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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Surface Plasmon Hosts For Infrared Waveguides And Biosensors, And Plasmons In Gold-Black Nano-Structured Films, Justin Cleary Jan 2010

Surface Plasmon Hosts For Infrared Waveguides And Biosensors, And Plasmons In Gold-Black Nano-Structured Films, Justin Cleary

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Applications of surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs) have thus far emphasized visible and near-infrared wavelengths. Extension into the long-wave infrared (LWIR) has numerous potential advantages for biosensors and waveguides, which are explored in this work. A surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensor that operates deep into the infrared (3-11 µm wavelengths) is potentially capable of biomolecule recognition based on both selective binding and characteristic vibrational modes. The goal is to operate such sensors at wavelengths where biological analytes are strongly differentiated by their IR absorption spectra and where the refractive index is increased by dispersion, which will provide enhanced selectivity and sensitivity ...


Development Of Optical Coherence Tomography For Tissue Diagnostics, Panomsak Meemon Jan 2010

Development Of Optical Coherence Tomography For Tissue Diagnostics, Panomsak Meemon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Microvasculature can be found in almost every part of the human body, including the internal organs. Importantly, abnormal changes in microvasculature are usually related to pathological development of the tissue cells. Monitoring of changes in blood flow properties in microvasculature, therefore, provides useful diagnostic information about pathological conditions in biological tissues as exemplified in glaucoma, diabetes, age related macular degeneration, port wine stains, burn-depth, and potentially skin cancer. However, the capillary network is typically only one cell in wall thickness with 5 to 10 microns in diameter and located in the dermis region of skin. Therefore, a non-invasive flow imaging ...


Modeling And Design Of A Photonic Crystal Chip Hosting A Quantum Network Made Of Single Spins In Quantum Dots That Interact Via Single Photons, Hubert P. Seigneur Jan 2010

Modeling And Design Of A Photonic Crystal Chip Hosting A Quantum Network Made Of Single Spins In Quantum Dots That Interact Via Single Photons, Hubert P. Seigneur

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, the prospect of a quantum technology based on a photonic crystal chip hosting a quantum network made of quantum dot spins interacting via single photons is investigated. The mathematical procedure to deal with the Liouville-Von Neumann equation, which describes the time-evolution of the density matrix, was derived for an arbitrary system, giving general equations. Using this theoretical groundwork, a numerical model was then developed to study the spatiotemporal dynamics of entanglement between various qubits produced in a controlled way over the entire quantum network. As a result, an efficient quantum interface was engineered allowing for storage qubits ...


Silicon-Sensitized Erbium Excitation In Silicon-Rich Silica For Integrated Photonics, Oleksandr Savchyn Jan 2010

Silicon-Sensitized Erbium Excitation In Silicon-Rich Silica For Integrated Photonics, Oleksandr Savchyn

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

It is widely accepted that the continued increase of processor performance requires at least partial replacement of electronic interconnects with their photonic counterparts. The implementation of optical interconnects requires the realization of a silicon-based light source, which is challenging task due to the low emission efficiency of silicon. One of the main approaches to address this challenge is the use of doping of silicon based matrices with optical centers, including erbium ions. Erbium ions incorporated in various hosts assume the trivalent state (Er3+) and demonstrate a transition at 1.54 μm, coinciding with optical transmission windows in both silicon and ...


Survey Of Meteorite Physical Properties Density, Porosity And Magnetic Susceptibility, Robert J. Macke Jan 2010

Survey Of Meteorite Physical Properties Density, Porosity And Magnetic Susceptibility, Robert J. Macke

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The measurement of meteorite physical properties (i.e. density, porosity, magnetic susceptibility) supplements detailed chemical and isotopic analyses for small samples (thin sections or ~300 mg portions) by providing whole-rock data for samples massing in the tens of grams. With the advent of fast, non-destructive and non-contaminating measurement techniques including helium ideal-gas pycnometry for grain density, the Archimedean ―glass bead‖ method for bulk density and (with grain density) porosity, and the use of low-field magnetometry for magnetic susceptibility, all of which rely on compact and portable equipment, this has enabled a comprehensive survey of these physical properties for a wide ...


