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Articles 1 - 30 of 978

Full-Text Articles in Social Work

Thinking About Peace, Conflict, And War: An Introduction To The Special Issue, Sondra J. Fogel, Daniel Liechty Jul 2019

Thinking About Peace, Conflict, And War: An Introduction To The Special Issue, Sondra J. Fogel, Daniel Liechty

Sondra Fogel

This special issue had humble beginnings. As a matter of fact, odds were stacked against it, especially given that the original plan for this topic was for a panel discussion based on submitted work to the 2009 Society for the Study of Social Problems (SSSP) Conference. However, not one abstract was received for this topic. I found this quite curious and alarming since at that time this country was engaged in two wars, there was continuous media coverage around "terrorist" activities, and we were experiencing frequent changes to our daily routines based on new security measures. Anti-war protestors were growing ...


Perceptions Of Macro Social Work Education: An Exploratory Study Of Educators And Practitioners, Katherine Hill, Christina L. Erickson, Linda P. Donaldson, Sondra J. Fogel, Sarah M. Ferguson Jul 2019

Perceptions Of Macro Social Work Education: An Exploratory Study Of Educators And Practitioners, Katherine Hill, Christina L. Erickson, Linda P. Donaldson, Sondra J. Fogel, Sarah M. Ferguson

Sondra Fogel

Social work graduate education is responsive to and reflective of larger environmental forces, including economic and job market trends, regulations by diverse organizations, and student interests. A national online survey of macro social work educators (n=208) and macro social work practitioners (n=383) explored their perceptions of the intersections between these forces and graduate social work education. Findings indicate that while there remains a consistent level of support for and inclusion of macro social work within MSW programs from both groups, macro practitioners identified a concurrent experience of negative perceptions, attitudes, and experiences toward macro social work education while ...


Moving Along: An Exploratory Study Of Homeless Women With Children Using A Transitional Housing Program, Sondra J. Fogel Jul 2019

Moving Along: An Exploratory Study Of Homeless Women With Children Using A Transitional Housing Program, Sondra J. Fogel

Sondra Fogel

The increase in the number of women and children who are homeless, particularly in the last fifteen years, has generated the innovation of shelters that combine longer term housing arrangements and social services. These organizations are usually called "transitional housing," intended to assist this population toward the economic goal of "self-sufficiency." The impact and success of this strategy is often debated. However, there has been scant research investigating how residents of this setting use skills and resources to secure housing outcomes and community re-integration. Through multiple in-depth interviews and other qualitative data collecting strategies, a conceptual model is presented which ...


A Decent Home For Every Family? Housing Policy Initiatives Since The 1980s, Sondra J. Fogel, Marc T. Smith, Anne R. Williamson Jul 2019

A Decent Home For Every Family? Housing Policy Initiatives Since The 1980s, Sondra J. Fogel, Marc T. Smith, Anne R. Williamson

Sondra Fogel

Afandamental economic and social principle embedded in the American psyche remains the value of shelter. However, housing policy is the result of a complex exchange among economic, political, and social agendas competing for attention within the multiple levels of local, state, and federal governments. This article intends to capture what we consider afea of the significant initiatives since 1980 that reflect these tensions and comprise our current housing policies and directions. Furthermore, we suggest additional housing issues that may need to be addressed by the next presidential administration.


Coalition On Human Trafficking: Final Report, Rachel Lubischer, Jodi Gabel, Jeanette Harder Jun 2019

Coalition On Human Trafficking: Final Report, Rachel Lubischer, Jodi Gabel, Jeanette Harder

Jeanette Harder

The Coalition on Human Trafficking (CHT) is focused on bringing trafficking awareness and prevention to the Omaha, Nebraska, and Council Bluffs, Iowa, communities, as well as building coalitions regionally, nationally, and internationally. Because hotels and motels are a trafficking hotspot, CHT launched their “Realize, Recognize, and Respond” campaign in 2016 to train hotel-motel staff within a 50-mile radius of Omaha.

