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Full-Text Articles in Physics

Disconnected Diagrams In Lattice Qcd, Arjun Singh Gambhir Jun 2017

Disconnected Diagrams In Lattice Qcd, Arjun Singh Gambhir

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this work, we present state-of-the-art numerical methods and their applications for computing a particular class of observables using lattice quantum chromodynamics (Lattice QCD), a discretized version of the fundamental theory of quarks and gluons. These observables require calculating so called "disconnected diagrams" and are important for understanding many aspects of hadron structure, such as the strange content of the proton. We begin by introducing the reader to the key concepts of Lattice QCD and rigorously define the meaning of disconnected diagrams through an example of the Wick contractions of the nucleon. Subsequently, the calculation of observables requiring disconnected diagrams ...


Optical Control Of Multi-Photon Coherent Interactions In Rubidium Atoms, Gleb Vladimirovich Romanov Mar 2017

Optical Control Of Multi-Photon Coherent Interactions In Rubidium Atoms, Gleb Vladimirovich Romanov

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In the last few decades, coherent light-atom interactions have opened unprecedented possibilities for the coherent control of atomic and optical quantum systems, paved the way for the practical realization of quantum information technologies, and allowed for the creation of novel quantum-enhanced sensors. This dissertation investigates the interaction of multiple near-resonant optical fields with hot rubidium atoms under the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. The main goal of the presented research is to address some fundamental challenges in using such systems for practical applications. The EIT effect relies on the strong coupling of an optical probe field and a collective long-lived ...


Ultracold Rubidium And Potassium System For Atom Chip-Based Microwave And Rf Potentials, Austin R. Ziltz Jan 2015

Ultracold Rubidium And Potassium System For Atom Chip-Based Microwave And Rf Potentials, Austin R. Ziltz

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In this dissertation we study the development of microwave and RF near-field potentials for use with atom chip trapped atomic gases. These potentials are inherently spin-dependent, able to target individual spin states simultaneously. In contrast with traditional atom chip potentials, these RF traps can be operated at arbitrary bias magnetic field strengths and thus be combined with magnetic Feshbach resonances. Furthermore, these potentials can strongly suppress the potential roughness that plagues traditional atom chip potentials. We present a dual chamber atom chip apparatus for generating ultracold 87Rb and 39K atomic gases. The apparatus produces quasi-pure Bose-Einstein condensates of 104 87Rb ...


Exploring A Novel Approach To Technical Nuclear Forensics Utilizing Atomic Force Microscopy, Richard Scot Peeke Jan 2014

Exploring A Novel Approach To Technical Nuclear Forensics Utilizing Atomic Force Microscopy, Richard Scot Peeke

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Experimental Generation And Manipulation Of Quantum Squeezed Vacuum Via Polarization Self-Rotation In Rb Vapor, Travis Scott Horrom Jan 2013

Experimental Generation And Manipulation Of Quantum Squeezed Vacuum Via Polarization Self-Rotation In Rb Vapor, Travis Scott Horrom

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Nonclassical states of light are of increasing interest due to their applications in the emerging field of quantum information processing and communication. Squeezed light is such a state of the electromagnetic field in which the quantum noise properties are altered compared with those of coherent light. Squeezed light and squeezed vacuum states are potentially useful for quantum information protocols as well as optical measurements, where sensitivities can be limited by quantum noise. We experimentally study a source of squeezed vacuum resulting from the interaction of near-resonant light with both cold and hot Rb atoms via the nonlinear polarization self-rotation effect ...


Studies Of Molecular Dynamics Of Fmoc-Alanine-D3 Through Solid State Deuteron Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Jianhua Sun Jan 2013

Studies Of Molecular Dynamics Of Fmoc-Alanine-D3 Through Solid State Deuteron Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Jianhua Sun

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

No abstract provided.


Studies Of Polarized And Unpolarized Helium -3 In The Presence Of Alkali Vapor, Kelly Anita Kluttz Jan 2012

Studies Of Polarized And Unpolarized Helium -3 In The Presence Of Alkali Vapor, Kelly Anita Kluttz

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

At the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, glass target cells containing a high density of highly polarized 3He nuclei are used in electron scattering experiments studying the substructure of the neutron. In addition to 3He, these cells contain a small amount of rubidium (Rb), potassium (K), and nitrogen (N2), which facilitate the polarization process. The work presented here represents studies of the interactions between the alkali vapor and 3He nuclei when both are polarized and unpolarized.;Our investigations into the mechanisms responsible for the relaxation of the 3He polarization have measured unusually large polarization losses. In addition, most cells studied ...


