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Full-Text Articles in Social and Behavioral Sciences

Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith Jul 2021

Escaped And Captured Slave Datasets From Newspapers In Jamaica, 1718-1795, Anthony Wood, Billy G. Smith

The Magazine of Early American Datasets (MEAD)

We created two datasets about fugitives and captives in eighteenth-century Jamaica, one of the most violent systems of racial bondage in the Atlantic World. To produce the first dataset as an Excel file, we organized and recorded information contained in hundreds of newspaper advertisements offering rewards for the return of escaped slaves in Jamaica between 1718 and 1795. While there are some gaps in the records because of missing newspapers, there are still a considerable number of advertisements included. One feature of the ads is that many identify the African ethnicity of runaway and captured slaves. The second dataset also ...


Changes In Subjective Versus Objective Well-Being In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi S. Imai, Raghav Gaiha May 2021

Changes In Subjective Versus Objective Well-Being In India, Vani S. Kulkarni, Veena S. Kulkarni, Katsushi S. Imai, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Although there is abundant literature on subjective well-being (SWB), there is virtually none for India. Growing recognition of the validity and accuracy of measures of SWB of well-being underlies the rapid growth of literature on SWB in recent decades but it has mainly focused on developed countries. Ours is, to our knowledge, the first study of SWB at the all-India level, and one of the few on developing countries, with a rigorous validation of the results. Applying robust OLS and ordered probit models to the India Human Development Survey (IHDS) panel data in 2005 and 2012, we assess SWB changes ...


Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen May 2021

Truth Commissions And Reparations: A Framework For Post-Conflict Justice In Argentina, Chile Guatemala, And Peru, Anthony Chen

Honors Theses (PPE)

This paper seeks to gauge the effectiveness of truth commissions and their links to creating material reparations programs through two central questions. First, are truth commissions an effective way to achieve justice after periods of conflict marked by mass or systemic human rights abuses by the government or guerilla groups? Second, do truth commissions provide a pathway to material reparations programs for victims of these abuses? It will outline the conceptual basis behind truth commissions, material reparations, and transitional justice. It will then engage in case studies and a comparative analysis of truth commissions and material reparations programs in four ...


Optimal Default Retirement Saving Policies: Theory And Evidence From Oregonsaves, Mingli Zhong Apr 2021

Optimal Default Retirement Saving Policies: Theory And Evidence From Oregonsaves, Mingli Zhong

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

I theoretically analyze and empirically identify the optimal default savings rate in automatic enrollment retirement saving plans. I derive a formula for the optimal default as a function of sufficient statistics that can be empirically identified. I estimate individual adherence to the default using exogenous increases in the default rate of OregonSaves, the first state-sponsored auto-enrollment plan in the U.S. I also use survey data to infer the degree of undersaving if workers actively switch to a non-default rate. Combining estimates from administrative and survey data with the optimal default formula, I find the optimal default is 7% of ...


The Role Of Public Trust In People's Subjective Well-Being, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha Apr 2021

The Role Of Public Trust In People's Subjective Well-Being, Vani S. Kulkarni, Raghav Gaiha

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Kenneth Arrow, perhaps the most influential economist after John Maynard Keynes in the 20th century, viewed trust as a lubricant that fosters cooperative behaviour and thus facilitates mutually advantageous economic exchanges in the presence of incomplete contracts and imperfect information. Recent research has confirmed the beneficial effects of trust in government on economic performance. The obverse, that an erosion of trust in public institutions (state, judiciary and police) has deleterious effects on economic performance, is equally true. Various recent accounts do not just corroborate an erosion of trust in governance, but also point to the imperative of strengthening it to ...


What Explains Low Old-Age Income? Evidence From The Health And Retirement Study, Olivia S. Mitchell, Robert Clark, Annamaria Lusardi Apr 2021

What Explains Low Old-Age Income? Evidence From The Health And Retirement Study, Olivia S. Mitchell, Robert Clark, Annamaria Lusardi

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

We examine respondents in the Health and Retirement Study (HRS) to observe how their financial situations unfolded as they aged. We focus on low income older adults and follow them over time to identify the factors associated with having low income at baseline and thereafter. We find that (a) real income remained relatively stable as individuals approach and enter retirement, and progress through their retirement years, and (b) labor force participation declined and thus earnings became less important with age, while Social Security and retirement savings rose as a proportion of annual income.


