in the state, contributing approximately 34% to Gross State Domestic Product at current prices and is a ...


No. 04: The Urban Food System Of Kingston, Jamaica, Elizabeth Thomas-Hope, Robert Kinlocke, Therese Ferguson, Charmaine Heslop-Thomas, Beth Timmers Jan 2017

No. 04: The Urban Food System Of Kingston, Jamaica, Elizabeth Thomas-Hope, Robert Kinlocke, Therese Ferguson, Charmaine Heslop-Thomas, Beth Timmers

Hungry Cities Partnership

Kingston is a colonial city and, like the country of Jamaica more generally, was the product of early mercantilism moulded by colonialism, sugar plantations and slavery. As Jamaica’s capital, Kingston is an economic and administrative hub with a social geography marked by many of the characteristic fissures of emerging cities in transition economies. Its population is fed by a combination of food imports and domestic production from agricultural areas across the island. The key trading point for fresh produce flows into Kingston is Coronation Market in the city centre. Between 60% and 70% of fruit and vegetables arriving at ...


No. 03: The Urban Food System Of Cape Town, South Africa, Gareth Haysom, Jonathan Crush, Mary Caesar Jan 2017

No. 03: The Urban Food System Of Cape Town, South Africa, Gareth Haysom, Jonathan Crush, Mary Caesar

Hungry Cities Partnership

Cape Town is South Africa’s second largest city and plays a critical role in the national economy. Despite its apparent wealth, Cape Town is very unequal in terms of food security with many areas experiencing high levels of food insecurity. The city’s urban food insecurity challenge is multi-dimensional with determining factors including the size of the city, its urbanization pattern, the legacy of apartheid, and economic marginalization. South Africa’s apartheid legacy is a food system with high levels of concentration in all aspects of the food value chain. For example, there are 5-6,000 wheat farmers but ...


Workshop Report: Hungry Cities Partnership Knowledge Mobilization Workshop In Nanjing, Zhenzhong Si Jan 2017

Workshop Report: Hungry Cities Partnership Knowledge Mobilization Workshop In Nanjing, Zhenzhong Si

Hungry Cities Partnership

The Hungry Cities Partnership (HCP) and Nanjing University, China organized a workshop entitled “Wet Market and Urban Food System in Nanjing” on January 12, 2017 at the School of Geographic and Oceanographic Sciences of Nanjing University in Nanjing, China. The workshop aimed to disseminate the results of the HCP household food security survey in Nanjing to government officials and researchers and to discuss the management of the urban food system. It also facilitated communication and understanding between the HCP team and local government officials regarding research themes in 2017. Presenters included Prof. Jonathan Crush, HCP Postdoctoral Fellow Zhenzhong Si, and ...


No. 05: Mapping The Informal Food Economy In Cape Town, South Africa, Jane Battersby, Maya Marshak, Ncedo Mngqibisa Dec 2016

No. 05: Mapping The Informal Food Economy In Cape Town, South Africa, Jane Battersby, Maya Marshak, Ncedo Mngqibisa

Hungry Cities Partnership

The informal food retail sector is an important component of urban food systems and plays a vital role in ensuring access to food by the urban poor. Yet, policy frameworks both to address food security and to govern the informal sector neglect informal retail in the food system and, as a result, the sector is poorly understood. This discussion paper argues that it is essential to understand the dynamics of the informal food retail sector, which is diverse in terms of products traded as well as the business models utilized. The paper attempts to identify the characteristics of the sector ...


No. 04: Supermarkets, Wet Markets And Food Patronage In Nanjing, China, Zhenzhong Si, Steffanie Scott, Cameron Mccordic Aug 2016

No. 04: Supermarkets, Wet Markets And Food Patronage In Nanjing, China, Zhenzhong Si, Steffanie Scott, Cameron Mccordic

Hungry Cities Partnership

Although supermarkets have become a dominant food outlet for urban residents in developed countries, studies of food purchasing in developing countries such as China report a persistence of traditional food outlets, despite a proliferation of supermarkets over the past two decades. Yet, little is known about urban residents’ use of various food sources in the Chinese context. Building on the debate over the rise of supermarkets and the persistence of traditional food outlets, this paper analyzes the landscape of competing food sources including supermarkets, wet markets, restaurants, online food markets, urban agriculture and others. Based on the HCP citywide survey ...


No. 03: Urban Food Deserts And Climate Change In African Cities, Mary Caesar, Jonathan Crush Jun 2016

No. 03: Urban Food Deserts And Climate Change In African Cities, Mary Caesar, Jonathan Crush

Hungry Cities Partnership

The underlying assumption in much of the Euro-American food deserts literature is that urban food deserts are dynamic spaces, expanding and contracting with the advent and withdrawal of supermarkets. This discussion paper argues that to tie such dynamism purely to the spatial behaviour of formal food retail outlets is both narrow and inappropriate in the African context, where the use of the food deserts concept requires a sophisticated understanding of the multiple market and non-market food sources, of the spatial mobility and dynamism of the informal food economy, of the changing drivers of household food insecurity and the local conditions ...


