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Articles 1 - 30 of 533

Full-Text Articles in Physics

Erratum: "Imaging The Three‐Dimensional Orientation And Rotational Mobility Of Fluorescent Emitters Using The Tri‐Spot Point Spread Function", Oumeng Zhang, Jin Lu, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew Aug 2019

Erratum: "Imaging The Three‐Dimensional Orientation And Rotational Mobility Of Fluorescent Emitters Using The Tri‐Spot Point Spread Function", Oumeng Zhang, Jin Lu, Tianben Ding, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

In the original paper, a calibration error exists in the image-formation model used to analyze experimental images taken by our microscope, causing a bias in the orientation measurements in Figs. 2 and 3. The updated measurements are shown in Fig. E1. We have also updated the supplementary material for the original article to discuss the revised PSF model and estimation algorithms (supplementary material 2) and show the revised model and measurements (Figs. S1, S3, S7, S8, and S10–S13).


Computational Studies Of Thermal Properties And Desalination Performance Of Low-Dimensional Materials, Yang Hong Aug 2019

Computational Studies Of Thermal Properties And Desalination Performance Of Low-Dimensional Materials, Yang Hong

Student Research Projects, Dissertations, and Theses - Chemistry Department

During the last 30 years, microelectronic devices have been continuously designed and developed with smaller size and yet more functionalities. Today, hundreds of millions of transistors and complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor cells can be designed and integrated on a single microchip through 3D packaging and chip stacking technology. A large amount of heat will be generated in a limited space during the operation of microchips. Moreover, there is a high possibility of hot spots due to non-uniform integrated circuit design patterns as some core parts of a microchip work harder than other memory parts. This issue becomes acute as stacked microchips get ...


Stereodynamical Control Of A Quantum Scattering Resonance In Cold Molecular Collisions, Pablo G. Jambrina, James F.E. Croft, Hua Guo, Mark Brouard, Balakrishnan Naduvalath, F. Javier Aoiz Jul 2019

Stereodynamical Control Of A Quantum Scattering Resonance In Cold Molecular Collisions, Pablo G. Jambrina, James F.E. Croft, Hua Guo, Mark Brouard, Balakrishnan Naduvalath, F. Javier Aoiz

Chemistry and Biochemistry Faculty Publications

Cold collisions of light molecules are often dominated by a single partial wave resonance. For the rotational quenching of HD (v=1, j=2) by collisions with ground state para-H2, the process is dominated by a single L=2 partial wave resonance centered around 0.1 K. Here, we show that this resonance can be switched on or off simply by appropriate alignment of the HD rotational angular momentum relative to the initial velocity vector, thereby enabling complete control of the collision outcome.


Using Forensics To Introduce Ir Spectroscopy & Molecular Modeling, Joe Golab Jul 2019

Using Forensics To Introduce Ir Spectroscopy & Molecular Modeling, Joe Golab

Faculty Publications & Research

A student activity is reported that analyzes “medical evidence” with experimental and computational methods. The lesson demonstrates benefits of solving practical problems with integrated tools.


Characteristics Of Sulfur Atoms Adsorbed On Ag(100), Ag(110), And Ag(111) As Probed With Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Experiment And Theory, Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Holly Walen, Junepyo Oh, Hyun Jin Yang, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel May 2019

Characteristics Of Sulfur Atoms Adsorbed On Ag(100), Ag(110), And Ag(111) As Probed With Scanning Tunneling Microscopy: Experiment And Theory, Peter M. Spurgeon, Da-Jiang Liu, Holly Walen, Junepyo Oh, Hyun Jin Yang, Yousoo Kim, Patricia A. Thiel

Chemistry Publications

In this paper, we report that S atoms on Ag(100) and Ag(110) exhibit a distinctive range of appearances in scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) images, depending on the sample bias voltage, VS. Progressing from negative to positive VS, the atomic shape can be described as a round protrusion surrounded by a dark halo (sombrero) in which the central protrusion shrinks, leaving only a round depression. This progression resembles that reported previously for S atoms on Cu(100). We test whether DFT can reproduce these shapes and the transition between them, using a modified version of the Lang–Tersoff–Hamann ...