Experimental And Theoretical Study Of The Optical Properties Of Semiconductor Quantum Dots, Gero Nootz Jan 2010

Experimental And Theoretical Study Of The Optical Properties Of Semiconductor Quantum Dots, Gero Nootz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The aim of this dissertation is to gain a better understanding of the unique electronic structure of lead salt quantum dots (QDs) and its influences on the nonlinear optical (NLO) properties as well as the time dynamics of the photogenerated charge carriers. A variety of optical techniques such as Z-scan, two-photon excited fluorescence and time-resolved pump probe spectroscopy are used to measure these properties. The one-photon as well as the degenerate and nondegenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) spectra are measured and the electronic wave functions from a four-band envelope function formalism are used to model the results. We observe local maxima ...


Nonlinear Absorption And Free Carrier Recombination In Direct Gap Semiconductors, Peter D. Olszak Jan 2010

Nonlinear Absorption And Free Carrier Recombination In Direct Gap Semiconductors, Peter D. Olszak

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Nonlinear absorption of Indium Antimonide (InSb) has been studied for many years, yet due to the complexity of absorption mechanisms and experimental difficulties in the infrared, this is still a subject of research. Although measurements have been made in the past, a consistent model that worked for both picosecond and nanosecond pulse widths had not been demonstrated. In this project, temperature dependent two-photon (2PA) and free carrier absorption (FCA) spectra of InSb are measured using femtosecond, picosecond, and nanosecond IR sources. The 2PA spectrum is measured at room temperature with femtosecond pulses, and the temperature dependence of 2PA and FCA ...


Accelerating Optical Airy Beams, Georgios Siviloglou Jan 2010

Accelerating Optical Airy Beams, Georgios Siviloglou

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Over the years, non-spreading or non-diffracting wave configurations have been systematically investigated in optics. Perhaps the best known example of a diffraction-free optical wave is the so-called Bessel beam, first suggested and observed by Durnin et al. This work sparked considerable theoretical and experimental activity and paved the way toward the discovery of other interesting non-diffracting solutions. In 1979 Berry and Balazs made an important observation within the context of quantum mechanics: they theoretically demonstrated that the Schrodinger equation describing a free particle can exhibit a non-spreading Airy wavepacket solution. This work remained largely unnoticed in the literature-partly because such ...


Response-Calibration Techniques For Antenna-Coupled Infrared Sensors, Peter Krenz Jan 2010

Response-Calibration Techniques For Antenna-Coupled Infrared Sensors, Peter Krenz

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Infrared antennas are employed in sensing applications requiring specific spectral, polarization, and directional properties. Because of their inherently small dimensions, there is significant interaction, both thermal and electromagnetic, between the antenna, the antenna-coupled sensor, and the low-frequency readout structures necessary for signal extraction at the baseband modulation frequency. Validation of design models against measurements requires separation of these effects so that the response of the antenna-coupled sensor alone can be measured in a calibrated manner. Such validations will allow confident extension of design techniques to more complex infrared-antenna configurations. Two general techniques are explored to accomplish this goal. The extraneous ...


Quantum Dot Based Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers And Applications, Jimyung Kim Jan 2010

Quantum Dot Based Mode-Locked Semiconductor Lasers And Applications, Jimyung Kim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this dissertation, self-assembled InAs/InGaAs quantum dot Fabry-Perot lasers and mode-locked lasers are investigated. The mode-locked lasers investigated include monolithic and curved two-section devices, and colliding pulse mode-locked diode lasers. Ridge waveguide semiconductor lasers have been designed and fabricated by wet etching processes. Electroluminescence of the quantum dot lasers is studied. Cavity length dependent lasing via ground state and/or excited state transitions is observed from quantum dot lasers and the optical gain from both transitions is measured. Stable optical pulse trains via ground and excited state transitions are generated using a grating coupled external cavity with a curved ...