Slow And Stored Light Under Conditions Of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency And Four Wave Mixing In An Atomic Vapor, Nathaniel Blair Phillips Jan 2011

Slow And Stored Light Under Conditions Of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency And Four Wave Mixing In An Atomic Vapor, Nathaniel Blair Phillips

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The recent prospect of efficient, reliable, and secure quantum communication relies on the ability to coherently and reversibly map nonclassical states of light onto long-lived atomic states. A promising technique that accomplishes this employs Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT), in which a strong classical control field modifies the optical properties of a weak signal field in such a way that a previously opaque medium becomes transparent to the signal field. The accompanying steep dispersion in the index of refraction allows for pulses of light to be decelerated, then stored as an atomic excitation, and later retrieved as a photonic mode. This ...


A Measurement Of The Neutron Electric Form Factor At Very Large Momentum Transfer Using Polarized Electrons Scattering From A Polarized Helium-3 Target, Aidan Michael Kelleher Jan 2010

A Measurement Of The Neutron Electric Form Factor At Very Large Momentum Transfer Using Polarized Electrons Scattering From A Polarized Helium-3 Target, Aidan Michael Kelleher

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Knowledge of the electric and magnetic elastic form factors of the nucleon is essential for an understanding of nucleon structure. of the form factors, the electric form factor of the neutron has been measured over the smallest range in Q2 and with the lowest precision. Jefferson Lab experiment 02-013 used a novel new polarized 3He target to nearly double the range of momentum transfer in which the neutron form factor has been studied and to measure it with much higher precision. Polarized electrons were scattered off this target, and both the scattered electron and neutron were detected. GEn was measured ...


Laser Desorption From A Room Temperature Ionic Liquid, Peter Ronald Harris Jan 2009

Laser Desorption From A Room Temperature Ionic Liquid, Peter Ronald Harris

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

We report laser desorption from a Room Temperature Ionic Liquid (RTIL) as a novel source for time of flight mass spectrometry. We use the 2nd harmonic of an Nd:YAG laser to deposit intensities of 1-50 MW/cm2 via backside illumination onto our RTIL desorption sample. A microstructured metal grid situated on top of a glass microscope slide coated with RTIL serves as our desorption sample. The RTIL we use, 1-Butyl, 3-Methylimidazolium Hexafluorophosphate, remains liquid at pressures below 10-8 torr. The use of liquid desorption sample allows for improved surface conditions, homogeneity and sample life as compared to Matrix Assisted ...


The Effect Of Realistic Focal Conditions On Strong -Field Double Ionization, Jay Paul Paquette Jan 2009

The Effect Of Realistic Focal Conditions On Strong -Field Double Ionization, Jay Paul Paquette

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

In recent years, a great deal of progress has been made in understanding the ionization processes that result from the interaction of an intense laser pulse with multielectron atoms. However, due to experimental limitations, the effect of the laser field's spatial dependence on strong-field processes has rarely been investigated. Presented in this work is a theoretical analysis of this spatial dependence including a proposal for an experimentally observable result of the phenomenon. We begin by outlining the elements of the laser field that will vary as a function of position and show their effects on simple free electron trajectories ...


The Semiclassical Description Of The Energy Spectrum Of Hydrogen In Near-Perpendicular Fields, Christopher Robert Schleif Jan 2008

The Semiclassical Description Of The Energy Spectrum Of Hydrogen In Near-Perpendicular Fields, Christopher Robert Schleif

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

We examine the energy spectrum of hydrogen in weak near-perpendicular electric and magnetic fields using quantum computations and semiclassical analysis. The structure of the quantum spectrum is displayed in a lattice constructed by plotting the difference between total energy and first order energy versus first order energy, for all states of a given principal quantum number n. For some field parameters, the lattice structure is not regular, but has a lattice defect structure which may be characterized by the transport of lattice vectors. We find that in near-perpendicular fields the structure of the spectrum is divided into six distinct parameter ...


Effects Of Molecular Motion On Deuteron Magic Angle Spinning Nmr Spectra, Yuanyuan Huang Jan 2007

Effects Of Molecular Motion On Deuteron Magic Angle Spinning Nmr Spectra, Yuanyuan Huang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Solid state deuteron NMR experiments, especially magic angle spinning (MAS) and off-magic angle spinning (OMAS), are developed to explore dynamical systems. A theoretical discussion of interactions relevant for spin-1 nuclei is presented. Practical aspects of MAS/OMAS experiments are described an detail. The dominant quadrupolar coupling interaction in deuteron NMR has been simulated and the effects of multiple-frame molecular motions on MAS/OMAS spectra are taken into account in this calculation. Effects of chemical shift anisotropy are also simulated, and shown to be small under conditions of rapid sample spinning.;Two numerical methods, direct integration and an efficient simulation routine ...


