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Articles 1 - 30 of 348

Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

The Labor Force Trajectories Of Immigrant Women: Intersecting Personal Characteristics And Migration Dynamics, Sandra Florian, Chenoa Flippen, Emilio A. Parrado Mar 2020

The Labor Force Trajectories Of Immigrant Women: Intersecting Personal Characteristics And Migration Dynamics, Sandra Florian, Chenoa Flippen, Emilio A. Parrado

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

While research on immigrant women’s labor market incorporation has increased in recent years, systematic comparisons of employment trajectories by national origin and over time remain rare, and the literature remains dominated by the male experience. Especially lacking are studies that take both individual factors and larger migration dynamics into account, limiting our understanding of women’s contributions to the economic well-being of immigrant families, and of the process of incorporation more broadly. Using U.S. Census and ACS data from 1990 to 2016, we construct synthetic cohorts by national origin, period, and age at arrival to track their labor ...


Health Screening For Emerging Disease Burdens Among The Global Poor, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler Feb 2020

Health Screening For Emerging Disease Burdens Among The Global Poor, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Hans-Peter Kohler, Iliana V. Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Evidence for the effectiveness of population health screenings to reduce the burden of non-communicable diseases in low income countries remains very limited. We investigate the sustained effects of a health screening in Malawi where individuals received a referral letter if they had elevated blood pressure. Using a regression discontinuity design and a matching estimator, we find that receiving a referral letter reduced blood pressure and the probability of being hypertensive by about 22 percentage points four years later. These lasting effects are explained by a 20 percentage points increase in the probability of being diagnosed with hypertension. There is also ...


The Mature Adults Cohort Of The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh-Mac), Iliana V. Kohler, Chiwoza Bandawe, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Collin F. Payne, James Mwera, James Mkandawire, Hans-Peter Kohler Jan 2020

The Mature Adults Cohort Of The Malawi Longitudinal Study Of Families And Health (Mlsfh-Mac), Iliana V. Kohler, Chiwoza Bandawe, Alberto Ciancio, Fabrice Kämpfen, Collin F. Payne, James Mwera, James Mkandawire, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Cohort purpose: The Mature Adults Cohort of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH-MAC) contributes to global aging studies by providing a rare opportunity to study the processes of individual and population aging, the public health and social challenges associated with aging and the coincident shifts in disease burdens, in a low-income, high HIV prevalence, sub-Saharan African (SSA) context.

Design and Measures: The MLSFH-MAC is a population-based cohort study of mature adults aged 45 years and older living in rural communities in three districts in Malawi (Mchinji, Balaka and Rumphi). Initial enrollment at baseline is 1,266 individuals ...


2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, James G. Mcgann Jan 2020

2019 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) of the Lauder Institute at the University of Pennsylvania conducts research on the role policy institutes play in governments and civil societies around the world. Often referred to as the “think tanks’ think tank,” TTCSP examines the evolving role and character of public policy research organizations. Over the last 29 years, the TTCSP has developed and led a series of global initiatives that have helped bridge the gap between knowledge and policy in critical policy areas such as international peace and security, globalization and governance, international economics, environmental issues, information and society ...


The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Child Health In Sub-Saharan Africa, Fabrice Kämpfen Jan 2020

The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Child Health In Sub-Saharan Africa, Fabrice Kämpfen

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

In this study, I estimate the effects that mothers' experience of negative economic shocks during pregnancy or shortly after childbirth has on children's subjective and objective health measures in Malawi. Using data from the Malawi Longitudinal Study on Families and Health (MLSFH), I find that children whose mothers were hit by such economic shocks were about 7 percentage points less likely to be reported to be in excellent health and 8 percentage points less likely to be reported to be in much better health compared to children of the same age and sex in the same village by their ...


