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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Surface Core-Level Shifts And Atomic Coordination At A Stepped W(110) Surface, D. Mark Riffe, B. Kim, J. L. Erskine, N. D. Shinn Nov 1994

Surface Core-Level Shifts And Atomic Coordination At A Stepped W(110) Surface, D. Mark Riffe, B. Kim, J. L. Erskine, N. D. Shinn

All Physics Faculty Publications

Core-level 4f7/2 photoemission spectra have been measured from a single, bifacial W crystal, which has both a flat W(110) and a vicinal, stepped W(110) [W(320)] surface. This procedure reduces uncertainties in the quantitative description of peaks in the spectra from W(320). Various analyses, including nonlinear least-squares curve fitting, show that the average surface core-level shift (SCS) for W(320) is only ∼-140 meV, compared to -310 meV for W(110) and that, at a maximum, only two of five terrace rows are isoelectronic to W(110) surface atoms. The absence of a large SCS ...


Time-Resolved Electron Temperature Measurement In A Highly-Excited Gold Target Usingfemtosecond Thermionic Emission, W. Y. Wang, D. Mark Riffe, Y. S. Lee, M. C. Downer Sep 1994

Time-Resolved Electron Temperature Measurement In A Highly-Excited Gold Target Usingfemtosecond Thermionic Emission, W. Y. Wang, D. Mark Riffe, Y. S. Lee, M. C. Downer

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We report direct measurement of hot-electron temperatures and relaxation dynamics for peak electron temperatures between 3400 and 11 000 K utilizing two-pulse-correlation femtosecond (fs) thermionic emission. The fast relaxation times (<1.5 ps) are described by extending RT characterizations of the thermal conductivity, electron-phonon coupling, and electronic specific heat to these high electron temperatures.


Convection In Chemical Waves, D. A. Vasquez, J. M. Littley, J. W. Wilder, Boyd F. Edwards Jul 1994

Convection In Chemical Waves, D. A. Vasquez, J. M. Littley, J. W. Wilder, Boyd F. Edwards

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We present a theory for the vertical propagation of chemical waves near the onset of convection. Fluid motion, coupled to a standard reaction-diffusion mechanism for chemical wave propagation, determines the speed and shape of the reaction front in a two-dimensional slab. Our model is compared with experiments in capillary tubes. For tilted and horizontal tubes, fluid motion is always present with a corresponding increase in front speed.


Surface Core-Level Shifts Of Ta(110) And W(110) Vs. Alkali-Atom Coverage: Implications For Thealkali-Substrate Interaction, A. B. Andrews, D. Mark Riffe, G. K. Wertheim Mar 1994

Surface Core-Level Shifts Of Ta(110) And W(110) Vs. Alkali-Atom Coverage: Implications For Thealkali-Substrate Interaction, A. B. Andrews, D. Mark Riffe, G. K. Wertheim

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The change in the average surface-atom core-level shift (SCS) produced by submonolayer coverages of alkali adsorbates is quite small for both Ta(110) and W(110), less than 45 meV in magnitude. The small change of the measured SCS’s as a function of coverage decisively supports the covalent-bonding picture of alkali adsorption proposed by Ishida and Terakura.


Nature Of The Charge Localized Between Alkali Adatoms And Metal Substrates, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe, P. H. Citrin Feb 1994

Nature Of The Charge Localized Between Alkali Adatoms And Metal Substrates, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe, P. H. Citrin

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Two previously unappreciated features in photoemission spectra from alkali atoms adsorbed on W(110), namely, the sign of the alkali-induced surface-atom core-level shift of the substrate at low coverage and the very large alkali shallow core-hole lifetime width at all coverages, show that the alkali-substrate interaction is not well described by a transfer of alkali charge. Instead, both features point to the formation of a charge cloud between the alkali adatom and substrate that is derived largely from alkali valence states.