No. 02: Approaching Sustainable Urban Development In China Through A Food System Planning Lens, Zhenzhong Si, Steffanie Scott May 2016

No. 02: Approaching Sustainable Urban Development In China Through A Food System Planning Lens, Zhenzhong Si, Steffanie Scott

Hungry Cities Partnership

After more than two decades of rapid urbanization, Chinese cities now face severe sustainability chal- lenges in terms of balancing economic viability, social justice, and environmental protection goals. While various types of planning have long been adopted to cope with these challenges, food as a centrepiece of daily life and of social and economic activity in cities has rarely been considered as a focus of urban planning in China, despite a lot of recent attention to food waste and food safety concerns. China’s food policy is largely fragmented in terms of its multiple regulatory agencies and diverse policy goals ...


No. 01: Hungry Cities Of The Global South, Jonathan Crush May 2016

No. 01: Hungry Cities Of The Global South, Jonathan Crush

Hungry Cities Partnership

The recent inclusion of an urban Sustainable Development Goal in the Post-2015 UN Development Agenda represents an important acknowledgement of the reality of global urbanization and the many social, economic, infrastructural and political challenges posed by the human transition to a predominantly urban world. However, while the SDG provides goals for housing, transportation, land use, cultural heritage and disaster risk prevention, food is not mentioned at all. This discussion paper aims to correct this unfortunate omission by reviewing the current evidence on the challenges of feeding rapidly-growing cities in the Global South. The paper first documents the magnitude of the ...


Migration And Food Security: Zimbabwean Migrants In Urban South Africa, Godfrey Tawodzera, Jonathan Crush Jan 2016

Migration And Food Security: Zimbabwean Migrants In Urban South Africa, Godfrey Tawodzera, Jonathan Crush

Hungry Cities Partnership

This report examines the food security status of Zimbabwean migrant households in the poorer areas of two major South African cities, Johannesburg and Cape Town. The vast majority were food insecure in terms of the amount of food to which they had access and the quality and diversity of their diet. What seems clear is that Zimbabwean migrants are significantly more food insecure than other low-income households. The primary reason for this appears to lie in pressures that include remittances of cash and goods back to family in Zimbabwe. The small literature on the impact of migrant remittances on food ...


No. 01: The Urban Food System Of Nanjing, China, Zhenzhong Si, Jonathan Crush, Steffanie Scott, Taiyang Zhong Jan 2016

No. 01: The Urban Food System Of Nanjing, China, Zhenzhong Si, Jonathan Crush, Steffanie Scott, Taiyang Zhong

Hungry Cities Partnership

With a population of 8.2 million people, Nanjing is the 14th largest city in China. China became a predominantly urban nation in 2011, when its urban population surpassed its rural population for the first time. The declining farming population and area of farmland along with the increased food consumption of urban residents have had significant implications for China’s food security, including in cities such as Nanjing. As with many other Chinese cities, Nanjing’s informal economy has become an important source of income for the poor, including migrant workers. Since the beginning of economic reform in 1978, street ...


No. 02: The Urban Food System Of Maputo, Mozambique, Abel Chikanda, Inês Raimundo Jan 2016

No. 02: The Urban Food System Of Maputo, Mozambique, Abel Chikanda, Inês Raimundo

Hungry Cities Partnership

The city of Maputo, with a population of around 1.3 million, has been at the forefront of urbanization in Mozambique. While the Southern African country has posted impressive macro-economic growth rates in the last two decades, there has been only limited formal sector employment generation. Most of its working population is absorbed in informal employment and self-employment. The informal food economy is easily the most important source of food in Maputo. Almost all households regularly obtain food from informal sellers; over 90% at least once a week and many on a daily basis. For many households, daily purchasing is ...


Food Remittances: Migration And Food Security In Africa, Jonathan Crush, Mary Caesar Jan 2016

Food Remittances: Migration And Food Security In Africa, Jonathan Crush, Mary Caesar

Hungry Cities Partnership

By drawing attention to the importance of food remittances for urban and rural food security and identifying the current knowledge gaps, this report contributes to the study of the relationship between migration and food security and creates a platform for the design of a new research agenda. Across Africa, there is considerable evidence of a massive informal trade in food, including staples, fresh and processed products. While most cross-border trade in foodstuffs is a result of commercial transactions by small-scale traders who buy in one country and sell in another, an unknown proportion is actually food remittances on their way ...


The Return Of Food: Poverty And Urban Food Security In Zimbabwe After The Crisis, Godfrey Tawodzera, Liam Riley, Jonathan Crush Jan 2016

The Return Of Food: Poverty And Urban Food Security In Zimbabwe After The Crisis, Godfrey Tawodzera, Liam Riley, Jonathan Crush

Hungry Cities Partnership

The nadir of Zimbabwe’s political and economic crisis in 2008 coincided with the implementation of a baseline household food security survey in Harare by AFSUN. This survey found that households in lowincome urban areas in Zimbabwe’s capital were far worse off in terms of all the food insecurity and poverty indicators than households in the other 10 Southern African cities surveyed by AFSUN. The central question addressed in this report is whether food security in Zimbabwe’s urban centres has improved. AFSUN conducted a follow-up survey in 2012 that allows for direct longitudinal comparisons of continuity and change ...