Electro-Optical And All-Optical Switching In Multimode Interference Waveguides Incorporating Semiconductor Nanostructures, Nathan Bickel Jan 2010

Electro-Optical And All-Optical Switching In Multimode Interference Waveguides Incorporating Semiconductor Nanostructures, Nathan Bickel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The application of epitaxially grown, III-V semiconductor-based nanostructures to the development of electro-optical and all-optical switches is investigated through the fabrication and testing of integrated photonic devices designed using multimode interference (MMI) waveguides. The properties and limitations of the materials are explored with respect to the operation of those devices through electrical carrier injection and optical pumping. MMI waveguide geometry was employed as it offered advantages such as a very compact device footprint, low polarization sensitivity, large bandwidth and relaxed fabrication tolerances when compared with conventional single-mode waveguide formats. The first portion of this dissertation focuses on the characterization of ...


Misalignment Induced Nodal Aberration Fields And Their Use In The Alignment Of Astronomical Telescopes, Tobias Schmid Jan 2010

Misalignment Induced Nodal Aberration Fields And Their Use In The Alignment Of Astronomical Telescopes, Tobias Schmid

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Following the foundation of aberration theory for rotationally symmetric optical systems established by Seidel, Schwarzschild, Burch, Conrady, Buchdahl, and in its most useful form H.H. Hopkins, Shack, Buchroeder, Thompson, and Rogers developed a vectorial form of the wave aberration theory that enables addressing optical systems without symmetry. In this research, a vectorial theory is utilized and extended for the alignment of two- and three-mirror astronomical telescopes, including the effects of pointing changes and astigmatic figure errors. Importantly, it is demonstrated that the vectorial form of aberration theory, also referred to as nodal aberration theory, not only provides valuable insights ...


New Laser Technologies Analysis Of Quantum Dot And Lithographic Laser Diodes, Abdullah Demir Jan 2010

New Laser Technologies Analysis Of Quantum Dot And Lithographic Laser Diodes, Abdullah Demir

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The first part of this dissertation presents a comprehensive study of quantum dot (QD) lasers threshold characteristics. The threshold temperature dependence of a QD laser diode is studied in different limits of p-doping, hole level spacing and inhomogeneous broadening. Theoretical analysis shows that the threshold current of a QD laser in the limit of uniform QDs is not temperature independent and actually more temperature sensitive than the quantum well laser. The results also explain the experimental trends of negative characteristic temperature observed in QD lasers and clarify how the carrier distribution mechanisms inside and among the QDs affect the threshold ...


Application Of Antenna Synthesis And Digital Signal Processing Techniques For Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging Systems, Wilson Ariel Caba Jan 2010

Application Of Antenna Synthesis And Digital Signal Processing Techniques For Active Millimeter-Wave Imaging Systems, Wilson Ariel Caba

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Millimeter-wave imaging has gathered attention in recent years for its ability to penetrate clothing, thin layers of soils, and certain construction materials. However, image quality remains a challenge that needs to be addressed. One way of improving image quality is by increasing the dimensions of the collecting aperture. A sparse array can be used to synthesize a larger aperture with a limited set of relatively small detectors. In this research we design, build, and test a test-bed having an active source at 94 GHz and an array of coherent detectors, mounted on arms that extend radially on a rotary table ...


Supported Mono And Bimetallic Platinum And Iron Nanoparticles Electronic, Structural, Catalytic, And Vibrational Properties, Jason Robert Croy Jan 2010

Supported Mono And Bimetallic Platinum And Iron Nanoparticles Electronic, Structural, Catalytic, And Vibrational Properties, Jason Robert Croy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Catalysis technologies are among the most important in the modern world. They are instrumental in the realization of a variety of products and processes including chemicals, polymers, foods, pharmaceuticals, fuels, and fuel cells. As such, interest in the catalysts that drive these processes is ongoing, and basic research has led to significant advances in the field, including the production of more environmentally friendly catalysts that can be tuned at the molecular/atomic level. However, there are many factors which influence the performance of a catalyst and many unanswered questions still remain. The first part of this work is concerned with ...


