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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Fractal Holography: A Geometric Re-Interpretation Of Cosmological Large Scale Structure, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

Fractal Holography: A Geometric Re-Interpretation Of Cosmological Large Scale Structure, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

The fractal dimension of large-scale galaxy clustering has been demonstrated to be roughly DF∼2 from a wide range of redshift surveys. If correct, this statistic is of interest for two main reasons: fractal scaling is an implicit representation of information content, and also the value itself is a geometric signature of area. It is proposed that the fractal distribution of galaxies may thus be interpreted as a signature of holography (``fractal holography''), providing more support for current theories of holographic cosmologies. Implications for entropy bounds are addressed. In particular, because of spatial scale invariance in the matter distribution ...


Differentiating Unparticles From Extra Dimensions Via Mini Black Hole Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

Differentiating Unparticles From Extra Dimensions Via Mini Black Hole Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

A thermodynamics-based method is presented for differentiating mini black hole creation mechanisms in high energy parton collisions, including scenarios with large compactified extra dimensions and unparticle-enhanced gravity with real scaling dimension dU. Tensor unparticle interactions are shown to mimic the physics of (2dU−2) noninteger extra spatial dimensions. This yields unique model-dependent production rates, Hawking temperature profiles, and decay multiplicities for black holes of mass MBH∼1–15  TeV that may be created at the LHC and other future colliders.


Vector Unparticle Enhanced Black Holes: Exact Solutions And Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika, Euro Spallucci Sep 2017

Vector Unparticle Enhanced Black Holes: Exact Solutions And Thermodynamics, Jonas R. Mureika, Euro Spallucci

Jonas Mureika

Tensor and scalar unparticle couplings to matter have been shown to enhance gravitational interactions and provide corrections to the Schwarzschild metric and associated black hole structure. We derive an exact solution to the Einstein equations for vector unparticles, and conclusively demonstrate that these induce Riessner–Nordström (RN)-like solutions where the role of the “charge” is defined by a composite of unparticle phase space parameters. These black holes admit double-horizon structure, although unlike the RN metric these solutions have a minimum inner horizon value. In the extremal limit, the Hawking temperature is shown to vanish. As with the scalar/tensor ...


Self-Completeness And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini Sep 2017

Self-Completeness And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Jonas Mureika

A viable quantum theory of gravity is one of the biggest challenges physicists are facing. We discuss the confluence of two highly expected features which might be instrumental in the quest of a finite and renormalizable quantum gravity —spontaneous dimensional reduction and self-completeness. The former suggests the spacetime background at the Planck scale may be effectively two-dimensional, while the latter implies a condition of maximal compression of matter by the formation of an event horizon for Planckian scattering. We generalize such a result to an arbitrary number of dimensions, and show that gravity in higher than four dimensions remains self-complete ...


The Effects Of Temperature, Humidity, And Barometric Pressure On Short-Sprint Race Times, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

The Effects Of Temperature, Humidity, And Barometric Pressure On Short-Sprint Race Times, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

A numerical model of 100 m and 200 m world class sprinting performances is modified using standard hydrodynamic principles to include effects of air temperature, pressure, and humidity levels on aerodynamic drag. The magnitude of the effects are found to be dependent on wind speed. This implies that differing atmospheric conditions can yield slightly different corrections for the same wind gauge reading. In the absence of wind, temperature is found to induce the largest variation in times (0.01 s per 10◦C increment in the 100 m), while relative humidity contributes the least (under 0.01 s for all ...


Multifractal Structure In Nonrepresentational Art, Jonas R. Mureika, C. C. Dyer, G. C. Cupchik Sep 2017

Multifractal Structure In Nonrepresentational Art, Jonas R. Mureika, C. C. Dyer, G. C. Cupchik

Jonas Mureika

Multifractal analysis techniques are applied to patterns in several abstract expressionist artworks, painted by various artists. The analysis is carried out on two distinct types of structures: the physical patterns formed by a specific color (“blobs”) and patterns formed by the luminance gradient between adjacent colors (“edges”). It is found that the multifractal analysis method applied to “blobs” cannot distinguish between artists of the same movement, yielding a multifractal spectrum of dimensions between about 1.5 and 1.8. The method can distinguish between different types of images, however, as demonstrated by studying a radically different type of art. The ...