Demands For “Sisterly” Love: Exploring The Hyperpenalization Of Black Girls In The School District Of Philadelphia, Danielle Miles-Langaigne Apr 2021

Demands For “Sisterly” Love: Exploring The Hyperpenalization Of Black Girls In The School District Of Philadelphia, Danielle Miles-Langaigne

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

An immense amount of research, memos, and scholarship has surfaced in the last decade considering the school-to-prison pipeline and Black boys’ involuntary participation in it. Various education scholars have presented data emphasizing how Black male students are disproportionately punished–notably in ways that negatively impact their prospects for educational attainment, social mobility, and long-term empowerment. Many, however, fail to consider their close counterparts: Black girls. This thesis expands upon the Crenshaw, Ocen, and Nanda (2015) report to see if Black girls are also disproportionately penalized in Philadelphia public schools within the School District of Philadelphia (SDP) at higher rates relative ...


How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas Apr 2021

How Personally Relevant Cases Of Covid-19 Influence Individuals’ Level Of Concern Towards The Virus, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper presents the findings of a statistical analysis exploring the ways in which personally relevant cases of COVID-19 influence an individual's level of concern towards the virus. The analysis makes use of public opinion data collected throughout the pandemic by a market research company called Ipsos. This study conducts an OLS regression analysis using three different samples of data from three distinct periods of time during the pandemic. The paper addresses each component of the study's deductive approach, outlining everything from the initial hypothesis to the conclusions and broader implications. Ultimately, this study does show evidence that ...


Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe Apr 2021

Extended Minds: The Externalization And Expansion Of Human Minds Beyond The Body, Dmitri Wolfe

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Despite the commonly accepted notion that the mind is inseparable from the body, the extended mind hypothesis claims human minds can become linked with the world around us. Through various avenues such as spoken and written language, humans may use non-biological means to allow the mind to store, access, and communicate information in extended capacities not otherwise possible. Though the extended minds hypothesis may be viewed as a result of advancing technology, it makes up only a small part of the way in which externalization may occur. Everyday life is full of examples of extended minds, from computers and phones ...


Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas Apr 2021

Rejecting Ingrid Robeyns’ Defense Of Limitarianism, Timothy J. Nicklas

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

This paper critically evaluates the argument put forth by the philosopher Ingrid Robeyns in her work entitled What, if Anything, is Wrong with Extreme Wealth. Robeyns holds the Chair Ethics of Institutions at Utrecht University, and her academic research focuses on issues pertaining to contemporary political philosophy and applied ethics. In her aforementioned publication, Robeyns defends the political theory called limitarianism, which holds that there should be an upper limit to the amount of income that an individual can hold. Limitarianism, like many other political philosophies, presents a view of how resources ought to be distributed in society based, in ...


Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer Apr 2021

Corporate Limitarianism, Karl Meyer

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Ingrid Robeyns argues that there is a point at which increasing one’s income no longer increases one’s quality of life. Her argument states that given better uses for this money, namely restoring political equality and meeting urgent needs, it is morally wrong for individuals to have surplus money, which is money beyond that which is needed to live a good life. Therefore, Robeyns argues that surplus money should be taxed at a rate of 100%. The original argument only applies to individuals with excess wealth. However, there is no reason why it should be restricted only to people ...


Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman Apr 2021

Child Marriage: Characterization As A Noxious Market And Policy-Based Responses To Economic Motivations, Curtis Newman

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Child marriage is a human rights violation according to various international agreements and human rights conventions. In many countries the practice is outlawed, yet it persists with great incidence in both developed and developing societies. Governments must act to eliminate the practice which (1) results in physical and psychological individual harms for child brides; (2) perpetuates societal harms in the form of entrenched gender inequality and limited economic potential for women and for countries as a whole; (3) thrives on the exploitation of economic and agency vulnerabilities of a social class, namely young girls and women; and (4) threatens the ...


Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro Apr 2021

Digital Norms And Their Place In A Tech-Based Future, Joseph M. Squillaro

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

One impact of the technological revolution has been technology’s effects on social norms and the nudges needed to ensure efficiency and security in today’s “digitally required” world. I define these phenomena as digital norms and they inform interpersonal contact and tech-based choices. This paper looks specifically at norm interactions between Generation X and Generation Z. To test these digital norms and gauge their presence in both generations, this paper outlines a survey experiment of 50 people (25 Gen X and 25 Gen Z) and seeks to extrapolate assumptions on technology while providing policy recommendations. What was found was ...