Family Change And Variation Through The Lens Of Family Configurations In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Andrés Felipe Castro Torres, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler, Frank F. Furstenberg Dec 2019

Family Change And Variation Through The Lens Of Family Configurations In Low- And Middle-Income Countries, Andrés Felipe Castro Torres, Luca Maria Pesando, Hans-Peter Kohler, Frank F. Furstenberg

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We show that the joint examination of family indicators offers new insights to understand family change across low- and middle-income countries. We operationalize this idea through the concept of family configuration. A family configuration is a confluence of interrelated conditions under which individuals form families. We measure family configurations using indicators for different dimensions of families: family forms and stability, gender relations, household structure, reproduction, and the timing of family formation events. We use data from 251 Demographic and Health Surveys disaggregated by urban and rural areas. Multiple Correspondence Analysis and clustering techniques allow us to summarize our 20 indicators ...


Does Sorting Matter For Learning Inequality? Evidence From East Africa, Paul Anand, Jere R. Behrman, Hai-Anh H. Dang, Sam Jones Dec 2019

Does Sorting Matter For Learning Inequality? Evidence From East Africa, Paul Anand, Jere R. Behrman, Hai-Anh H. Dang, Sam Jones

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Inequalities in children’s learning are widely recognized to arise from variations in both household and school-related factors. While few studies have considered the role of sorting between schools and households, even fewer have quantified how much sorting contributes to educational inequalities in low- and middle-income countries. We fill this gap using data on over 1 million children from three East African countries. Applying a novel variance decomposition procedure, our results indicate that sorting of pupils across schools accounts for at least 8 percent of the total test-score variance, equivalent to half a year of schooling or more. This contribution ...


Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones May 2019

Asean’S Human Rights Conundrum: An Analysis Of The Failures Of The Asean System For Promoting Human Rights, Dakota Jones

Honors Theses (PPE)

The ASEAN human rights system consists of a network of formal institutions such as the ASEAN Intergovernmental Commission Human Rights, documents such as the ASEAN Human Rights Declaration, and efforts to interact with regional civil society organizations. This system, which emerged in 2009, has come under intense scrutiny because the region’s human rights record has worsened since its inception. This paper examines the complex network of institutions, documents, and interactions between ASEAN member states and civil society organizations to determine the overall effectiveness of the organization’s efforts to safeguard human rights throughout the region. The paper begins with ...


Rhetorical Ruckus Or Supranational Legal Threat? A Comparative Analysis Of Far-Right Populism In Central And Eastern European Member States Of The European Union And Its Supranational Legal-Institutional Consequences, Stephen Imburgia Mar 2019

Rhetorical Ruckus Or Supranational Legal Threat? A Comparative Analysis Of Far-Right Populism In Central And Eastern European Member States Of The European Union And Its Supranational Legal-Institutional Consequences, Stephen Imburgia

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Many states around the globe, most particularly in Europe, have seen a resurgence of far-right populist parties in the years following the global financial crisis. In Central and Eastern Europe (C.E.E.), the domestic democratic backsliding exhibited by European Union Member States such as Hungary under the administration of Fidesz’s Viktor Orbán and Poland under the control of Law and Justice’s Mateusz Morawiecki have prompted many scholars and political observers to predict the worst for the European Union. However, while domestic sliding towards authoritarianism and a flouting of rhetorical norms is cause for alarm, the effect of ...


2019 European Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann Jan 2019

2019 European Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


States And Group Rights: Legal Pluralism And The Decentralization Of Judicial Power, Emma Hayward Jan 2019

States And Group Rights: Legal Pluralism And The Decentralization Of Judicial Power, Emma Hayward

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

When do states decentralize judicial power to ethnic and religious minority groups? This dissertation presents a theory to explain why states are willing to undertake significant transfers of power by lending their support to ascriptive, group-based law. It begins with a literature review of scholarship in comparative politics and public law, both of which argue, for different reasons, that because the judiciary is vital to the state’s coercive apparatus, property rights regime, and governing functions, we should not expect states to decentralize judicial power. Yet over half of the world’s states choose to officially engage with legal pluralism ...