Does Entropic Gravity Bound The Masses Of The Photon And Graviton?, Jonas R. Mureika, R. B. Mann Sep 2017

Does Entropic Gravity Bound The Masses Of The Photon And Graviton?, Jonas R. Mureika, R. B. Mann

Jonas Mureika

If the information transfer between test particle and holographic screen in entropic gravity respects both the uncertainty principle and causality, a lower limit on the number of bits in the universe relative to its mass may be derived. Furthermore, these limits indicate particles that putatively travel at the speed of light -- the photon and/or graviton -- have a non-zero mass m≥10−68 kg. This result is found to be in excellent agreement with current experimental mass bounds on the graviton and photon, suggesting that entropic gravity may be the result of a (recent) softly-broken local symmetry. Stronger bounds emerge ...


Self-Completeness And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Maximiliano Isi, Jonas Mureika, Piero Nicolini Sep 2017

Self-Completeness And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Maximiliano Isi, Jonas Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Jonas Mureika

The generalized uncertainty principle discloses a self-complete characteristic of gravity, namely the possibility of masking any curvature singularity behind an event horizon as a result of matter compression at the Planck scale. In this paper we extend the above reasoning in order to overcome some current limitations to the framework, including the absence of a consistent metric describing such Planck-scale black holes. We implement a minimum-size black hole in terms of the extremal configuration of a neutral non-rotating metric, which we derived by mimicking the effects of the generalized uncertainty principle via a short scale modified version of Einstein gravity ...


Primordial Black Hole Evaporation And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

Primordial Black Hole Evaporation And Spontaneous Dimensional Reduction, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

Several different approaches to quantum gravity suggest the effective dimension of spacetime reduces from four to two near the Planck scale. In light of such evidence, this Letter re-examines the thermodynamics of primordial black holes (PBHs) in specific lower-dimensional gravitational models. Unlike in four dimensions, (1 + 1)-D black holes radiate with power P ∼ M2BH, while it is known no (2+1)-D (BTZ) black holes can exist in a non-anti-de Sitter universe. This has important relevance to the PBH population size and distribution, and consequently on cosmological evolution scenarios. The number of PBHs that have evaporated to ...


Unparticle-Enhanced Black Holes At The Lhc, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

Unparticle-Enhanced Black Holes At The Lhc, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

Based on the idea that tensor unparticles can enhance the gravitational interactions between standard model particles, potential black hole formation in high energy collisions is examined. Modifications to the horizon radius rH are derived, and the corresponding geometric cross-sections of such objects are calculated. It is shown that rH increases dramatically to the electroweak scale for masses MBH∼1–10 TeV, yielding a geometric cross-section σBH=πr2H on the order of ⩽50 pb. This suggests that unparticle physics provides a mechanism for black hole formation in future accelerators, without the requirement of extra spatial dimensions.


Gravitationally Induced Quantum Superposition Reduction With Large Extra Dimensions, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

Gravitationally Induced Quantum Superposition Reduction With Large Extra Dimensions, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

A gravity-driven mechanism (``objective reduction'') proposed to explain quantum state reduction is analyzed in light of the possible existence of large extra dimensions in the ADD scenario. By calculating order-of-magnitude estimates for nucleon superpositions, it is shown that if the mechanism at question is correct, constraints may be placed on the number and size of extra dimensions. Hence, measurement of superposition collapse times ({\it e.g.} through diffraction or reflection experiments) could represent a new probe of extra dimensions. The influence of a time-dependent gravitational constant on the gravity-driven collapse scheme with and without the presence of extra dimensions is ...


Sub-Planckian Black Holes And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Bernard Carr, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini Sep 2017

Sub-Planckian Black Holes And The Generalized Uncertainty Principle, Bernard Carr, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Jonas Mureika

The Black Hole Uncertainty Principle correspondence suggests that there could exist black holes with mass beneath the Planck scale but radius of order the Compton scale rather than Schwarzschild scale. We present a modified, self-dual Schwarzschild-like metric that reproduces desirable aspects of a variety of disparate models in the sub-Planckian limit, while remaining Schwarzschild in the large mass limit. The self-dual nature of this solution under M ↔ M−1 naturally implies a Generalized Uncertainty Principle with the linear form Δx∼1/Δp+Δp. We also demonstrate a natural dimensional reduction feature, in that the gravitational radius and thermodynamics of sub-Planckian ...