High Resolution Near-Infrared/Visible Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy Of Small Molecules, Jack Harms Apr 2019

High Resolution Near-Infrared/Visible Intracavity Laser Spectroscopy Of Small Molecules, Jack Harms

Dissertations

Intracavity laser spectroscopy has been used to study the electronic structure of several small molecules. The molecules studied as part of this dissertation include germanium hydride (GeH), copper oxide (CuO), nickel chloride (NiCl), platinum fluoride (PtF), platinum chloride (PtCl), and copper hydroxide (CuOH). This work encompasses five peer-reviewed publications and two submitted manuscripts.


Fundamental Limits Of Measuring Single-Molecule Rotational Mobility, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew Feb 2019

Fundamental Limits Of Measuring Single-Molecule Rotational Mobility, Oumeng Zhang, Matthew D. Lew

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Various methods exist for measuring molecular orientation, thereby providing insight into biochemical activities at nanoscale. Since fluorescence intensity and not electric field is detected, these methods are limited to measuring even-order moments of molecular orientation. However, any measurement noise, for example photon shot noise, will result in nonzero measurements of any of these even-order moments, thereby causing rotationally-free molecules to appear to be partially constrained. Here, we build a model to quantify measurement errors in rotational mobility. Our theoretical framework enables scientists to choose the optimal single-molecule orientation measurement technique for any desired measurement accuracy and photon budget.


Thermally Activated Diffusion Of Copper Into Amorphous Carbon, David Appy, Mark Wallingford, Dapeng Jing, Ryan T. Ott, Michael C. Tringides, Gunther Richter, Patricia A. Thiel Feb 2019

Thermally Activated Diffusion Of Copper Into Amorphous Carbon, David Appy, Mark Wallingford, Dapeng Jing, Ryan T. Ott, Michael C. Tringides, Gunther Richter, Patricia A. Thiel

Patricia A. Thiel

Using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the authors characterize the thermally activated changes that occur when Cu is deposited on amorphous carbon supported on Si at 300 K, then heated to 800 K. The authors compare data for Cu on the basal plane of graphite with pinning defects, where scanning tunneling microscopy reveals that coarsening is the main process in this temperature range. Coarsening begins at 500–600 K and causes moderate attenuation of the Cu photoelectron signal. For Cu on amorphous carbon, heating to 800 K causes Cu to diffuse into the bulk of the film, based on the strong attenuation ...


Comparison Of S-Adsorption On (111) And (100) Facets Of Cu Nanoclusters, Jeffrey S. Boschen, Jiyoung Lee, Theresa L. Windus, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel, Da-Jiang Liu Feb 2019

Comparison Of S-Adsorption On (111) And (100) Facets Of Cu Nanoclusters, Jeffrey S. Boschen, Jiyoung Lee, Theresa L. Windus, James W. Evans, Patricia A. Thiel, Da-Jiang Liu

Patricia A. Thiel

In order to gain insight into the nature of chemical bonding of sulfur atoms on coinage metal surfaces, we compare the adsorption energy and structural parameters for sulfur at four-fold hollow (4fh) sites on (100) facets and at three-fold hollow (3fh) sites on (111) facets of Cu nanoclusters. Consistent results are obtained from localized atomic orbital and plane-wave based density functional theory using the same functionals. PBE and its hybrid counterpart (PBE0 or HSE06) also give similar results. 4fh sites are preferred over 3fh sites with stronger bonding by ∼0.6 eV for nanocluster sizes above ∼280 atoms. However, for ...


A Hydrogen-Bond Stabilized Mechanism Of Oxygen Evolution In Photosystem Ii: A Proposed Computational Experiment, Christopher King Jan 2019

A Hydrogen-Bond Stabilized Mechanism Of Oxygen Evolution In Photosystem Ii: A Proposed Computational Experiment, Christopher King

Undergraduate Theses and Professional Papers

The ability of plants to take in water and release oxygen into the atmosphere is crucial to the survival of life on Earth. During photosynthesis, water is oxidized to O2 (dioxygen) at the Oxygen Evolving Complex (OEC) of Photosystem II. Structurally, the OEC resembles a box with an open lid, consisting of metal atoms (four manganese and one calcium) bridged by oxygen atoms. The mechanism of action of this complex, however, is not well understood. Various mechanisms have been proposed in recent years to explain how the OEC oxidizes water to dioxygen, but all of these mechanisms contain gaps ...