Freeform Reflector Design With Extended Sources, Florian Fournier Jan 2010

Freeform Reflector Design With Extended Sources, Florian Fournier

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Reflector design stemmed from the need to shape the light emitted by candles or lamps. Over 2,000 years ago people realized that a mirror shaped as a parabola can concentrate light, and thus significantly boosts its intensity, to the point where objects can be set afire. Nowadays many applications require an accurate control of light, such as automotive headlights, streetlights, projection displays, and medical illuminators. In all cases light emitted from a light source can be shaped into a desired target distribution with a reflective surface. Design methods for systems with rotational and translational symmetry were devised in the ...


Near-Field Optical Interactions And Applications, David Haefner Jan 2010

Near-Field Optical Interactions And Applications, David Haefner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The propagation symmetry of electromagnetic fields is affected by encounters with material systems. The effects of such interactions, for example, modifications of intensity, phase, polarization, angular spectrum, frequency, etc. can be used to obtain information about the material system. However, the propagation of electromagnetic waves imposes a fundamental limit to the length scales over which the material properties can be observed. In the realm of near-field optics, this limitation is overcome only through a secondary interaction that couples the high-spatial-frequency (but non-propagating) field components to propagating waves that can be detected. The available information depends intrinsically on this secondary interaction ...


The Development Of Scalable Pump Techniques For Gg Iag Fiber Lasers And Passive Athermalization Techniques For Solid State Laser, William Hageman Jan 2010

The Development Of Scalable Pump Techniques For Gg Iag Fiber Lasers And Passive Athermalization Techniques For Solid State Laser, William Hageman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation consists of two parts: research pertaining to the development of scalable pump techniques for gain guided index-antiguided fiber lasers and research relating to the development of passive athermalization schemes for solid state lasers. The first section primarily details the development of a side pump scheme that allows for power scaling of gain-guided index anti-guided fibers. While these fibers have been demonstrated in past research, none have used a pump technology capable of pumping with the efficiencies, uniformity, and necessary length to allow for scaling of the fiber lasers to high output powers. The side pumped scheme developed in ...


Structural, Electronic, Vibrational And Thermodynamical Properties Of Surfaces And Nanoparticles, Handan Yildirim Jan 2010

Structural, Electronic, Vibrational And Thermodynamical Properties Of Surfaces And Nanoparticles, Handan Yildirim

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The main focus of the thesis is to have better understanding of the atomic and electronic structures, vibrational dynamics and thermodynamics of metallic surfaces and bi-metallic nanoparticles (NPs) via a multi-scale simulational approach. The research presented here involves the study of the physical and chemical properties of metallic surfaces and NPs that are useful to determine their functionality in building novel materials. The study follows the 'bottom-up' approach for which the knowledge gathered at the scale of atoms and NPs serves as a base to build, at the macroscopic scale, materials with desired physical and chemical properties. We use a ...


Fast Response Dual Frequency Liquid Crystal Materials, Qiong Song Jan 2010

Fast Response Dual Frequency Liquid Crystal Materials, Qiong Song

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dual frequency liquid crystal (DFLC) exhibits a positive dielectric anisotropy at low frequencies and negative dielectric anisotropy at high frequencies. The frequency where dielectric anisotropy is zero is called crossover frequency. DFLC can achieve fast rise time and fast decay time with the assistance of applied voltage. However, one drawback of DFLC is that it has dielectric heating effect when driven at a high frequency. Thus, the first part of this dissertation is to develop low crossover frequency DFLC materials. The dielectric relaxation and physical properties of some single- and double-ester compounds were investigated. Experimental results indicate that the double-ester ...