A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu Apr 2021

A Letter From The Editor, Andrew Liu

Penn Journal of Philosophy, Politics & Economics

Letter from the Editor regarding the Spring 2021 edition


Investigating Bilateral And Regional Agreements To Accommodate Climate-Induced Migration, Rachel Steinig Apr 2021

Investigating Bilateral And Regional Agreements To Accommodate Climate-Induced Migration, Rachel Steinig

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

Climate change has already begun causing displacement. This isn’t a new problem: since 2008, an average of 24 million people have been displaced each year by catastrophic weather disasters. There are currently 70.1 million forcibly displaced people worldwide - this is the highest level on record ever. However, climate migrants are not considered refugees under international law, according to the definition of a refugee adopted in the 1951 Convention on Refugees, and thus lack legal protections. In my thesis I investigated the role of bilateral and regional agreements to provide protection and asylum for climate refugees. My research question ...


Evaluating Evo Morales: The Conflicts And Convergences Of Populism, Resource Nationalism, And Ethno-Environmentalism In Bolivia, Gillian Diebold Apr 2021

Evaluating Evo Morales: The Conflicts And Convergences Of Populism, Resource Nationalism, And Ethno-Environmentalism In Bolivia, Gillian Diebold

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

This thesis seeks to integrate existing scholarly frameworks of populism, resource nationalism, and ethno-environmentalism in order to create a comprehensive understanding of Morales and the MAS. From 2006 until 2019, President Evo Morales and the Movimiento al socialismo (MAS) led Bolivia to global prominence. Experts lauded Morales and the MAS for apparent development successes and democratic expansion in a nation long known for its chronic poverty and conflict. Still, by the time of his controversial resignation, several socioenvironmental conflicts had diminished his reputation as an ethno-environmental champion, revealing the tensions inherent in pursuing resource nationalist development in an ethnopopulist state ...


Own And Parents’ Schooling As Predictors Of Cognition: Findings From The Longitudinal Chilean Social Protection Survey, Irma T. Elo Professor, Jere R. Behrman, David Bravo, Sneha Mani, Alejandro Sanchez Beccara Apr 2021

Own And Parents’ Schooling As Predictors Of Cognition: Findings From The Longitudinal Chilean Social Protection Survey, Irma T. Elo Professor, Jere R. Behrman, David Bravo, Sneha Mani, Alejandro Sanchez Beccara

Wharton Pension Research Council Working Papers

A large literature on the predictive powers of own schooling, and increasingly one’s parents’ schooling on cognitive and physical health of aging individuals focuses on high-income countries. There is a paucity of studies for other contexts, including Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). We use data from the longitudinal Chilean Social Protection Survey to investigate associations between one’s own schooling, one’s parents’ schooling, childhood family economic status and cognition of aging adults in a country that differs substantially from the U.S. and from other LAC countries. We further test whether these associations differ by gender. Our ...


Change And Variation In Couples' Earnings Equality Following Parenthood, Kelly Musick, Pilar Gonalons-Pons, Christine Schwartz Mar 2021

Change And Variation In Couples' Earnings Equality Following Parenthood, Kelly Musick, Pilar Gonalons-Pons, Christine Schwartz

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Couples’ earnings equality declines substantially following a first birth, when time commitments at home and on the labor market diverge. In the context of broad increases in gender equality and growing socioeconomic disparities along various dimensions of family life, we examine changes in within-family earnings equality following parenthood and the extent to which they have played out differently by mothers’ education. Our analysis relies on links between rich surveys and administrative tax records that provide high quality earnings data for husbands and wives spanning two years before and up to 10 years following cohorts of first births from the 1980s ...


Vote Mirages In The 2020 Election: How Vote-By-Mail Policies Impact The Reporting Of Election Results, Bayley Tuch Mar 2021

Vote Mirages In The 2020 Election: How Vote-By-Mail Policies Impact The Reporting Of Election Results, Bayley Tuch

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

As Americans went to bed on November 3rd, 2020, it appeared our country was heading towards a second term for President Donald Trump. He was leading in many of the important swing states that Joe Biden would eventually win. Trump's disproportionate lead in these states early in the vote count, also called a red mirage, became the subject of scrutiny in the weeks and months following the election. In this thesis, I aim to understand how vote-by-mail (VBM) policies impacted the reporting of election results and caused vote mirages. To evaluate whether VBM policies had an impact, I analyzed ...