Conformational Dependence Of Σ-Electron Delocalization In The Catenae Xnme2n+2, X = Si, Ge, Sn, And Pb, Milena Jovanovic Jan 2019

Conformational Dependence Of Σ-Electron Delocalization In The Catenae Xnme2n+2, X = Si, Ge, Sn, And Pb, Milena Jovanovic

Chemistry Graduate Theses & Dissertations

Bonds of σ type are the most common chemical bonds, dominating bonding in all molecules and defining the framework of a molecule. It has been long known that electrons in σ bonds can delocalize throughout a molecule. However, the nature of σ-electron delocalization is not fully understood due to its complexity. One of the important aspects of σ-electron delocalization is its conformational dependence, first noted in oligosilanes where properties of a molecule change drastically when it changes conformation. This dissertation describes efforts to understand the conformational dependence of σ delocalization in oligosilanes and their heavier analogs using simple intuitive models ...


Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski Dec 2018

Call For Abstracts - Resrb 2019, July 8-9, Wrocław, Poland, Wojciech M. Budzianowski

Wojciech Budzianowski

No abstract provided.


Optimization Of Useful Hard X-Ray Photochemistry, David Lewis Goldberger Dec 2018

Optimization Of Useful Hard X-Ray Photochemistry, David Lewis Goldberger

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

X-ray induced damage is generally considered a nuisance, but in the field of Useful Hard X-ray Photochemistry we harness the highly ionizing and penetrating properties of hard X-rays (> 7 keV) to initiate novel photochemical decomposition and synthesis at ambient and extreme conditions. Preliminary experiments suggest that the energy of irradiating photons and the sample pressure play roles in determining the nature of X-ray induced damage. Here, we present the X-ray energy dependence of damage induced in strontium oxalate, strontium nitrate, and barium nitrate, as well as the pressure dependence of X-ray induced damage of strontium oxalate. Our results indicate that ...


Hedgehog Spin-Vortex Crystal Antiferromagnetic Quantum Criticality In Cak (Fe1−Xnix)4 As4 Revealed By Nmr, Qingping Ding, William R. Meier, J. Cui, Mingyu Xu, A. E. Böhmer, Sergey L. Bud’Ko, Paul C. Canfield, Yuji Furukawa Sep 2018

Hedgehog Spin-Vortex Crystal Antiferromagnetic Quantum Criticality In Cak (Fe1−Xnix)4 As4 Revealed By Nmr, Qingping Ding, William R. Meier, J. Cui, Mingyu Xu, A. E. Böhmer, Sergey L. Bud’Ko, Paul C. Canfield, Yuji Furukawa

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Two ordering states, antiferromagnetism and nematicity, have been observed in most iron-based superconductors (SCs). In contrast to those SCs, the newly discovered SC CaK(Fe1−xNix)4As4exhibits an antiferromagnetic (AFM) state, called hedgehog spin-vortex crystal (SVC) structure, without nematic order, providing the opportunity for the investigation into the relationship between spin fluctuations and SC without any effects of nematic fluctuations. Our 75As nuclear magnetic resonance studies on CaK(Fe1−xNix)4As4 (0≤x≤0.049) revealed that CaKFe4As4 is located close to a hidden hedgehog SVC AFM quantum-critical point (QCP). The magnetic QCP without nematicity in CaK(Fe1−xNix)4As4 ...