Long Cavity Quantum Dot Laser Diode And Monolithic Passively Mode-Locked Operation, K Shavitranuruk Jan 2010

Long Cavity Quantum Dot Laser Diode And Monolithic Passively Mode-Locked Operation, K Shavitranuruk

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Advantage of the single QD active layer is its potential for very low threshold current density, which in turn can produce low internal optical loss. The low threshold current density and low internal loss thus enable a significant increase in laser diode cavity length. Because of the importance of the threshold current density in heatsinking, future technology of broad-area monolithic laser diodes can be implemented. The dissertation describes the development and the unique characteristics of single QD active layer laser with long cavity. The data are presented on single layer QD laser diodes that reach threshold current densities values of ...


Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (Mems) And Agile Lensing-Based Modules For Communications, Sensing And Signal Processing., Syed Reza Jan 2010

Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (Mems) And Agile Lensing-Based Modules For Communications, Sensing And Signal Processing., Syed Reza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation proposes the use of the emerging Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and agile lensing optical device technologies to design novel and powerful signal conditioning and sensing modules for advanced applications in optical communications, physical parameter sensing and RF/optical signal processing. For example, these new module designs have experimentally demonstrated exceptional features such as stable loss broadband operations and high > 60 dB optical dynamic range signal filtering capabilities. The first part of the dissertation describes the design and demonstration of digital MEMS-based signal processing modules for communication systems and sensor networks using the TI DLP (Digital Light Processing) technology. Examples ...


Epitaxial Growth, Characterization And Application Of Novel Wide Bandgap Oxide Semiconductors, Jeremy Mares Jan 2010

Epitaxial Growth, Characterization And Application Of Novel Wide Bandgap Oxide Semiconductors, Jeremy Mares

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this work, a body of knowledge is presented which pertains to the growth, characterization and exploitation of high quality, novel II-IV oxide epitaxial films and structures grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The two compounds of primary interest within this research are the ternary films NixMg1-xO and ZnxMg1-xO and the investigation focuses predominantly on the realization, assessment and implementation of these two oxides as optoelectronic materials. The functioning hypothesis for this largely experimental effort has been that these cubic ternary oxides can be exploited - and possibly even juxtaposed - to realize novel wide band gap optoelectronic technologies. The results of ...


Fabrication Of Integrated Optofluidic Circuits In Chalcogenide Glass Using Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing, Troy P. Anderson Jan 2010

Fabrication Of Integrated Optofluidic Circuits In Chalcogenide Glass Using Femtosecond Laser Direct Writing, Troy P. Anderson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Femtosecond laser direct writing (FLDW) is a versatile process that uses focused femtosecond pulses to modify the physical structure of a material, which can result in a shift of optical properties such as the linear and nonlinear refractive index. If the photon energy of the femtosecond pulses lies below the material bandgap, nonlinear absorption rather than linear absorption becomes the dominant mechanism of energy transfer to the material. In this manner, a focused femtosecond pulse train can be used to fabricate functional features such as optical waveguides, diffractive optical elements, or micro-fluidic elements within the volume of a transparent medium ...


Plasmon Enhanced Near-Field Interactions In Surface Coupled Nanoparticle Arrays For Integrated Nanophotonic Devices, Amitabh Ghoshal Jan 2010

Plasmon Enhanced Near-Field Interactions In Surface Coupled Nanoparticle Arrays For Integrated Nanophotonic Devices, Amitabh Ghoshal

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The current thrust towards developing silicon compatible integrated nanophotonic devices is driven by need to overcome critical challenges in electronic circuit technology related to information bandwidth and thermal management. Surface plasmon nanophotonics represents a hybrid technology at the interface of optics and electronics that could address several of the existing challenges. Surface plasmons are electronic charge density waves that can occur at a metal-dielectric interface at optical and infrared frequencies. Numerous plasmon based integrated optical devices such as waveguides, splitters, resonators and multimode interference devices have been developed, however no standard integrated device for coupling light into nanoscale optical circuits ...