The Coalition on Human Trafficking (CHT) partnered with Support and Training for the Evaluation of Programs (STEPs) at the University of Nebraska at Omaha to conduct an assessment of CHT’s Hotel/Motel Training Program between April 1, 2018 and ...


Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen Jun 2019

Remarital Chances, Choices, And Economic Consequences: Issues Of Social And Personal Welfare, Kevin Shafer, Todd M. Jensen

Kevin Shafer

Many divorced women experience a significant decline in financial, social, physical, and psychological well-being following a divorce. Using data from the NLSY79 (n= 2,520) we compare welfare recipients, mothers, and impoverished women to less marginalized divorcees on remarriage chances. Furthermore, we look at the kinds of men these women marry by focusing on the employment and education of new spouses. Finally, we address how remarriage and spousal quality (as defined by education and employment) impact economic well-being after divorce. Our results show that remarriage has positive economic effects, but that is dependent upon spousal quality. However, such matches are ...


Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer Jun 2019

Effects Of Native American Geographical Location And Marital Status On Poverty, Tess Collett, Gordon Limb, Kevin Shafer

Kevin Shafer

This study examined the association between geographic location (urban, rural, and tribal) and marital status on poverty among the Native American community. A sample of 5,110 Native Americans in the 2008-2010 American Community Survey were used for analyses. Results indicated that Native Americans were similar with the general population in their geographic location, marital status, and poverty. We found that the protective characteristics of marriage in the Native American community varied according to geographic location. We also discuss the impact this may have on the Native American community and what practitioners and policy makers should consider when working with ...


Recalibrating Micro And Macro Social Work: Student Perceptions Of Social Action, Amy Krings Phd, Charla Truby-Hockman Msw, Michael P. Dentato Phd, Msw, Susan Grossman Phd Jun 2019

Recalibrating Micro And Macro Social Work: Student Perceptions Of Social Action, Amy Krings Phd, Charla Truby-Hockman Msw, Michael P. Dentato Phd, Msw, Susan Grossman Phd

Michael P. Dentato

As underscored by their professional code of ethics, all social
workers are called to engage in social action that advances social
justice. Yet, the focus of the profession has drifted toward individual
treatment and away from social reform. Drawing upon data
from an online survey of graduate social work students (N= 199) in
the United States, this study explores the role of student perceptions
relating to the importance of and their confidence in engaging
in social action. Specifically, we assess whether perceptions
vary according to practice level (micro or macro), social identity, or
survey completion date (before or after the ...


Walking Titanic's Charity Trail In New York City: Part One, Gramercy Park And Madison Square Park, Eric C. Cimino Ph.D. Jun 2019

Walking Titanic's Charity Trail In New York City: Part One, Gramercy Park And Madison Square Park, Eric C. Cimino Ph.D.

Eric C. Cimino

This article combines insights form travel writing, history, and urban studies to explore the social welfare milieu of early twentieth century New York City and its connection to disaster relief efforts for Titanic survivors in 1912.


Teaching At Branch Campuses: The Faculty Experience, Whitney Harper, Larry W. Owens, Simon Funge, Dana J. Sullivan May 2019

Teaching At Branch Campuses: The Faculty Experience, Whitney Harper, Larry W. Owens, Simon Funge, Dana J. Sullivan

Whitney Harper

There is limited research on the perceptions of faculty who teach branch campus students. Exploratory in nature, this qualitative study explored the branch campus teaching experiences of a particular subset of educators – those who teach in social work education programs. The paper will discuss social work faculty members’ perspectives about the advantages and challenges of teaching branch campus students. Eighty-one social work educators from twenty-six states completed an online survey developed by the researchers. The survey included qualitative questions that explored both resident and non-resident faculty members’ perceptions regarding the advantages and disadvantages of teaching branch campus students. The predominant ...