What Is The Best Method To Fit Time-Resolved Data? A Comparison Of The Residual Minimization And The Maximum Likelihood Techniques As Applied To Experimental Time-Correlated, Single-Photon Counting Data, Kalyan Santra, Jinchun Zhan, Xueyu Song, Emily A. Smith, Namrata Vaswani, Jacob W. Petrich Sep 2018

What Is The Best Method To Fit Time-Resolved Data? A Comparison Of The Residual Minimization And The Maximum Likelihood Techniques As Applied To Experimental Time-Correlated, Single-Photon Counting Data, Kalyan Santra, Jinchun Zhan, Xueyu Song, Emily A. Smith, Namrata Vaswani, Jacob W. Petrich

Emily Smith

The need for measuring fluorescence lifetimes of species in subdiffraction-limited volumes in, for example, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, entails the dual challenge of probing a small number of fluorophores and fitting the concomitant sparse data set to the appropriate excited-state decay function. This need has stimulated a further investigation into the relative merits of two fitting techniques commonly referred to as “residual minimization” (RM) and “maximum likelihood” (ML). Fluorescence decays of the well-characterized standard, rose bengal in methanol at room temperature (530 ± 10 ps), were acquired in a set of five experiments in which the total number of “photon ...


Instrumentation For Cryogenic Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Electron Decoupling In Rotating Solids, Faith Joellen Scott Aug 2018

Instrumentation For Cryogenic Dynamic Nuclear Polarization And Electron Decoupling In Rotating Solids, Faith Joellen Scott

Arts & Sciences Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) increases the sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using the higher polarization of electron radical spins compared to nuclear spins. The addition of electron radicals for DNP to the sample can cause hyperfine broadening, which decreases the resolution of the NMR resonances due to hyperfine interactions between electron and nuclear spins. Electron decoupling has been shown to attenuate the effects of hyperfine coupling in rotating solids. Magic angle spinning (MAS) DNP with electron decoupling requires a high electron Rabi frequency provided by a high-power microwave source such as a frequency-agile gyrotron. This dissertation describes the development ...


Structure And Thermodynamics Of Polyglutamine Peptides And Amyloid Fibrils Via Metadynamics And Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Riley Workman Aug 2018

Structure And Thermodynamics Of Polyglutamine Peptides And Amyloid Fibrils Via Metadynamics And Molecular Dynamics Simulations, Riley Workman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Aggregation of polyglutamine (polyQ)-rich polypeptides in neurons is a marker for nine neurodegenerative diseases. The molecular process responsible for the formation of polyQ fibrils is not well understood and represents a growing area of study. To enable development of treatments that could interfere with aggregation of polyQ peptides, it is crucial to understand the molecular mechanisms by which polyQ peptides aggregate into fibrils. Many experimental techniques have been employed to probe polyQ aggregation, however, observations from these studies have not lead to a unified understanding of the properties of these systems, instead yielding competing, fragmented theories of polyQ aggregation ...


Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman Aug 2018

Enhanced Acidity Of Acetic And Pyruvic Acids On The Surface Of Water, Alexis J. Eugene, Elizabeth A. Pillar, Agustín J. Colussi, Marcelo I. Guzman

Chemistry Faculty Publications

Understanding the acid–base behavior of carboxylic acids on aqueous interfaces is a fundamental issue in nature. Surface processes involving carboxylic acids such as acetic and pyruvic acids play roles in (1) the transport of nutrients through cell membranes, (2) the cycling of metabolites relevant to the origin of life, and (3) the photooxidative processing of biogenic and anthropogenic emissions in aerosols and atmospheric waters. Here, we report that 50% of gaseous acetic acid and pyruvic acid molecules transfer a proton to the surface of water at pH 2.8 and 1.8 units lower than their respective acidity constants ...


Infra-Red Microwave Spectra, Overtones, Degeneracy And Thermal Populations All In One Diagram, Carl W. David Aug 2018

Infra-Red Microwave Spectra, Overtones, Degeneracy And Thermal Populations All In One Diagram, Carl W. David

Chemistry Education Materials

An old drawing, which had an error in it, is re-presented (corrected) for understanding the relationships in diatomic vibrational-rotational interactions at the introductory level.