Entrepreneurship In The Republic Of Moldova. Challenges And Recommendations., Cristina Pogorevici Jan 2019

Entrepreneurship In The Republic Of Moldova. Challenges And Recommendations., Cristina Pogorevici

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

This paper aims to analyze the challenges of entrepreneurship in the Republic of Moldova, including the special regions of Transnistria and Gagauzia. The main methodology of data collection used throughout this paper is qualitative semi-structured interviews with entrepreneurs, legislators, foundations, and investors in the various fields. Where relevant, data from the neighboring countries Romania and Ukraine will be used. Additionally, the research is supported by data, literature reviews and academic papers that provide a more macro-level perspective about the economic situation of Moldova.

The research is based on the hypothesis that Moldova’s human development index (HDI) could in fact ...


How To Live A Good Life And Afterlife: Conceptions Of Post-Mortem Existence And Practices Of Self-Cultivation In Early China, Ying Zhou Jan 2019

How To Live A Good Life And Afterlife: Conceptions Of Post-Mortem Existence And Practices Of Self-Cultivation In Early China, Ying Zhou

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

In the field of sinology, a widespread truism is that mind-body holism is a defining characteristic of early Chinese conception of human life. In this dissertation, we wish to demonstrate that contesting notions of life and death co-exist in early China, against the presumption that mind-body dualism never arises in early China. First, through examining elite burials from Western Zhou through the Han, we demonstrate how the diametrically opposed visions of the dead (that of an ancestral spirit who lacks eternal existence and that of an immortal with a transcended physical form) were seamlessly combined in the burial practices from ...


Rhotic Emphasis And Uvularization In Moroccan Arabic, Aaron Freeman Jan 2019

Rhotic Emphasis And Uvularization In Moroccan Arabic, Aaron Freeman

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This study investigates the phonological behavior of secondarily post-velarized (‘emphatic’) consonants in Colloquial Moroccan Arabic, focusing primarily on variant pronunciations of the approximant /r/ and the relationship of pharyngeal to uvular articulation. In certain contexts, /r/ independently exhibits phonetic characteristics similar to those of the primary ‘emphatic’ phonemes /ṭ ḍ ṣ/, and for many speakers a combination of borrowing and analogy has extended the context of emphatic variants outside of the original conditioning environment, resulting in a pattern of contrast that approaches phonemic status. Through analysis of interviews with individual speakers, I establish the parameters of phonetic and phonological variation ...


The Political Economy Of Amazon Deforestation: Subnational Development And The Uneven Reach Of The Colombian State, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo Jan 2019

The Political Economy Of Amazon Deforestation: Subnational Development And The Uneven Reach Of The Colombian State, Javier Revelo-Rebolledo

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

The recent peace process between the Colombian government and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) has prompted radical changes in the country’s Amazon region. A decrease in violence has been accompanied by an increase in deforestation, suggesting that good things do not always come together. My dissertation studies the political economy of Amazon deforestation through a cross-disciplinary analysis linking studies of modern state formation with tropical deforestation. As such, it offers an empirically grounded explanation for differential levels of deforestation in the Colombian Amazon. Employing a mixed-methods research strategy, I reviewed historical archives on regional development, interviewed more ...


Identity In The Wake Of The State: Local, National, And Supranational Dynamics Of The Syrian Conflict, Victoria Gilbert Jan 2019

Identity In The Wake Of The State: Local, National, And Supranational Dynamics Of The Syrian Conflict, Victoria Gilbert

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

While much of the civil war literature considers the impact religious or ethnic identities have on the character or duration of conflict, scholars have failed to address why different identities become salient in territories outside the state’s control. Using subnational case studies from the Syrian conflict, I claim that we must consider the interests and character of those actors who strive to attain authority and build governing institutions in the absence of the state. I find that civilian actors are more likely to promote local identities, such as clan, tribal, or city-based identities. Armed groups, however, are more likely ...


Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, And The Emotional Politics Of Race And Blackness In The U.S., Shantee Rosado Jan 2019

Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, And The Emotional Politics Of Race And Blackness In The U.S., Shantee Rosado

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Latinos are a large and growing population in the United States, which has prompted race and immigration scholars to theorize about Latinos’ chances at integration as well as their place in the U.S. racial hierarchy. Several researchers have argued that Puerto Ricans, Dominicans, and other Latinos are reshaping or changing how race is understood in the country by rejecting common understandings of race in the U.S. I argue that by focusing on racial self-identification rather than on racial beliefs, these claims oversell the ability of Latinos to affect the U.S. racial hierarchy. Instead, I examine Latinos’ racial ...