Data Needs For Children With Special Needs In Refugee Populations, Serra Acar, Ozden Pinar-Irmak, Staci B. Martin May 2019

Data Needs For Children With Special Needs In Refugee Populations, Serra Acar, Ozden Pinar-Irmak, Staci B. Martin

Staci B. Martin

This article examines the challenges that affect the identification and assessment of refugee children with special needs in Turkey and provides recommendations related to data collection and assessment of these learners that is broadly relevant in refugee settings.


What Works In Education In Emergencies: Co-Researching And Co-Authoring, Staci B. Martin, Vestine L. Umubyeyi May 2019

What Works In Education In Emergencies: Co-Researching And Co-Authoring, Staci B. Martin, Vestine L. Umubyeyi

Staci B. Martin

The purpose of our paper is to explore how innovative community-based action approaches such as co-researching, co-authoring, and co-presenting with participants-as-researchers, can deepen our understanding of ‘what works’ in education in emergencies (EiE). Our paper will offer insight into how co-researching supports participants in their self-determination, agency and creates space for them to speak for themselves, something that is often missing in research.


The Political Participation Of First Year Social Work Students: Does Practice Specialization Matter?, Jason Ostrander, Janelle K. Bryan, Addie Sandler, Paula Nieman, Maureen Clark, Emily Loveland, Tanya Rhodes Smith May 2019

The Political Participation Of First Year Social Work Students: Does Practice Specialization Matter?, Jason Ostrander, Janelle K. Bryan, Addie Sandler, Paula Nieman, Maureen Clark, Emily Loveland, Tanya Rhodes Smith

Janelle K. Bryan

This study identifies the types of political participation engaged in by MSW students (n=214). A self-report survey administered to MSW students at a Northeastern university indicates limited political involvement. MSW students participate in political activities not requiring significant time, energy, or resources. Furthermore, on the scale and its two subscales, micro-oriented students had less political participation than macro-oriented students. This study suggests firstyear social work students may lack the tools to engage in the political process effectively. Schools of social work should include political participation education in both micro and macro foundation courses and field placements


Women’S Experiences With Prenatal Care: A Mixed-Methods Study Exploring The Influence Of The Social Determinants Of Health, Karen A. D'Angelo, Janelle K. Bryan, Brenda Kurz May 2019

Women’S Experiences With Prenatal Care: A Mixed-Methods Study Exploring The Influence Of The Social Determinants Of Health, Karen A. D'Angelo, Janelle K. Bryan, Brenda Kurz

Janelle K. Bryan

Background & Purpose: Racial and ethnic disparities pervade birth outcomes in the United States and the state of Connecticut. While Connecticut’s infant mortality rate is less than the national average, rates for the state’s Black/African American and Hispanic/Latino communities exceed it. This study explored how prenatal care in Connecticut may be enhanced to address these disparities.

Methods: In spring 2013, seven focus groups and two semi-structured interviews were conducted (n=47). Participants also self-administered brief surveys. Recruited by local service providers, participants were 18 or older, pregnant and/or in the first year post-partum at the time ...


Practice Matters: Screening And Monitoring Hyperlipidemia, M. Laurie Branstetter Dnp, Maria E. Main, Tonya Bragg-Underwood Dnp May 2019

Practice Matters: Screening And Monitoring Hyperlipidemia, M. Laurie Branstetter Dnp, Maria E. Main, Tonya Bragg-Underwood Dnp

Eve Main

Abstract

The purpose of this article is to provide Faith Community Nurses with current information on hyperlipidemia, a chronic disease responsible for the leading cause of death worldwide. Current guidelines for cholesterol screening and a risk calculator resource for estimating cardiovascular risk are provided. Myths and truths are presented for review with patients. Suggestions and resources for lifestyle modifications and patient education are included. Faith Community Nurses are at the center of community health and actively involved with improving health outcomes related to chronic disease.