Effects Of High Pressure On Photochemical Reactivity Of Organic Molecular Materials Probed By Vibrational Spectroscopy, Jiwen Guan Jul 2018

Effects Of High Pressure On Photochemical Reactivity Of Organic Molecular Materials Probed By Vibrational Spectroscopy, Jiwen Guan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Chemical transformations of molecular materials induced by high pressure and light radiation exhibit novel and intriguing aspects that have attracted much attention in recent years. Particularly, under the two stimuli, entire transformations of molecular species can be realized in condensed phases without employing additional chemical constraints, e.g., the need of solvents, catalysts or radical initiators. This new synthetic approach in chemistry therefore satisfies increasing need for production methods with reduced environmental impacts. Motivated by these promises, my Ph. D thesis focuses on this state-of-the-art branch of high-pressure photochemistry. Specifically, high pressure is employed to create the necessary reaction conditions ...


Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov Jun 2018

Study Of The Visual Adaptation Mechanism In Marine Species With The Change Of Habitation Depth., Demid Osipov, Daniil Moshnikov

The International Student Science Fair 2018

The goal of our work was to determine the principal mechanisms that provide the difference in visual perception of two marine species that live on different depths: T. Pacificus and O. Vulgaris. In nature, visual perception of species that live deeper is shifted towards the blue region. This is related to the fact that red, orange and yellow light is absorbed more strongly by water than the blue light. On the other hand, the visual perception spectrum of an animal is determined by the absorption spectrum of the "light sensor" located in rods and cones of its eye retina. These ...


Super‐Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Over Extended Times By Using Transient Binding Of Single Thioflavin T Molecules, Kevin Spehar, Tianben Ding, Yuanzi Sun, Niraja Kedia, Jin Lu, George R. Nahass, Matthew D. Lew, Jan Bieschke Jun 2018

Super‐Resolution Imaging Of Amyloid Structures Over Extended Times By Using Transient Binding Of Single Thioflavin T Molecules, Kevin Spehar, Tianben Ding, Yuanzi Sun, Niraja Kedia, Jin Lu, George R. Nahass, Matthew D. Lew, Jan Bieschke

Electrical & Systems Engineering Publications and Presentations

Oligomeric amyloid structures are crucial therapeutic targets in Alzheimer's and other amyloid diseases. However, these oligomers are too small to be resolved by standard light microscopy. We have developed a simple and versatile tool to image amyloid structures by using thioflavin T without the need for covalent labeling or immunostaining. The dynamic binding of single dye molecules generates photon bursts that are used for fluorophore localization on a nanometer scale. Thus, photobleaching cannot degrade image quality, allowing for extended observation times. Super‐resolution transient amyloid binding microscopy promises to directly image native amyloid by using standard probes and record ...


Surface Reaction And Diffusion Kinetics In Semiconducting Metal Oxide Film Gas Sensors, Aravind Reghu May 2018

Surface Reaction And Diffusion Kinetics In Semiconducting Metal Oxide Film Gas Sensors, Aravind Reghu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Chemiresistive metal oxide gas sensors based on materials such as SnO2, ZnO, and TiO2, have been investigated extensively by many researchers for a wide range of applications. The band bending model, based on the surface chemistry of highly reactive ionosorbed species (O2- or O-) and the semiconducting material properties of SnO2, TiO2 and ZnO, adequately predicts the dependence of the change in sensor conductivity (Δσ) as a function of target gas pressure and temperature. However, the band bending model is not applicable to gas sensors based on reducible oxides such as WO3, MoO3 ...


Reduction Of The Ordered Magnetic Moment And Its Relationship To Kondo Coherence In, Benjamin G. Ueland, Na Hyun Jo, Aashish Sapkota, W. Tian, Morgan W. Masters, Halyna Hodovanets, Savannah S. Downing, Connor Schmidt, Robert Mcqueeney, Sergey L. Bud’Ko, Andreas Kreyssig, Paul C. Canfield, Alan Goldman Apr 2018