Rugged Individualism In American Political Thought, Sophia Landress Mar 2021

Rugged Individualism In American Political Thought, Sophia Landress

CUREJ - College Undergraduate Research Electronic Journal

After Herbert Hoover used the term “rugged individualism” in his 1928 campaign speech, the phrase became a cornerstone of American politics, advanced in the 1930s in opposition to social liberalism and New Deal collectivism. This thesis explores the political rhetoric and policy platforms that dominated the Depression era, mapping a spectrum of ideologies that displays the nuanced similarities and differences among and between the various political camps. Discourse between Presidents Herbert Hoover and Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the two main figures in the political debate about government interventionism at the time, represented the pinnacle of the controversy. The examination of these ...


The Great Transition: Kuznets Facts For Family-Economists, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Ricardo Marto Mar 2021

The Great Transition: Kuznets Facts For Family-Economists, Jeremy Greenwood, Nezih Guner, Ricardo Marto

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

The 20th century beheld a dramatic transformation of the family. Some Kuznets style facts regarding structural change in the family are presented. Over the course of the 20th century in the United States fertility declined, educational attainment waxed, housework fell, leisure increased, jobs shifted from blue to white collar, and marriage waned. These trends are also observed in the cross- country data. A model is developed, and then calibrated, to address the trends in the US data. The calibration procedure is closely connected to the underlying economic logic. Three drivers of the great transition are considered: neutral technological progress, skilled-biased ...


The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Adolescents’ Cognitive Health And Educational Attainment In Malawi, Fabrice Kämpfen, Fatima Zahra, Hans-Peter Kohler, Rachel Kidman Mar 2021

The Effects Of Negative Economic Shocks At Birth On Adolescents’ Cognitive Health And Educational Attainment In Malawi, Fabrice Kämpfen, Fatima Zahra, Hans-Peter Kohler, Rachel Kidman

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

We provide new evidence of the effects of moderate negative economic shocks in utero or shortly after birth on adolescents’ cognitive outcomes and educational attainment in Malawi. This is the first study in a sub-Saharan African (SSA) low-income country (LIC) to analyze the effect of not one, but multiple moderate negative economic shocks. This focus is important as multiple economic shocks in early life are more representative of the experiences of adolescents in LICs. Combining data on adolescents aged 10-16 from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) project of the Malawi Longitudinal Study on Families and Health (MLSFH) (N = 1, 559 ...


Curtailing Covid-19 On A Dollar-A-Day In Malawi: Implications For The Ongoing Pandemic, Iliana V. Kohler, Fabrice Kämpfen, Alberto Ciancio, James Mwera, Victor Mwapasa, Hans-Peter Kohler Mar 2021

Curtailing Covid-19 On A Dollar-A-Day In Malawi: Implications For The Ongoing Pandemic, Iliana V. Kohler, Fabrice Kämpfen, Alberto Ciancio, James Mwera, Victor Mwapasa, Hans-Peter Kohler

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Utilizing population-based data from the COVID-19 phone survey (N=2,262$) of the Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH) collected during June 2nd--August 17th, 2020, we investigate behavioral, economic and social responses COVID-19 and focus on the crucial role that community leadership and trust in institutions play towards shaping these responses. We argue that the effective response of Malawi to limit the spread of the virus was facilitated by the engagement of local leaders to mobilize communities to adapt and adhere to COVID-19 prevention strategies. Village heads (VHs) played pivotal role in shaping individual's knowledge about the ...


Family Companionship And Elderly Suicide: Evidence From The Chinese Lunar New Year, Hanming Fang, Ziteng Lei, Liguo Lin, Peng Zhang Mar 2021

Family Companionship And Elderly Suicide: Evidence From The Chinese Lunar New Year, Hanming Fang, Ziteng Lei, Liguo Lin, Peng Zhang

Population Center Working Papers (PSC/PARC)

Mental health problems among the elderly have attracted increasing attention. The most serious mental health problems may result in suicide, and lack of family companionship is often speculated to be a major cause. In this paper, we use high-frequency suicide rate data and utilize a novel temporal variation in the lunisolar calendar to provide evidence on the protective effects of the Chinese Lunar New Year (when the elderly people receive unusually high level of family companionship) on elderly suicide. We find that elderly suicide rate decreases by 8.7% during the Chinese Lunar New Year. In addition, the protective effects ...


Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson Mar 2021

Women Water Leaders In The Making: South Asian Water Leadership Programme On Climate Change, Sreenita Mondal, Mansee Bal Bhargava, Mélanie Robertson

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

The South Asia Consortium for Interdisciplinary Water Resources Studies (Saci- WATERs) a water policy research institute based in Hyderabad, India, launched the South Asian Water (SAWA) Leadership Programme on climate change in 2017. The SaciWATERs is hosting the programme in collaboration with four partner engineering institutes from four South Asian countries, and with funding support from the International Development Research Centre (IDRC), Canada. This academic-oriented programme is aimed at facilitating the creation of a group of interdisciplinary women leaders in South Asia that share a common understanding of the crosscutting scientific and societal issues of water resource management. The four-year ...


Understanding Barriers And Challenges For Women’S Access To Water In Northern Rwanda, Megan Swanson, Helina Alvarez, Amber Sample, Brett Bruyere Mar 2021

Understanding Barriers And Challenges For Women’S Access To Water In Northern Rwanda, Megan Swanson, Helina Alvarez, Amber Sample, Brett Bruyere

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Clean drinking water and sanitation have been acknowledged as basic human needs and rights by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly. According to the UN, water must be sufficient, affordable, physically accessible, and safe in order to meet human needs. In this study, a survey and a Water Source Mapping participatory method were employed to investigate a sample of Rwandan women’s access to water. Two hundred and seven (207) women were surveyed regarding water use and access, and results were compared based on education levels and membership in income-earning cooperatives operated by a local organization, the Gorilla Guardians Village ...


Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff Mar 2021

Eleanor Allen: On A Mission To Provide Safe Water For Everyone, Forever, Wh2o Staff

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Eleanor Allen is a global water expert dedicated to helping millions of people access the safe and sustainable water and sanitation services needed to save lives, stay healthy, earn more money, and thrive. Eleanor is fiercely passionate about improving the state of the world with respect to water and sanitation. She has dedicated her career to this goal, first as a Peace Corps volunteer in the Dominican Republic, then as a consulting engineer (at CH2M/Jacobs and Arcadis), and now as the CEO of Water For People. Eleanor has lived and worked all over the world. As a professional civil ...


Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale Mar 2021

Addressing Women’S Sanitation-Related Safety Concerns In Slums Of Maharashtra, India, Mehul Banka, Pratima Joshi, Smita Kale

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Through this paper we explore women’s vulnerability during sanitation activities and the impact that household toilets have on women’s safety-related concerns. This study covers 4 cities in the state of Maharashtra– Pune, Pimpri- Chinchwad, Thane, and Kolhapur - where Shelter Associates has provided many slum households with toilets under its One Home One Toilet (OHOT) programme. A good part of the programme’s intention is to offer women an alternative to using their existing, inadequate public sanitation facilities, a problem that was highlighted during discussions with slum women themselves. Shelter Associates is a Maharashtra-based NGO established in 1993 that ...


Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick Mar 2021

Pushing Forward In The Changing Water Sector: An Interview With Kishia L. Powell, Coo, Dc Water, Abigail Drabick

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Kishia Powell is a licensed Professional Engineer in the District of Columbia, Virginia and Maryland. She holds a Bachelor of Science degree in Civil Engineering from Morgan State University’s Clarence M. Mitchell, Jr. School of Engineering. Currently, Powell is Chief Operating Officer at DC Water, where she manages 80% of the water authority’s resources. With over 22 years of experience, Kishia Powell sheds light on the value of water, her experience as a leader and a woman in the water utilities industry, the COVID-19 pandemic, and climate change in this interview with The Journal of Gender and Water ...


Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos Mar 2021

Here, There, And Everywhere: The Problem With Microplastics In Water And What Women Scientists Are Doing To Solve It, Pamela Lazos

wH2O: The Journal of Gender and Water

Plastics — ubiquitous material we cannot seem to live without — are everywhere, but sadly we cannot live with plastics either, at least not peaceably, especially when you consider there will be more plastics in the ocean than fish by 2050. In the intervening years, the photodegradation of plastic resulting in microplastics pollution will be an even bigger problem, affecting every living creature in the ocean, and by extrapolation, mankind. The choices we make and the steps we take to combat the overabundance of plastics in our environment will dictate not just the next 30 years, but the fate of the world ...