Effectiveness Of A Cognitive Behavioral Weight Management Intervention In Obese Patients With Psychotic Disorders Compared To Patients With Non-Psychotic Disorders Or No Psychiatric Disorders: Results From A 12-Month, Real-World Study, Jian-Ping Zhang Md, Phd, Jeffrey J. Weiss Phd, Melissa Mccardle Ph.D., Hope Klopchin Phd, Eileen Rosendahl Phd, Lawrence Maayan Md, Antonio Convit, John M. Kane Md, Peter Manu Md, Christoph U. Correll Md Apr 2019

Effectiveness Of A Cognitive Behavioral Weight Management Intervention In Obese Patients With Psychotic Disorders Compared To Patients With Non-Psychotic Disorders Or No Psychiatric Disorders: Results From A 12-Month, Real-World Study, Jian-Ping Zhang Md, Phd, Jeffrey J. Weiss Phd, Melissa Mccardle Ph.D., Hope Klopchin Phd, Eileen Rosendahl Phd, Lawrence Maayan Md, Antonio Convit, John M. Kane Md, Peter Manu Md, Christoph U. Correll Md

Melissa McCardle

Objective—Studies of behavioral weight loss intervention in psychotic patients are sparse and its efficacy compared to other obese patients is unknown. Therefore, we compared the effect of a cognitive-behavioral weight loss intervention in obese subjects with psychotic disorders, other psychiatric diagnoses and without psychiatric disorders. Methods—12-month, naturalistic study of weekly group or individual cognitive-behavioral weight management in 222 consecutively enrolled obese patients (body mass index (BMI): 43.7±9.6) with psychotic-spectrum disorders (PSD, n=47), other psychiatric disorders (OPD, n=49) and no psychiatric disorder (NPD, n=126).

Results—PSD patients had greater treatment persistence (48.9 ...


Social Workers As Social Change Agents: Social Innovation, Social Intrapreneurship, And Social Entrepreneurship, Monica Nandan, Manuel London, Tricia Bent-Goodley Apr 2019

Social Workers As Social Change Agents: Social Innovation, Social Intrapreneurship, And Social Entrepreneurship, Monica Nandan, Manuel London, Tricia Bent-Goodley

Monica Nandan

This article explores and describes social innovation, social intrapreneurship, and social entrepreneurship practiced by social workers within human service organizations. Each year, the nature and complexity of clients’ problems and challenges experienced by communities continuously evolves and grows. These challenges call for social workers to lead and facilitate social change that can have a lasting impact on communities and people. The authors report findings from an exploratory, descriptive study conducted with ten social workers on these practices. The findings point to the need to develop and integrate these contents within social work education and further promote dual-degree graduate programs.


Social Responsibility In Higher Education, Maureen L. Mackenzie Ph.D., Melissa Mccardle Ph.D., Melissa Gebbia Ph.D., Susan Bliss Ph.D. Apr 2019

Social Responsibility In Higher Education, Maureen L. Mackenzie Ph.D., Melissa Mccardle Ph.D., Melissa Gebbia Ph.D., Susan Bliss Ph.D.

Melissa McCardle

Current events such as the recent removal of the CEO of United Airlines for being “bought” by port authority officials highlights the need to prepare students for ethical and effective participation in corporate, non-profit and civic life. Ongoing problems with the leadership of financial, political and social institutions, and increasingly diverse society and persistent inequities in the educational system point to the need for intentional learning opportunities that support the development of ethical leaders & informed citizens who are capable of solving complex social problems in a multicultural society.


Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard Mar 2019

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard

Daria Domin

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


Preparing Social Workers For Practice With Lgbt Populations Affected By Substance Use: Perceptions From Students, Alumni And Service Providers, Michael P. Dentato Phd, Msw, Brian Kelly, Michael R. Lloyd, Nikki Busch Mar 2019

Preparing Social Workers For Practice With Lgbt Populations Affected By Substance Use: Perceptions From Students, Alumni And Service Providers, Michael P. Dentato Phd, Msw, Brian Kelly, Michael R. Lloyd, Nikki Busch

Brian L.Kelly

Trends in the field of service among those with alcohol and other drug addictions highlight the urgent need for schools of social work to effectively train students to serve clients with substance use disorders, and have cultural humility to effectively serve disproportionately affected LGBT consumers. Online surveys and interviews examined perceptions of graduate social work students and alumni in a certified alcohol and drug counselor program, along with several service providers within an urban setting in the US. Results indicated that students and alumni did not feel adequately prepared through coursework to practice with LGBT populations affected by substance use ...