Reduction Of The Ordered Magnetic Moment And Its Relationship To Kondo Coherence In, Benjamin G. Ueland, Na Hyun Jo, Aashish Sapkota, W. Tian, Morgan W. Masters, Halyna Hodovanets, Savannah S. Downing, Connor Schmidt, Robert Mcqueeney, Sergey L. Bud’Ko, Andreas Kreyssig, Paul C. Canfield, Alan Goldman

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

The microscopic details of the suppression of antiferromagnetic order in the Kondo-lattice series Ce1-&ITx&ITLa&ITx&ITCu2Ge2 due to nonmagnetic dilution by La are revealed through neutron diffraction results for x = 0.20, 0.40, 0.75, and 0.85. Magnetic Bragg peaks are found for 0.20 <= x <= 0.75, and both the Ned temperature T-N and the ordered magnetic moment per Ce mu linearly decrease with increasing x. The reduction in mu points to strong hybridization of the increasingly diluted Ce 4f electrons, and we find a remarkable quadratic dependence of mu on the Kondo-coherence temperature. We discuss our results in terms of local-moment- versus itinerant-type magnetism and mean-field theory and show that Ce1-&ITx&ITLa&ITx&ITCu2Ge2 provides an exceptional opportunity to quantitatively study the multiple magnetic interactions in a Kondo lattice.


Hyperpolarization Of Silicon Nanoparticles With Tempo Radicals, Jingzhe Hu, Nicholas Whiting, Pratip Bhattacharya Mar 2018

Hyperpolarization Of Silicon Nanoparticles With Tempo Radicals, Jingzhe Hu, Nicholas Whiting, Pratip Bhattacharya

Nicholas Whiting

Silicon-based particles can be hyperpolarized via dynamic nuclear polarization to enhance 29Si magnetic resonance signals. Application of this technique to nanoscale silicon particles has been limited because of the low signal enhancements achieved; it is hypothesized that this is due to the low number of endogenous electronic defects inherent to the particles. We introduce a method of incorporating exogenous radicals into silicon nanoparticle suspensions in order to improve the hyperpolarization of 29Si nuclear spins to levels sufficient for in vivo MR imaging. Calibration of radical concentrations and polarization times are reported for a variety of silicon particle sizes (30−200 ...


Liquid-Like Thermal Conduction In Intercalated Layered Crystalline Solids, B. Li, H. Wang, Y. Kawakita, Q. Zhang, M. Feygenson, H. L. Yu, D. Wu, K. Ohara, T. Kikuchi, K. Shibata, T. Yamada, X. K. Ning, Y. Chen, J. Q. He, David Vaknin, R. Q. Wu, K. Nakajima, M. G. Kanatzidis Mar 2018

Liquid-Like Thermal Conduction In Intercalated Layered Crystalline Solids, B. Li, H. Wang, Y. Kawakita, Q. Zhang, M. Feygenson, H. L. Yu, D. Wu, K. Ohara, T. Kikuchi, K. Shibata, T. Yamada, X. K. Ning, Y. Chen, J. Q. He, David Vaknin, R. Q. Wu, K. Nakajima, M. G. Kanatzidis

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

As a generic property, all substances transfer heat through microscopic collisions of constituent particles1. A solid conducts heat through both transverse and longitudinal acoustic phonons, but a liquid employs only longitudinal vibrations2,3. As a result, a solid is usually thermally more conductive than a liquid. In canonical viewpoints, such a difference also serves as the dynamic signature distinguishing a solid from a liquid. Here, we report liquid-like thermal conduction observed in the crystalline AgCrSe2. The transverse acoustic phonons are completely suppressed by the ultrafast dynamic disorder while the longitudinal acoustic phonons are strongly scattered but survive, and are thus ...


