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Articles 121 - 141 of 141

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Humidity And Temperature Boundaries For Biofilm Formation In Yucca Mountain, Terry Ann Else, Penny S. Amy, James Jay, Amy J. Smiecinski May 2002

Humidity And Temperature Boundaries For Biofilm Formation In Yucca Mountain, Terry Ann Else, Penny S. Amy, James Jay, Amy J. Smiecinski

Publications (YM)

To determine the long-term success of the recommended Yucca Mountain high-level nuclear waste repository, studies of bacterial colonization and biofilm development are needed. Bacteria involved in microbially-influenced corrosion and degradation are known to form biofilms with the potential to impact the integrity of repository packaging and structural materials. Temperature and humidity are environmental factors that can greatly affect biofilm formation. Therefore, it is necessary to determine the temperature and humidity conditions that affect biofilm formation. Microcosms, which simulated the repository environment of Yucca Mountain, were placed at temperatures ranging from 30° C to 70° C and in relative humidities ranging ...


The Fission Properties Of Curium Separated From Spent Nuclear Fuel, William Culbreth, Elizabeth Bakker, Jason Viggato Apr 2002

The Fission Properties Of Curium Separated From Spent Nuclear Fuel, William Culbreth, Elizabeth Bakker, Jason Viggato

Separations Campaign (TRP)

Curium poses special problems in the chemical preparation of spent nuclear fuel for transmutation. Once separated from the other minor actinides, the seven curium isotopes in spent fuel can lead to nuclear fission with the subsequent release of a large amount of radiation. Several isotopes of curium also generate a significant amount of heat by radioactive decay. Sustained fission can be avoided by preventing the accumulation by more that a critical mass of curium. The heat generation of curium presents even more restriction on the mass of curium that can safely be contained in one location.

To analyze the nuclear ...


Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle: Quarterly Report, William Culbreth, Pang Tao Apr 2002

Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle: Quarterly Report, William Culbreth, Pang Tao

Separations Campaign (TRP)

During the first two quarters of the work, the tasks included training students in the use of Monte Carlo codes used in radiation transport studies and the assessment of neutron multiplication factors for specific problems outlined by ANL-East through Drs. Laidler and Vandegrift.

The proposal also included objectives for the first year of work on this project, as listed below. The work conducted in the second quarter of the project was in partial completion of these objectives.

• Train UNLV students in the use of SCALE and/or MCNP for the assessment of nuclear criticality.

• Assess neutron multiplication factor, keff ...


Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth Apr 2002

Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The national development of technology to transmute nuclear waste depends upon the generation of high energy neutrons produced by proton spallation. Proton accelerators, such as LANSCE at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, are capable of producing 800 MeV protons. By bombarding a lead/bismuth target, each proton may generate 500 or more neutrons that can activate fission products or induce the fission of transuranic isotopes.

The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX developed at LANL is an important tool in the design of transmuter technology. It must be validated, however, for the neutron energy that will be employed. Experiments are ...


Nuclear Criticality, Shielding, And Thermal Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Denis Beller Jan 2002

Nuclear Criticality, Shielding, And Thermal Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Denis Beller

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The remediation of nuclear waste created by conventional fission reactors will rely upon the separation of the waste products for further treatment. The UREX+ process now under review will involve the use of an aqueous chemical process to separate out depleted uranium resulting in a product containing minor actinides, fission products, cesium, strontium, technetium, and iodine. The radioactive decay of strontium and cesium produces roughly half of the thermal and gamma production in spent fuel and the relatively short halflife of isotopes of both of these elements requires storage for about 300 years before heat and radiation decreases to safe ...


Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Pang Tao, Denis Beller Jan 2002

Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Pang Tao, Denis Beller

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The separation and partitioning of used commercial reactor fuel is a vital component of any reprocessing or transmutation strategy. To process the high actinide fuels required for a transmutation effort, the Chemical Technology Division (CMT) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) is developing a pyrochemical separations process. Currently, this work is being done via small experiments. While this is more than sufficient to develop the technologies required to process actinide-bearing fuels, it does not allow for the direct investigation of criticality concerns that would be present in larger systems. As the volume of waste to be treated increases, a higher probability ...


Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Of Target/Blanket Materials, Carter D. Hull, William H. Johnson Jan 2002

Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Of Target/Blanket Materials, Carter D. Hull, William H. Johnson

Transmutation Sciences Physics (TRP)

To begin developing the database necessary for the validation and benchmarking of the LAHET component of the MCNPX code suite, the UNLV research program has set forth the following objectives. First, the current MCNPX suite will be used to develop models of multi-element neutron detector systems. These models of the detector systems will be incorporated into the design of detailed models for the entire detector-target system. These models will first be used to help design the irradiation experiments, and then will be used to model the behavior of the system. Irradiation experiments corresponding to the detector-target system models will be ...


An Interdatabase Comparison Of Nuclear Decay And Structure Data Utilized In The Calculation Of Dose Coefficients For Radionuclides Produced In A Spallation Neutron Source, John P. Shanahan, K. Eckerman, A. Arndt, C. Gold, Phillip W. Patton, Mark Rudin, R. Brey, T. Gesell, V. Rusetski, S. Pagava Jan 2002

An Interdatabase Comparison Of Nuclear Decay And Structure Data Utilized In The Calculation Of Dose Coefficients For Radionuclides Produced In A Spallation Neutron Source, John P. Shanahan, K. Eckerman, A. Arndt, C. Gold, Phillip W. Patton, Mark Rudin, R. Brey, T. Gesell, V. Rusetski, S. Pagava

Transmutation Sciences Physics (TRP)

Internal and external dose coefficient values have been calculated for 14 anthropogenic radionuclides which are not currently presented in Federal Guidance Reports Nos. 11, 12, and 13 or Publications 68 and 72 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. Internal dose coefficient values are reported for inhalation and ingestion of 1 μm and 5 μm AMAD particulates along with the f1 values and absorption types for the adult worker. Internal dose coefficient values are also reported for inhalation and ingestion of 1 μm AMAD particulates as well as the f1 values and absorption types for members of the ...


Project Continuation Proposal: Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project, William Culbreth Jan 2002

Project Continuation Proposal: Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project, William Culbreth

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The AAA program will rely on the use of an accelerator-based transmuter1 to expose spent nuclear fuel to high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux will be sufficient to activate or fission the long-lived isotopes of Tc, I, Pu, Am, Cm, and Np that present a significant radiological hazard in commercial spent fuel. Transmuter fuel will be subcritical and a high-energy proton accelerator is needed to maintain the necessary neutron flux through the use of a neutron spallation target. The maximum neutron energy produced by spallation (~ 800 MeV) is significantly higher than that produced by a commercial light water reactor (~ 2 MeV ...


Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments, William Culbreth, Denis Beller Jan 2002

Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments, William Culbreth, Denis Beller

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

In the first year of the UNLV effort, researchers planned to develop the models of the experimental systems to predict the neutron flux and leakage from the experimental targets using the MCNPX code suite in order to help determine these missing parameters. To support these models, the researchers project, or estimate, values for the unknown parameters describing various events and phenomena occurring within the beam-target experiment. The results of these simulations will then be compared against the observed neutron leakage rates and energies. The estimates for the unknown parameters are then revised to correlate with the observed values (these parameters ...


Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth, Pang Tao Dec 2001

Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth, Pang Tao

Separations Campaign (TRP)

During the first quarter of the work, the tasks included training students in the use of Monte Carlo codes used in radiation transport studies and the assessment of neutron multiplication factors for specific problems outlined by ANL-East through Drs. Laidler and Vandegrift.

The proposal also included objectives for the first year of work on this project, as listed below. The work conducted in the first quarter of the project was in partial completion of these objectives.

• Train UNLV students in the use of SCALE and/or MCNP for the assessment of nuclear criticality.

• Assess neutron multiplication factor, keff, for ...


Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth Dec 2001

Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project: Quaterly Report, William Culbreth

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The national development of technology to transmute nuclear waste depends upon the generation of high energy neutrons produced by proton spallation. Proton accelerators, such as LANSCE at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, are capable of producing 800 MeV protons. By bombarding a lead/bismuth target, each proton may generate 500 or more neutrons that can activate fission products or induce the fission of transuranic isotopes.