A Historical Overview Of Art And Music-Based Activities In Social Work With Groups: Nondeliberative Practice And Engaging Young People’S Strengths, Brian Kelly, Lauren Doherty Mar 2019

A Historical Overview Of Art And Music-Based Activities In Social Work With Groups: Nondeliberative Practice And Engaging Young People’S Strengths, Brian Kelly, Lauren Doherty

Brian L.Kelly

This article provides a historical overview of the use of art and music-based activities in social work with groups. The authors review archival, empirical, and theoretical literature that explores the use and effectiveness of these activities in the recreation movement and group work practice from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries, the Hull House settlement in Chicago from the late 19th to mid-20th centuries, and in recent group practice in social work and related fields. Findings suggest that art and music-based activities encourage and facilitate nondeliberative practice and allow for important opportunities to engage young people’s strengths.


The Importance Of Cognitive Diversity For Sustaining The Commons, Jacopo A. Baggio, Jacob Freeman, Thomas R. Coyle, Tam Nguyen, Dale Hancock, Karrie E. Elpers, Samantha Nabity, H.J. Francois Dengah Ii, David Pillow Mar 2019

The Importance Of Cognitive Diversity For Sustaining The Commons, Jacopo A. Baggio, Jacob Freeman, Thomas R. Coyle, Tam Nguyen, Dale Hancock, Karrie E. Elpers, Samantha Nabity, H.J. Francois Dengah Ii, David Pillow

Francois Dengah

Cognitive abilities underpin the capacity of individuals to build models of their environment and make decisions about how to govern resources. Here, we test the functional intelligences proposition that functionally diverse cognitive abilities within a group are critical to govern common pool resources. We assess the effect of two cognitive abilities, social and general intelligence, on group performance on a resource harvesting and management game involving either a negative or a positive disturbance to the resource base. Our results indicate that under improving conditions (positive disturbance) groups with higher general intelligence perform better. However, when conditions deteriorate (negative disturbance) groups ...


A Multicase Study Exploring Women’S Narratives Of Infertility: Implications For Counselors, Staci L. Born, Christin L. Carotta, Kristine Ramsay-Seaner Mar 2019

A Multicase Study Exploring Women’S Narratives Of Infertility: Implications For Counselors, Staci L. Born, Christin L. Carotta, Kristine Ramsay-Seaner

Staci Born

Infertility affects 6.7 million women in the United States (Chandra, Copen, & Stephen, 2013). Women’s experiences with infertility are not only influenced by biological health factors, but also by social, cultural, and personal variables. Given the prevalence and complexity of infertility, additional research is needed to further examine the nuances of women’s experiences. The purpose of this multicase study, as informed by four individual cases, was to explore how women construct their infertility narratives. Review of reflective journals found five common elements: (1) Emotional Rollercoaster, (2) Mind-Body (Dis)Connection, (3) Secret Identity, (4) Supportive vs. Constrained Communication Patterns ...


Feasibility Study Of Uvu Community Research Center 2016, Ron J. Hammond, Traci Wennerholm Mar 2019

Feasibility Study Of Uvu Community Research Center 2016, Ron J. Hammond, Traci Wennerholm

Ron J. Hammond


This feasibility study undertook a broad research plan in an effort to evaluate the feasibility of UVU establishing a community agency research support center in the near future.  The research project involved 33 student researchers, a paid research supervisor, a volunteer teaching and research assistant, and one UVU faculty member.  Feedback from the 71 community agencies surveyed indicated that there are already tens of thousands of disadvantaged community members/clients being served by nonprofit agencies in UVU’s service area.  These agencies operate independent of government and are primarily funded by donations, grants, and other non-governmental departments. Six out of ...