Uncovering The Origin Of Divergence In The Csm(Cro4)2 (M = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu; Am) Family Through Examination Of The Chemical Bonding In A Molecular Cluster And By Band Structure Analysis, Shane S. Galley, Alexandra A. Arico, Tsung-Han Lee, Xiaoyu Deng, Yong-Xin Yao, Joseph M. Sperling, Vanessa Proust, Julia S. Storbeck, Vladimir Dobrosavljevic, Jennifer N. Neu, Theo Siegrist, Ryan E. Baumbach, Thomas E. Albrecht-Schmitt, Nikolas Kaltsoyannis, Nicola Lanata Feb 2018

Uncovering The Origin Of Divergence In The Csm(Cro4)2 (M = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu; Am) Family Through Examination Of The Chemical Bonding In A Molecular Cluster And By Band Structure Analysis, Shane S. Galley, Alexandra A. Arico, Tsung-Han Lee, Xiaoyu Deng, Yong-Xin Yao, Joseph M. Sperling, Vanessa Proust, Julia S. Storbeck, Vladimir Dobrosavljevic, Jennifer N. Neu, Theo Siegrist, Ryan E. Baumbach, Thomas E. Albrecht-Schmitt, Nikolas Kaltsoyannis, Nicola Lanata

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

A series of f-block chromates, CsM(CrO4)(2) (M = La, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu; Am), were prepared revealing notable differences between the Am-III derivatives and their lanthanide analogs. While all compounds form similar layered structures, the americium compound exhibits polymorphism and adopts both a structure isomorphous with the early lanthanides as well as one that possesses lower symmetry. Both polymorphs are dark red and possess band gaps that are smaller than the Ln(III) compounds. In order to probe the origin of these differences, the electronic structure of alpha-CsSm(CrO4)(2), alpha-CsEu(CrO4)(2), and alpha-CsAm(CrO4)(2) were studied ...


Investigation Of Novel Electrolytes For Use In Lithium-Ion Batteries And Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, Kartik Pilar Feb 2018

Investigation Of Novel Electrolytes For Use In Lithium-Ion Batteries And Direct Methanol Fuel Cells, Kartik Pilar

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Energy storage and conversion plays a critical role in the efficient use of available energy and is crucial for the utilization of renewable energy sources. To achieve maximum efficiency of renewable energy sources, improvements to energy storage materials must be developed. In this work, novel electrolytes for secondary batteries and fuel cells have been studied using nuclear magnetic resonance and high pressure x-ray scattering techniques to form a better understanding of dynamic and structural properties of these materials. Ionic liquids have been studied due to their potential as a safer alternative to organic solvent-based electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries and composite ...


Different Topological Quantum States In Ternary Zintl Compounds: Bacax (X = Si, Ge, Sn And Pb), Lin-Lin Wang, Adam Kaminski, Paul C. Canfield, Duane D. Johnson Jan 2018

Different Topological Quantum States In Ternary Zintl Compounds: Bacax (X = Si, Ge, Sn And Pb), Lin-Lin Wang, Adam Kaminski, Paul C. Canfield, Duane D. Johnson

Ames Laboratory Accepted Manuscripts

Topological quantum states require stringent combination of crystal symmetry and spin–orbit coupling (SOC) strength. Here, we report that the ternary Zintl compound series BaCaX (X = Si, Ge, Sn and Pb, Group IV) in the same crystal structure having eight valence electrons per formula unit can host two different topological quantum phases, controlled by atomic size and SOC strength. BaCaSi is a nodal-line semimetal (NLSM) with band inversion protected by mirror symmetry and hosts a strong topological insulator (TI) state when SOC is turned on, thus, a NLSM-TI phase. Moving to larger atomic sizes and heavier atoms, BaCaGe and BaCaSn ...


X-Ray Spectroscopy Of Nio And Nanodiamond At Ssrl, Jackson Earl Jan 2018

X-Ray Spectroscopy Of Nio And Nanodiamond At Ssrl, Jackson Earl

STAR (STEM Teacher and Researcher) Presentations

The first aspect of this research project focuses on investigating the surface chemistry of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) nanodiamond by using X-ray spectroscopy techniques at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL). HPHT nanodiamond is being examined as a biosensing tool for electric field detection based on the fluorescent nitrogen vacancy center hosted within diamond. With use of the transition edge spectrometer (TES), a state-of-the-art X-ray fluorescence detector, we are able to probe the surface and bulk properties of diamond. Preliminary work using density functional theory (DFT) has been done, offering insight into ground state energies and electronic structure. DFT ...