The Monte Carlo radiation transport code MCNPX developed at LANL is an important tool in the design of transmuter technology. It must be validated, however, for the neutron energy that will be employed. Experiments are ...


Assessment Of Criticality Safety For Cylindrical Containers To Be Used In The Processing Of Spent Fuel, William Culbreth, Daniel R. Lowe, Jason Viggato Oct 2001

Assessment Of Criticality Safety For Cylindrical Containers To Be Used In The Processing Of Spent Fuel, William Culbreth, Daniel R. Lowe, Jason Viggato

Separations Campaign (TRP)

The UREX process separates uranium from transuranic wastes (TRU) and fission products (FP). Nuclear reactors require fissile isotopes that will absorb neutrons and break apart into smaller nuclei while releasing a large amount of energy as well as multiple neutrons. Fissile isotopes in spent fuel include not only 235U, but also 239Pu, 241Pu, and several isotopes of americium (Am) and curium (Cm).

TRU contains the actinides with atomic numbers greater than that of uranium. This includes Pu, Np, Am, and Cm. When TRU is separated from uranium, the TRU still poses a significant risk of sustaining a ...


University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Advanced Accelerator Applications University Participation Program: Quarterly Report, Second Quarter (June To August 2001), Anthony Hechanova Oct 2001

University Of Nevada, Las Vegas Advanced Accelerator Applications University Participation Program: Quarterly Report, Second Quarter (June To August 2001), Anthony Hechanova

Transmutation Research Program Reports (TRP)

This Quarterly Report is a primary deliverable from the University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) University Participation Program (UPP) Director to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) as described in the UNLV AAA proposal.

The UNLV AAA UPP Director implements the program’s administration using staff from the Harry Reid Center for Environmental Studies (HRC) to ensure that work conducted under the UNLV AAA UPP meets program objectives. The UNLV AAA UPP consists of three components: Program Administration, Research Infrastructure Augmentation, and Student Research.


Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Pang Tao Aug 2001

Nuclear Criticality Analyses Of Separations Processes For The Transmutation Fuel Cycle, William Culbreth, Pang Tao

Separations Campaign (TRP)

To mitigate the waste created by conventional fission reactors, spent nuclear fuel must be mechanically separated from its cladding. For the development of fuel processing technology to support the Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA) Program, aqueous and pyrochemical processes will be used to further separate technetium and iodine, uranium and the higher actinides (see Figure 1 for an example of the process layout)1. The higher actinides, including plutonium, americium, curium, and neptunium will be separated from the waste to facilitate their fabrication into new fuel for placement in a transmuter. High-energy neutrons generated by spallation in the transmuter break down ...


Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project, William Culbreth Aug 2001

Radiation Transport Modeling Of Beam-Target Experiments For The Aaa Project, William Culbreth

Reactor Campaign (TRP)

The AAA program will rely on the use of an accelerator-based transmuter to expose spent nuclear fuel to high-energy neutrons. The neutron flux will be sufficient to activate or fission the long-lived isotopes of Tc, I, Pu, Am, Cm, and Np that present a significant safety hazard in commercial spent fuel. Transmuter fuel will be subcritical and a high-energy proton accelerator is needed to maintain the necessary neutron flux through the use of a neutron spallation target. The maximum neutron energy produced by spallation (~ 600 MeV) is significantly higher than that produced by a commercial light water reactor (~ 2 MeV ...


The Procedure For Determining And Quality Assurance Program For The Calculation Of Dose Coefficients Using Dcal Software, A. Arndt, John P. Shanahan, C. Gold, R. Brey, T. Gesell, Phillip W. Patton, Mark Rudin, K. Eckerman, V. Rusetski, S. Pagava Jan 2001

The Procedure For Determining And Quality Assurance Program For The Calculation Of Dose Coefficients Using Dcal Software, A. Arndt, John P. Shanahan, C. Gold, R. Brey, T. Gesell, Phillip W. Patton, Mark Rudin, K. Eckerman, V. Rusetski, S. Pagava

Transmutation Sciences Physics (TRP)

The development of a spallation neutron source with a mercury target may lead to the production of rare radionuclides. The dose coefficients for many of these radionuclides have not yet been published. A collaboration of universities and national labs has taken on the task of calculating dose coefficients for the rare radionuclides using the software package: DCAL. The working group developed a procedure for calculating dose coefficients and a quality assurance (QA) program to verify the calculations completed. The first portion of this QA program was to verify that each participating group could independently reproduce the dose coefficients for a ...


