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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Posterminaries: More Or Less Modern, Alexander H. King Nov 2007

Posterminaries: More Or Less Modern, Alexander H. King

Alexander H. King

It is yet another sign that I am aging. More and more often when young researchers hand me a written report of their research, I find myself criticizing their introductory section: “You need to start your literature survey with the original papers on this topic. Go and read…” followed by a citation to some classic of the learned literature.


Control Of Porosity In Fluoride Thin Films Prepared By Vapor Deposition, Alexander H. King Jul 2007

Control Of Porosity In Fluoride Thin Films Prepared By Vapor Deposition, Alexander H. King

Alexander H. King

We have measured the porosity in thin films of lithium fluoride (LiF), magnesium fluoride (MgF2), barium fluoride (BaF2), and calcium fluoride (CaF2) as a function of the substrate temperature for films deposited by thermal evaporation onto glass substrates. The amount of porosity in the thin films was measured using an atomic force microscope and a quartz crystal thickness monitor. The porosity was very sensitive to the substrate temperature and decreased as the substrate temperature increased. Consistent behavior was observed among all of the materials in this study.


Posterminaries: Full Circle, Alexander H. King Jul 2007

Posterminaries: Full Circle, Alexander H. King

Alexander H. King

A few years ago, I was walking near the old Union Station in Pittsburgh with a colleague only slightly younger than myself, when we happened upon some large-scale relics of the steel industry displayed for public viewing. “You don’t see too many of those in public parking lots,” I offered. “Um… what is it?” was the response. I suppose I was just a little surprised that a prominent materials scientist did not recognize a Bessemer converter—arguably the principal source of wealth during the U.S. industrial revolution—but this conversation took place back when steel was in decline ...


Local Effective Potential Theory: Nonuniqueness Of Potential And Wave Function, Viraht Sahni, Marlina Slamet, Xiao-Yin Pan May 2007

Local Effective Potential Theory: Nonuniqueness Of Potential And Wave Function, Viraht Sahni, Marlina Slamet, Xiao-Yin Pan

Physics Faculty Publications

In local effective potential energy theories such as the Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham density functional theory (HKS-DFT) and quantal density functional theory (Q-DFT) electronic systems in their ground or excited states are mapped to model systems of noninteracting fermions with equivalent density. From these models, the equivalent total energy and ionization potential are also obtained. This paper concerns the nonuniqueness of the local effective potential energy function of the model system in the mapping from a nondegenerate ground state, the nonuniqueness of the local effective potential energy function in the mapping from a nondegenerate excited state, and in the mapping to a model ...


Fragmentation Of Methyl Chloride Studied By Partial Positive And Negative Ion Yield Spectroscopy, D. Ceolin, Maria Novella Piancastelli, Renaud Guillemin, Wayne C. Stolte, S-W Yu, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle Feb 2007

Fragmentation Of Methyl Chloride Studied By Partial Positive And Negative Ion Yield Spectroscopy, D. Ceolin, Maria Novella Piancastelli, Renaud Guillemin, Wayne C. Stolte, S-W Yu, Oliver Hemmers, Dennis W. Lindle

Environmental Studies Faculty Publications

The authors present partial-ion-yield experiments on the methyl chloride molecule excited in the vicinity of the Cl2p and C1s inner shells. A large number of fragments, cations produced by dissociation or recombination processes, as well as anionic species, have been detected. Although the spectra exhibit different intensity distributions depending on the core-excited atom, general observations include strong site-selective fragmentation along the C–Cl bond axis and a strong intensity dependence of transitions involving Rydberg series on fragment size.


How Surface Stresses Lead To Size-Dependent Mechanics Of Tensile Deformation In Nanowires, M. Ravi Shankar, Alexander H. King Jan 2007

How Surface Stresses Lead To Size-Dependent Mechanics Of Tensile Deformation In Nanowires, M. Ravi Shankar, Alexander H. King

Alexander H. King

It has been proposed that surface and interface stresses can modify the elastic behavior in nanomaterials such as nanowires. The authors show that surface stresses modify the tensile response of nanowires only when nonlinear elastic effects become important leading to cross terms between the applied stress and the surface stress. These effects are only significant when the radius of the nanowire is of the order of a few nanometers. The resulting alteration of tensile stiffness, though effected in part by the nonlinear elastic modulus, is particularly wrought by a modification of the stress state in the deformed nanowire.


Thermal Effects On Mechanical Grinding-Induced Surface Texture In Tetragonal Piezoelectrics, Wonyoung Chang, Alexander H. King, Keith J. Bowman Jan 2007

Thermal Effects On Mechanical Grinding-Induced Surface Texture In Tetragonal Piezoelectrics, Wonyoung Chang, Alexander H. King, Keith J. Bowman

Alexander H. King

The effect of temperature on grinding-induced texture in tetragonal lead zirconate titanate (PZT) and lead titanate (PT) has been investigated using in situ x-ray diffraction (XRD) with an area detector. In contrast with previous results on electrical poling, mechanically-ground PT and soft PZT materials retain strong ferroelastic textures during thermal cycling, even after excursions to temperatures slightly above the Curie temperature. The relationship between the residual stresses in the surface region, caused by grinding, and those resulting from domain wall motion is elucidated by in situ texture measurements obtained during thermal cycling.


Design And Performance Of A Curved-Crystal X-Ray Emission Spectrometer, A. C. Hudson, Wayne C. Stolte, Dennis W. Lindle, Renaud Guillemin Jan 2007

Design And Performance Of A Curved-Crystal X-Ray Emission Spectrometer, A. C. Hudson, Wayne C. Stolte, Dennis W. Lindle, Renaud Guillemin

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

A curved-crystal x-ray emission spectrometer has been designed and built to measure 2–5 keV x-ray fluorescence resulting from a core-level excitation of gas phase species. The spectrometer can rotate 180°, allowing detection of emitted x rays with variable polarization angles, and is capable of collecting spectra over a wide energy range (20 eV wide with 0.5 eV resolution at the Cl K edge) simultaneously. In addition, the entire experimental chamber can be rotated about the incident-radiation axis by nearly 360° while maintaining vacuum, permitting measurements of angular distributions of emitted x rays.


Formation Of In- (2×1) And In Islands On Si (100) - (2×1) By Femtosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition, M. A. Hafez, H. E. Elsayed-Ali Jan 2007

Formation Of In- (2×1) And In Islands On Si (100) - (2×1) By Femtosecond Pulsed Laser Deposition, M. A. Hafez, H. E. Elsayed-Ali

Electrical & Computer Engineering Faculty Publications

The growth of indium on a vicinal Si (100) - (2×1) surface at room temperature by femtosecond pulsed laser deposition (fsPLD) was investigated by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED). Recovery of the RHEED intensity was observed between laser pulses and when the growth was terminated. The surface diffusion coefficient of deposited In on initial two-dimensional (2D) In- (2×1) layer was determined. As growth proceeds, three-dimensional In islands grew on the 2D In- (2×1) layer. The RHEED specular profile was analyzed during film growth, while the grown In islands were examined by ex situ atomic force microscopy ...