2018 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, James G. Mcgann Jan 2019

2018 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) of the Lauder Institute at the University of Pennsylvania conducts research on the role policy institutes play in governments and civil societies around the world. Often referred to as the “think tanks’ think tank,” TTCSP examines the evolving role and character of public policy research organizations. Over the last 27 years, the TTCSP has developed and led a series of global initiatives that have helped bridge the gap between knowledge and policy in critical policy areas such as international peace and security, globalization and governance, international economics, environmental issues, information and society ...


Youth Bilingualism, Identity And Quechua Language Planning And Policy In The Urban Peruvian Andes, Frances Julia Kvietok Dueñas Jan 2019

Youth Bilingualism, Identity And Quechua Language Planning And Policy In The Urban Peruvian Andes, Frances Julia Kvietok Dueñas

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Quechua language education and research has long been relegated to rural areas and elementary schools of the Andes. Nonetheless, current language policy in the southern Peruvian region of Cusco has opened new opportunities for Quechua, a minoritized Indigenous language, to be taught in cities and towns and in high schools. In this sociolinguistic context, this dissertation explores what it means for youth in the contemporary urban Andes to be speakers and learners of Quechua, as well as how youth influence the maintenance of Quechua in contexts of ongoing language shift to Spanish. Through a 20-month long ethnographic and participatory study ...


Evaluating The Impact Of Land Tenure Reform In Present-Day South Africa, Noah Katcher Sep 2018

Evaluating The Impact Of Land Tenure Reform In Present-Day South Africa, Noah Katcher

Social Impact Research Experience (SIRE)

Since the end of apartheid in South Africa, land tenure reform has been discussed ceaselessly as a critical action to restore lasting inequities from the nation’s segregated history. In recent months, South African President Cyril Ramaphosa has introduced a proposal for a constitutional amendment supporting expropriation without compensation, stirring controversy and revolt throughout the country and across the globe. As questions continue to rise regarding the value of land reform and best practices for implementation, this paper identifies the relevant stakeholders in the debate over land reform and details the potential impacts of a redistributive mandate. Broadly speaking, this ...


Putin's Chosen People: Theories Of Russian Jewish Policy, 2000-2017, Benjamin Parker Apr 2018

Putin's Chosen People: Theories Of Russian Jewish Policy, 2000-2017, Benjamin Parker

SPICE: Student Perspectives on Institutions, Choices and Ethics

Despite support from and for right-wing elements and a deep-seated national history of anti-Semitism, the policies of the Russian government under Vladimir Putin have been markedly devoid of anti-Semitism. Appeals to nationalist, imperialist, and Eurasianist ideologies, pragmatic politics, and foreign policy concerns fail to explain these policies adequately. The biography of Putin himself, which includes influential, positive relationships with Jews, provides a better explanation. The personalized influence of the president on Jewish policy suggests a personalized, hyper-centralized regime generally.


The Experience Of Managing Type Ii Diabetes Among Indigenous Maya In The Western Highlands Of Guatemala, Nubia Ortega Apr 2018

The Experience Of Managing Type Ii Diabetes Among Indigenous Maya In The Western Highlands Of Guatemala, Nubia Ortega

Anthropology Senior Theses

As part of the Guatemala Health Initiative program, I spent ten weeks in the Western Highlands of Guatemala in one of the towns surrounding the lake region: Santiago Atitlan. My research question was among indigenous Maya who have been diagnosed with type II diabetes in the Western highlands of Guatemala, what is their experience with diagnosis, treatment, and management of type II diabetes?

With assistance from the Hospitalito Atitlan, the primary referral hospital in the region, I conducted semi-structured interviews with a purposive sample of 41 people with diabetes. Patients were recruited from diabetes clubs at different health centers and ...