Anharmonic Surface Vibrations In Photoemission From Alkali Metals, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe, P. H. Citrin Jan 1994

Anharmonic Surface Vibrations In Photoemission From Alkali Metals, G. K. Wertheim, D. Mark Riffe, P. H. Citrin

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The phonon widths of outermost core-electron photoemission spectra from (110)-oriented overlayers of Na, K, and Rb metals show the expected Debye behavior for the bulk atoms, but significant deviations for the surface atoms. The data indicate a softening of the surface vibrational mode above 200 K. This effect, which is weak in Na but strong in K and Rb, demonstrates that the vibrational mode normal to the surface is anharmonic.


Theoretical Study Of Polar Cap Arcs: Time-Dependent Model And Its Applications, Lie Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, D. J. Crain Jan 1994

Theoretical Study Of Polar Cap Arcs: Time-Dependent Model And Its Applications, Lie Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, D. J. Crain

All Physics Faculty Publications

A time-dependent theoretical model of polar cap arcs developed during the Coupling, Energetics, and Dynamics of Atmospheric Regions/High-Latitude Plasma Structures (CEDAR/HLPS) campaigns in the past two years is briefly described. In the model the electrodynamics of the polar cap arcs are treated self-consistently in the frame of the coupled magnetosphere-ionosphere system. The preliminary simulation results of the temporal evolution and spatial structure of the polar cap arcs for both winter and summer conditions are presented. The model can be used to conduct both the model-observation study of specific features of the polar cap arcs and the quantitative theoretical ...


Effect Of High Latitude Ionospheric Convection On Sun-Aligned Polar Caps, Jan Josef Sojka, Lie Zhu, D. J. Crain, Robert W. Schunk Jan 1994

Effect Of High Latitude Ionospheric Convection On Sun-Aligned Polar Caps, Jan Josef Sojka, Lie Zhu, D. J. Crain, Robert W. Schunk

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A coupled magnetospheric-ionospheric (M-I) MHD model has been used to simulate the formation of Sun-aligned polar cap arcs for a variety of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) dependent polar cap convection fields. The formation process involves launching an Alfvén shear wave from the magnetosphere to the ionosphere where the ionospheric conductance can react self-consistently to changes in the upward currents. We assume that the initial Alfvén shear wave is the result of solar wind-magnetosphere interactions. The simulations show how the E region density is affected by the changes in the electron precipitation that are associated with the upward currents. These changes ...


Patches In The Polar Ionosphere: Ut And Seasonal Dependence, Jan Josef Sojka, M. D. Bowline, Robert W. Schunk Jan 1994

Patches In The Polar Ionosphere: Ut And Seasonal Dependence, Jan Josef Sojka, M. D. Bowline, Robert W. Schunk

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The seasonal and UT dependencies of patches in the polar ionosphere are simulated using the Utah State University time dependent ionospheric model (TDIM). Patch formation is achieved by changing the plasma convection pattern in response to temporal changes in the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component during periods of southward IMF. This mechanism redirects the plasma flow from the dayside high-density region, which is the source of the tongue of ionization (TOI) density feature, through the throat and leads to patches, rather than a continuous TOI. The model predicts that the patches are absent at winter solstice (northern hemisphere ...


Modelling Sun-Aligned Polar Cap Arcs, D. J. Crain, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, Lie Zhu Jan 1994

Modelling Sun-Aligned Polar Cap Arcs, D. J. Crain, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, Lie Zhu

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We present results of a new model of the time-dependent ionospheric response to a generalized steady state Sun-aligned (SA) arc structure. The thermal and plasma structure of a “prototype” arc is compared to the general features of observed SA arcs. We find that the general features of electron density, Ne , electron temperature, Te , and ion temperature, Ti , are determined by the distribution of the particle precipitation and E × B convection associated with the SA arc. The model results are extended to predict the possible variation of Ne, Te , and Ti due to such arcs ...


