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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Engineering And Application Of Ultrafast Laser Pulses And Filamentation In Air, Nicholas Barbieri Jan 2013

Engineering And Application Of Ultrafast Laser Pulses And Filamentation In Air, Nicholas Barbieri

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Continuing advances in laser and photonic technology has seen the development of lasers with increasing power and increasingly short pulsewidths, which have become available over an increasing range of wavelengths. As the availability of laser sources grow, so do their applications. To make better use of this improving technology, understanding and controlling laser propagation in free space is critical, as is understanding the interaction between laser light and matter. The need to better control the light obtained from increasingly advanced laser sources leads to the emergence of beam engineering, the systematic understanding and control of light through refractive media and ...


Theoretical Study Of Beam Transformations By Volume Diffraction, Sergiy V. Mokhov Jan 2011

Theoretical Study Of Beam Transformations By Volume Diffraction, Sergiy V. Mokhov

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Laser beams can be manipulated by volume diffractive elements in addition to conventional optical elements like mirrors, lenses, and beam splitters. Conventional optical elements can be described by applying the basic laws of reflection and refraction at the surfaces of the elements. Even diffraction by surface gratings utilizes relatively simple mathematics. This is to be contrasted with the volume diffraction, which requires coupled wave theory in the slowly varying envelope approximation (SVEA) to obtain accurate results. Efficient spatially distributed diffraction of laser beams is possible due to the high coherence of laser light, and it occurs at specific resonant Bragg ...


Femtosecond Laser Written Volumetric Diffractive Optical Elements And Their Applications, Jiyeon Choi Jan 2009

Femtosecond Laser Written Volumetric Diffractive Optical Elements And Their Applications, Jiyeon Choi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Since the first demonstration of femtosecond laser written waveguides in 1996, femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) has been providing a versatile means to fabricate embedded 3-D microstructures in transparent materials. The key mechanisms are nonlinear absorption processes that occur when a laser beam is tightly focused into a material and the intensity of the focused beam reaches the range creating enough free electrons to induce structural modification. One of the most useful features that can be exploited in fabricating photonic structures is the refractive index change which results from the localized energy deposition. The laser processing system for FLDW can ...


Ultrashort Laser Pulse Interaction With Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass, Leo Siiman Jan 2008

Ultrashort Laser Pulse Interaction With Photo-Thermo-Refractive Glass, Leo Siiman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photo-thermo-refractive (PTR) glass is an ideal photosensitive material for recording phase volume holograms. It is a homogeneous multi-component silicate glass that demonstrates all the advantages of optical glass: thermal stability, high laser damage threshold, and a wide transparency range. Moreover the ability to record phase patterns (i.e. spatial refractive index variations) into PTR glass has resulted in the fabrication of volume holograms with diffraction efficiency greater than 99%. The conventional method of recording a hologram in PTR glass relies on exposure to continuous-wave ultraviolet laser radiation. In this dissertation the interaction between infrared ultrashort laser pulses and PTR glass ...


Design And Optimization Of Nano-Optical Elements By Coupling Fabrication To Optical Behavior, Raymond Rumpf Jan 2006

Design And Optimization Of Nano-Optical Elements By Coupling Fabrication To Optical Behavior, Raymond Rumpf

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photonic crystals and nanophotonics have received a great deal of attention over the last decade, largely due to improved numerical modeling and advances in fabrication technologies. To this day, fabrication and optical behavior remain decoupled during the design phase and numerous assumptions are made about "perfect" geometry. As research moves from theory to real devices, predicting device behavior based on realistic geometry becomes critical. In this dissertation, a set of numerical tools was developed to model micro and nano fabrication processes. They were combined with equally capable tools to model optical performance of the simulated structures. Using these tools, it ...


Predicting Surface Scatter Using A Linear Systems Formulation Of Non-Paraxial Scalar Diffraction, Andrey Krywonos Jan 2006

Predicting Surface Scatter Using A Linear Systems Formulation Of Non-Paraxial Scalar Diffraction, Andrey Krywonos

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Scattering effects from rough surfaces are non-paraxial diffraction phenomena resulting from random phase variations in the reflected wavefront. The ability to predict these effects is important in a variety of applications including x-ray and EUV imaging, the design of stray light rejection systems, and reflection modeling for rendering realistic scenes and animations of physical objects in computer graphics. Rayleigh-Rice (small perturbation method) and Beckmann-Kirchoff (Kirchhoff approximation) theories are commonly used to predict surface scatter effects. In addition, Harvey and Shack developed a linear systems formulation of surface scatter phenomena in which the scattering behavior is characterized by a surface transfer ...