Aspects Of Noncommutative (1+1)-Dimensional Black Holes, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini Sep 2017

Aspects Of Noncommutative (1+1)-Dimensional Black Holes, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini

Jonas Mureika

We present a comprehensive analysis of the spacetime structure and thermodynamics of ( 1 + 1 )-dimensional black holes in a noncommutative framework. It is shown that a wider variety of solutions are possible than the commutative case considered previously in the literature. As expected, the introduction of a minimal length √ θ cures singularity pathologies that plague the standard two-dimensional general relativistic case, where the latter solution is recovered at large length scales. Depending on the choice of input parameters (black hole mass M, cosmological constant Λ , etc.), black hole solutions with zero, up to six, horizons are possible. The associated thermodynamics ...


Fractal Dimensions In Perceptual Color Space: A Comparison Study Using Jackson Pollock’S Art, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

Fractal Dimensions In Perceptual Color Space: A Comparison Study Using Jackson Pollock’S Art, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

The fractal dimensions of color-specific paint patterns in various Jackson Pollock paintings are calculated using a filtering process that models perceptual response to color differences (L*a*b* color space). The advantage of the L*a*b* space filtering method over traditional red-green-blue (RGB) spaces is that the former is a perceptually uniform (metric) space, leading to a more consistent definition of “perceptually different” colors. It is determined that the RGB filtering method underestimates the perceived fractal dimension of lighter-colored patterns but not of darker ones, if the same selection criteria is applied to each. Implications of the findings to ...


Constraints On Vector Unparticle Physics From Cosmic Censorship, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

Constraints On Vector Unparticle Physics From Cosmic Censorship, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

Vector unparticle couplings to standard model fields produce repulsive corrections to gravity. From a general relativistic perspective, this leads to an effective Reissner-Nordstrom-like metric whose "charge" is a function of the unparticle coupling constant λ, and therefore can admit naked singularities. Requiring the system to respect cosmic censorship provides a new method of constraining the value of λ. These limits are extremely loose for stellar-mass black holes, but commensurate with existing bounds for primordial black holes. In the case of theoretical low-mass black holes, the bounds on λ are much stricter than those derived from astrophysical and accelerator phenomenology. Additional ...


(1+1)-Dimensional Entropic Gravity, R. B. Mann, Jonas R. Mureika Sep 2017

(1+1)-Dimensional Entropic Gravity, R. B. Mann, Jonas R. Mureika

Jonas Mureika

We consider the formulation of entropic gravity in two spacetime dimensions. The usual gravitational force law is derived even in the absence of area, as normally required by the holographic principle. A special feature of this perspective concerns the nature of temperature and entropy defined at a point. We argue that the constancy of the gravitational force in one spatial dimension implies the information contained at each point in space is an internal degree of freedom on the manifold, and furthermore is a universal constant, contrary to previous assertions that entropic gravity in one spatial dimension is ill-defined. We give ...


Detecting Vanishing Dimensions Via Primordial Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Jonas R. Mureika, Dejan Stojkovic Sep 2017

Detecting Vanishing Dimensions Via Primordial Gravitational Wave Astronomy, Jonas R. Mureika, Dejan Stojkovic

Jonas Mureika

Lower dimensionality at higher energies has manifold theoretical advantages as recently pointed out by Anchordoqui et al. [arXiv:1003.5914]. Moreover, it appears that experimental evidence may already exist for it: A statistically significant planar alignment of events with energies higher than TeV has been observed in some earlier cosmic ray experiments. We propose a robust and independent test for this new paradigm. Since ( 2 + 1 )-dimensional spacetimes have no gravitational degrees of freedom, gravity waves cannot be produced in that epoch. This places a universal maximum frequency at which primordial waves can propagate, marked by the transition between dimensions ...


Could Any Black Holes Be Produced At The Lhc?, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini, Euro Spallucci Sep 2017

Could Any Black Holes Be Produced At The Lhc?, Jonas R. Mureika, Piero Nicolini, Euro Spallucci

Jonas Mureika

We introduce analytical quantum gravity modifications of the production cross section for terascale black holes by employing an effective ultraviolet cut off l. We find the new cross sections approach the usual "black disk" form at high energy, while they differ significantly near the fundamental scale from the standard increase with respect to s. We show that the heretofore discontinuous step function used to represent the cross section threshold can realistically be modeled by two functions representing the incoming and final parton states in a high energy collision. The growth of the cross section with collision energy is thus a ...