2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, James G. Mcgann Jan 2018

2017 Global Go To Think Tank Index Report, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global Go To Think Tank Index Reports

Background on the Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program

The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program (TTCSP) of the Lauder Institute at the University of Pennsylvania conducts research on the role policy institutes play in governments and civil societies around the world. Often referred to as the “think tanks’ think tank,” TTCSP examines the evolving role and character of public policy research organizations. Over the last 26 years, the TTCSP has developed and led a series of global initiatives that have helped bridge the gap between knowledge and policy in critical policy areas such as international peace and security, globalization ...


2018 Africa Think Tank Summit Report: Deepening Expertise And Enhancing Sustainability: Insights Into Contemporary Challenges Facing African Think Tanks, James G. Mcgann Jan 2018

2018 Africa Think Tank Summit Report: Deepening Expertise And Enhancing Sustainability: Insights Into Contemporary Challenges Facing African Think Tanks, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

OCP Policy Center and the Think Tank and Civil Societies Program of the University of Pennsylvania, with the support of the Moroccan International Cooperation Agency (AMCI), the Asian Development Bank hosted the 2018 Africa Think Tank Summit under the theme “Deepening Expertise and Enhancing Sustainability: Insight into Contemporary Challenges Facing African Think Tanks.”

The summit was held May 9-11th, 2018 at The View Hotel, Rabat, Morocco. The most influential and innovative think tanks in Africa gathered to discuss contemporary issues they are facing, such as the challenges of deepening expertise, the role of the media and the press in propelling ...


2018 Mena Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann Jan 2018

2018 Mena Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


2018 Latin America Think Tank Summit Report: Think Tanks: A Bridge Over Troubled Waters And Turbulent Times, James G. Mcgann Jan 2018

2018 Latin America Think Tank Summit Report: Think Tanks: A Bridge Over Troubled Waters And Turbulent Times, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

The Think Tanks and Civil Societies Program of the Lauder Institute at the University of Pennsylvania, CLAEH University and the Konrad Adenauer Stiftung hosted the 2018 Latin America Think Tank Summit under the theme “Think Tanks: A Bridge over Troubled Waters and Turbulent Times.”

The summit was held September 12-14th, 2018 at the Hilton Garden Inn Montevideo, Montevideo, Uruguay. The most influential and innovative think tanks in Latin America gathered to discuss contemporary issues they are facing, such as growing trade tensions, economic turbulence, climate change, mass migration, corruption and traditional and non-traditional security threats.

In a world where facts ...


2018 North American Think Tank Summit: Closing The Gap Between Knowledge, Policy And Good Governance In The Digital Age, James G. Mcgann Jan 2018

2018 North American Think Tank Summit: Closing The Gap Between Knowledge, Policy And Good Governance In The Digital Age, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


2018 Global Think Tank Summit: Think Tanks: A Bridge Over Troubled Waters And Turbulent Times, James G. Mcgann Jan 2018

2018 Global Think Tank Summit: Think Tanks: A Bridge Over Troubled Waters And Turbulent Times, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


2018 Asia Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann Jan 2018

2018 Asia Think Tank Summit, James G. Mcgann

TTCSP Global and Regional Think Tank Summit Reports

No abstract provided.


The Buddha’S Voice: Ritual Sound And Sensory Experience In Medieval Chinese Religious Practice, Kelsey Seymour Jan 2018

The Buddha’S Voice: Ritual Sound And Sensory Experience In Medieval Chinese Religious Practice, Kelsey Seymour

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

This dissertation explores Buddhist chanting practices in mainly the Tang dynasty (618–907 CE), showing that they were more than just one part of ritual practice: chanting could also be a type of music, an educational tool, a means for manipulating the supernatural, and a cure and cause of illness. Previous studies of chanting practices in Chinese Buddhism have addressed histories of transmission, doctrinal approaches, and made efforts to preserve melodies through notation. However, they do not necessarily capture how individuals who engaged in chanting experienced this practice. Therefore this dissertation aims to investigate this experience through accounts found in ...