Interaction Of A Group Of Dislocations Within The Framework Of The Continuum Frenkel-Kontorova Model, Naum I. Gershenzon Nov 1994

Interaction Of A Group Of Dislocations Within The Framework Of The Continuum Frenkel-Kontorova Model, Naum I. Gershenzon

Physics Faculty Publications

The Frenkel-Kontorova (FK) model of edge dislocation is analyzed. Solutions of the continuum limit of the FK model [the sine-Gordon (SG) equation] are obtained in a form convenient for investigation of dynamics of a large number of interacting dislocations. We consider, based on these solutions, some nonstationary processes: dislocation generation, diffusion of dislocations, and crack-dislocation interaction. Simple relations connecting the velocity of plastic deformation, density and velocity of dislocations, and the force of interaction between dislocations are obtained. The nucleation of dislocations at a moving crack tip is described.


Influence Of Las Vegas Wash Density Current On Nutrient Availability And Phytoplankton Growth In Lake Mead, John R. Baker, Larry J. Paulson Jun 1980

Influence Of Las Vegas Wash Density Current On Nutrient Availability And Phytoplankton Growth In Lake Mead, John R. Baker, Larry J. Paulson

Publications (WR)

Density currents are commonly formed in reservoirs because of temperature or salinity induced density differences between inflowing and receiving waters. Anderson and Pritchard (1951) were among the first to demonstrate this in their investigations of density currents in Lake Mead. They found that the Colorado River formed an underflow in Lake Mead during the winter, an overflow in the spring and an interflow in the summer and fall. Wunderlich and Elder (1973) have since described the hydromechanics of these types of flow patterns, and density currents have been reported for several other large reservoirs (Carmack et al. 1979, Johnson and ...


Measurement Of Currents In Lake Mead With The Deep Water Isotopic Current Analyzer (Dwica), J. J. Sartoris, D. A. Hoffman, Bureau Of Reclamation Oct 1971

Measurement Of Currents In Lake Mead With The Deep Water Isotopic Current Analyzer (Dwica), J. J. Sartoris, D. A. Hoffman, Bureau Of Reclamation

Publications (WR)

In Nov 1967, a Deep Water Isotopic Current Analyzer (DWICA) was used to study current patterns in the Boulder Basin of Lake Mead to determine if low-quality water from Las Vegas Bay might enter the Southern Nevada Water Project intake on Saddle Island. Secondary objectives were to study the general current patterns in Boulder Basin and the effect of power discharges at Hoover Dam on these currents. Results of current measurements at 3 stations in Boulder Basin are given. Observations indicate a definite possibility that low-quality water from Las Vegas Bay might enter the water intake on Saddle Island. Current ...


The 1963-64 Lake Mead Survey, J. M. Lara, J. I. Sanders, Bureau Of Reclamation Aug 1970

The 1963-64 Lake Mead Survey, J. M. Lara, J. I. Sanders, Bureau Of Reclamation

Publications (WR)

The 1963-64 Lake Mead survey was run to compute the reservoir capacity. Results of the geodetic and hydrographic surveys and sediment sampling equipment are described. The geodetic survey showed Hoover Dam subsided an average of 118 mm since 1935. Sonic sounding, photogrammetry, and crosssectional profiling methods were used to run the hydrographic survey. Reservoir area and capacity tables were generated using an electronic computer. The present lake capacity is 29,755,000 acre-ft and the reservoir surface area is 162,700 acres at elevation 1229 ft. 2,720,000 acre-ft of sediments accumulated in the lake since 1935. A unit ...