Controlled Assembly And Electronic Transport Studies Of Solution Processed Carbon Nanotube Devices, Paul Stokes Jan 2010

Controlled Assembly And Electronic Transport Studies Of Solution Processed Carbon Nanotube Devices, Paul Stokes

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Developing techniques for the parallel fabrication of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) compatible single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) electronic devices is of great importance for nanoelectronic applications. In this thesis, solution processed SWNTs in combination with AC dielectrophoresis (DEP) were utilized to fabricate CMOS compatible SWNT field effect transistors (FETs) and single electron transistors (SETs) with high yield and their detailed electronic transport properties were studied. Solution processing of SWNTs is attractive not only for the high throughput and parallel manufacturing of SWNT devices but also due to the ease of processing at room temperature, and compatibility with various substrates ...


Experimental And Theoretical Approaches To Characterization Of Electronic Nonlinearities In Direct-Gap Semiconductors, Claudiu Cirloganu Jan 2010

Experimental And Theoretical Approaches To Characterization Of Electronic Nonlinearities In Direct-Gap Semiconductors, Claudiu Cirloganu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The general goal of this dissertation is to provide a comprehensive description of the limitations of established theories on bound electronic nonlinearities in direct-gap semiconductors by performing various experiments on wide and narrow bandgap semiconductors along with developing theoretical models. Nondegenerate two-photon absorption (2PA) is studied in several semiconductors showing orders of magnitude enhancement over the degenerate counterpart. In addition, three-photon absorption (3PA) is studied in ZnSe and other semiconductors and a new theory using a Kane 4-band model is developed which fits new data well. Finally, the narrow gap semiconductor InSb is studied with regard to multiphoton absorption, free-carrier ...


Search For Gas Giants Around Late-M Dwarfs, Rohit Deshpande Jan 2010

Search For Gas Giants Around Late-M Dwarfs, Rohit Deshpande

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We carried out a near-infrared radial velocity search for Jupiter-mass planets around 36 late M dwarfs. This survey was the first of its kind undertaken to monitor radial velocity variability of these faint dwarfs. For this unique survey we employed the 10-m Keck II on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. With a resolution of 20,000 on the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, we monitored these stars over four epochs in 2007. In addition to the measurement of relative radial velocity we established physical properties of these stars. The physical properties of M dwarfs we determined included the identification of neutral atomic lines ...


Symmetry In The Dissociative Recombination Of Polyatomic Ions And In Ultra-Cold Few Body Collisions, Nicolas Douguet Jan 2010

Symmetry In The Dissociative Recombination Of Polyatomic Ions And In Ultra-Cold Few Body Collisions, Nicolas Douguet

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We discuss the role of symmetries in the dissociative recombinations (DR) of three polyatomic ions, namely the linear HCO+ (formyl) ion and the two highly symmetric H+3 and H3O+ (hydronium) molecular ions. Regarding the HCO+ ion, we apply a quantum mechanical treatment using the Multi-channel Quantum Defect Theory (MQDT) formalism to describe the ion-electron scattering process. Our study takes into account the Renner-Teller effect in order to model the non Born-Oppenheimer vibronic coupling in linear polyatomic ions. The coupling has shown to represent the main mechanism responsible for electronic capturing in highly excited Rydberg states associated with excited vibrational ...


Fast-Response Liquid Crystal Displays, Meizi Jiao Jan 2010

Fast-Response Liquid Crystal Displays, Meizi Jiao

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

After about five decades of extensive material research and device development, followed by massive investment in manufacturing technology, thin-film-transistor liquid-crystaldisplay (TFT-LCD) has finally become the dominant flat panel display technology. Nowadays, LCD performances, such as viewing angle, contrast ratio, and resolution, have reached acceptable levels. The remaining major technical challenges are response time, light efficiency, and sunlight readability. Fast response time is desired to reduce motion blur and to enable field sequential color displays using red (R), green (G), and blue (B) LEDs (light emitting diodes) without noticeable color breakup. Sequential RGB colors would eliminate the commonly used spatial color ...