Photoemission Measurement Of Equilibrium Segregation At Gesi Surfaces, J. E. Rowe, D. Mark Riffe, G. K. Wertheim, J. C. Bean Jan 1994

Photoemission Measurement Of Equilibrium Segregation At Gesi Surfaces, J. E. Rowe, D. Mark Riffe, G. K. Wertheim, J. C. Bean

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Photoemission spectroscopy is used to demonstrate that Ge segregates to the first atomic layer of Ge0.5Si0.5(100)2×1 and that the second layer is predominantly Si. Comparison of the resolved signals from the dimer atoms of the reconstructed (100)2×1 surfaces of Ge, Si, and equiatomic Ge‐Si alloy shows that the surface layer of the alloy is extremely Ge rich and the second layer is occupied mainly by Si atoms. This result is in good agreement with theoretical predictions.


Magnetospheric Shortcomings In Ionospheric-Magnetospheric Coupling: An Ionospheric Perspective, Jan Josef Sojka Jan 1994

Magnetospheric Shortcomings In Ionospheric-Magnetospheric Coupling: An Ionospheric Perspective, Jan Josef Sojka

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The ionosphere, on a global scale, is reasonably well understood from a climatology perspective. However, the storm dynamics of the ionosphere are not fully understood. This partly arises from the complex response function of the Thermosphere-Ionosphere(T-I) system but also from the uncertainty in the space and time dynamics of the magnetospheric inputs to the ionosphere. In the context of M-I coupling, the ionosphere responds to magnetospheric electrodynamic forcing by altering the conductivity in the ionosphere and by plasma transport. Phenomenologically,we understand how to let the ionospheric conductivity evolve in response to local precipitation and how to transport plasma ...


Model Study Of Multiple Polar Cap Arcs: Occurrence And Spacing, Lie Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, D. J. Crain Jan 1994

Model Study Of Multiple Polar Cap Arcs: Occurrence And Spacing, Lie Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, D. J. Crain

All Physics Faculty Publications

A new scenario for the formation of multiple polar cap arcs is proposed based on the results from a time‐dependent electrodynamic model of polar cap arcs developed by Zhu et al. [1993]. The results suggest that the appearance of multiple polar cap arcs may not be due to multiple structures in the magnetospheric source region, but instead, may primarily be determined by the coupled magnetosphere‐ionosphere system in which the ionosphere plays an active role. It was found that with the same magnetospheric driver, a strong ionospheric background convection and an ionospheric background Hall conductance in the range of ...


Ionospheric Response To The Sustained High Geomagnetic Activity During The March '89 Great Storm, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, W. F. Denig Jan 1994

Ionospheric Response To The Sustained High Geomagnetic Activity During The March '89 Great Storm, Jan Josef Sojka, Robert W. Schunk, W. F. Denig

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A simulation was conducted to model the high-latitude ionospheric response to the sustained level of high geomagnetic activity for the great magnetic storm period of March 13-14, 1989. The geomagnetic and solar activity indices and the DMSP F8 and F9 satellite data for particle precipitation and high-latitude convection were used as inputs to a time-dependent ionospheric model (TDIM). The results of the TDIM were compared to both DMSP plasma density data and ground-based total electron content (TEC) measurements for the great storm period as well as with earlier storm observations. The comparisons showed that the overall structure of the high-latitude ...


Ionospheric Response To Traveling Convection Twin Vortices, Robert W. Schunk, Lie Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka Jan 1994

Ionospheric Response To Traveling Convection Twin Vortices, Robert W. Schunk, Lie Zhu, Jan Josef Sojka

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Traveling convection twin vortices have been observed for several years. At ionospheric altitudes, the twin vortices correspond to spatially localized, transient structures embedded in a large‐scale background convection pattern. The convection vortices are typically observed in the morning and evening regions. They are aligned predominantly in the east‐west direction and have a horizontal extent of from 500–1000 km. Associated with the twin vortices are enhanced electric fields, particle precipitation, and an upward/downward field‐aligned current pair. Once formed, the twin vortex structures propagate in the tailward direction at speeds of several km/s, but they weaken ...