Youth Perceptions Of A School-Based Mentoring Program, Samantha Weiss, Jeanette Harder, Christiana Bratiotis, Emily Nguyen Mar 2019

Youth Perceptions Of A School-Based Mentoring Program, Samantha Weiss, Jeanette Harder, Christiana Bratiotis, Emily Nguyen

Jeanette Harder

Academic mentoring programs promote high school completion for at-risk youth. The purpose of this study was to hear the voice of youth in order to inform program services and develop best practices for meeting their academic needs. Using a grounded theory approach, we conducted 14 focus groups to examine high school students’ perceptions and experiences in the Avenue Scholars Foundation program. This study supported previous findings: students’ comments reflected on the importance of the relationships built in the program, the knowledge they gained, and their experiences regarding higher education and careers. The students shared that these experiences were increasingly meaningful ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore

Jean Winsor

King County’s program to employ people with disabilities in county jobs is an example of Washington’s commitment to the use of innovative approaches to increase integrated employment. In 1989, a training resource funded by Washington State and the county Division of Developmental Disabilities, O’Neill and Associates, submitted a grant application to the Rehabilitation Services Administration to develop public sector jobs for people with developmental disabilities within the state. These jobs were to be concentrated in King County (Seattle area) government because of the availability of high-paying jobs with benefits. With the political assistance of a King County ...


Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Agnes Zalewska, Jean Winsor Mar 2019

Data Note: State Intellectual And Developmental Disability Agencies’ Service Trends, Agnes Zalewska, Jean Winsor

Jean Winsor

In FY2016, an estimated 638,568 individuals received day or employment supports from state IDD program agencies. This number grew from 455,824 in FY1999. The estimated number of individuals in integrated employment services increased from 108,227 in FY1999 to 120,244 in FY2016. Despite the trend to terminate facility-based services in some states, the overall state investment continues to emphasize non-work services, rather than integrated employment services. Figure 1 shows the trends in the percentage of people served in integrated employment and facility-based and non-work settings between FY2008 and FY2016.


State Agency Promising Practice: Community Employment Training By And For Individuals With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities In Tennessee, Jean Winsor Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Community Employment Training By And For Individuals With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities In Tennessee, Jean Winsor

Jean Winsor

Project Income was a joint venture between the Tennessee Microboards Association (statewide organization that supports individual microboards, which procure and oversee supports and services) and People First of Tennessee (a statewide selfadvocacy organization for people with intellectual and developmental disabilities). The focus of the project was to educate people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (ID/DD) and their families about the benefits of and opportunities for community employment.


Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard Mar 2019

Statedata: The National Report On Employment Services And Outcomes Through 2016, Jean Winsor, Jaimie Ciulla Timmons, John Butterworth, Alberto Migliore, Daria Domin, Agnes Zalewska, John Shepard

John Butterworth

Recent legislation and regulation governing Medicaid Home and Community-Based Services (HCBS), the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act of 2014 (WIOA), and settlement agreements between states and the U.S. Department of Justice are clarifying federal intent and paving the way to supporting opportunities for people with disabilities to have meaningful jobs in their communities. With an increasing emphasis on integrated employment and an Employment First philosophy, the nation is poised for transformation that could put Americans with disabilities on a path out of poverty and towards self-sufficiency. However, there remains a significant gap in employment rates between people with and ...


State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore Mar 2019

State Agency Promising Practice: Washington - Promoting Public Sector Jobs For People With Intellectual And Developmental Disabilities, Jean Winsor, Allison C. Hall, John Butterworth, Dana Scott Gilmore

John Butterworth

King County’s program to employ people with disabilities in county jobs is an example of Washington’s commitment to the use of innovative approaches to increase integrated employment. In 1989, a training resource funded by Washington State and the county Division of Developmental Disabilities, O’Neill and Associates, submitted a grant application to the Rehabilitation Services Administration to develop public sector jobs for people with developmental disabilities within the state. These jobs were to be concentrated in King County (Seattle area) government because of the availability of high-paying jobs with benefits. With the political assistance of a King County ...