Quantum Monte Carlo Method For Boson Ground States: Application To Trapped Bosons With Attractive And Repulsive Interactions, Wirawan Purwanto Jan 2005

Quantum Monte Carlo Method For Boson Ground States: Application To Trapped Bosons With Attractive And Repulsive Interactions, Wirawan Purwanto

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

We formulate a quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method for calculating the ground state of many-boson systems. The method is based on a field-theoretical approach, and is closely related to existing fermion auxiliary-field QMC methods which are applied in several fields of physics. The ground-state projection is implemented as a branching random walk in the space of permanents consisting of identical single-particle orbitals. Any single-particle basis can be used, and the method is in principle exact. We apply this method to an atomic Bose gas, where the atoms interact via an attractive or repulsive contact two-body potential parametrized by the s-wave ...


Ultraviolet Sources For Advanced Applications In The Vacuum Uv And Near Uv, Sheng Peng Jan 2004

Ultraviolet Sources For Advanced Applications In The Vacuum Uv And Near Uv, Sheng Peng

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation documents a systematic study consisting of experimental investigations and theoretical analyses of intense ultraviolet sources in VUV and near-UV. Some engineering issues regarding two prototypes of electrodeless lamps using rf and microwave are discussed.;Various excimers that produce intense UV light are investigated, including: (1) A benchmark Xe2 excimer which has been proven to be very efficient in our novel rf capacitively coupled discharge lamp; (2) A rarely studied excimer, KrI, which suffers from predissociation and was reported to be very weak or invisible by most of other studies; (3) XeI excimer whose emission dominates around 253 nm ...


The Effect Of An Adsorbate Upon Secondary Emission Properties Of Low -Energy Ion Bombarded Metallic And Semiconductor Substrates, Wendy Sara Vogan Jan 2003

The Effect Of An Adsorbate Upon Secondary Emission Properties Of Low -Energy Ion Bombarded Metallic And Semiconductor Substrates, Wendy Sara Vogan

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The absolute probabilities for low energy ion bombardment induced secondary emission of electrons and anions have been measured as a function of adsorbate coverage of the surface. The primary ion beams were incident at less than 500 eV on metallic, semiconducting and insulating surfaces. The adsorbate used was chiefly oxygen, and the coverage range studied was zero to about one monolayer. The presence of an adsorbate was observed to significantly enhance secondary emission of electrons and anions in the case of O - and Na+ impacting metallic (W, Al) and semiconducting (Si) substrates; the effect of the adsorbate was little to ...


Characterizing And Monitoring Changes In State Of Polymers During Cure And Use -Aging, Andrew Orschel Meyer Jan 2001

Characterizing And Monitoring Changes In State Of Polymers During Cure And Use -Aging, Andrew Orschel Meyer

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Multi Angle Laser Light Scattering (MALLS) and Frequency Dependent Electromagnetic Sensing (FDEMS) provide unique characterizations of polymer systems during cure and use-aging. This research illustrates how MALLS is an extremely accurate technique for absolute characterization of macromolecules, giving molecular weight and size information that other widely used and accepted techniques are incapable of measuring. Application of MALLS to monitoring the changing state of a polyamide-11 system in a water aging environment led to the discovery of an equilibrium molecular weight which is the result of two competing reactions, hydrolysis-degradation and a newly discovered recombination-polymerization reaction. The discovery of this recombination ...


Solid State Nmr Characterization Of Structural And Motional Parameter Distributions In Polyamidoammonium Dendrimers, Dariya Ivanovna Malyarenko Jan 2001

Solid State Nmr Characterization Of Structural And Motional Parameter Distributions In Polyamidoammonium Dendrimers, Dariya Ivanovna Malyarenko

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The characterization of narrow distributions of structural and motional parameters, and their evolution during the broad glass transition, is performed for deuterated PAMAM dendrimer salts using solid state NMR. The broadening of deuteron quadrupole echo (QE) lineshapes is consistent with the presence of narrow hydrogen bond length distribution (sigmar < 0.25 A) at the spacer amide and branching tertiary amine sites. The temperature dependent averaging of the experimental lineshapes is explained on the basis of fast planar librations in the dendrimer interior, and fast rotation and intermediate regime libration (in an asymmetric cone) of the dendrimer termini. The amplitudes of libration are temperature dependent and higher for low generation dendrimers, while librational rates show Arrhenius behavior only within the glass transition region. In this region, the width of log-normal distribution of rates increases with temperature at sites associated with chlorine counterions. The largest distributions are still less than one order of magnitude wide, unlike the dendrimer in solution or the linear polymers. Interpenetrated low generations (G < 3), uniform intermediate generations (G = 3--5) with surface network, and backfolded high generations (G > 5), are distinguished by interior and termini dynamics.;In the regime of fast motion QE lineshapes are highly sensitive to the presence of narrow structural and motional parameter distributions, and provide constraints on motional geometry independent of rates. The precise characterization of narrow log-normal rate distributions in the intermediate regime can ...


The Absorption Spectrum Of The Hydrogen Atom In Crossed Electric And Magnetic Fields, Dongmei Wang Jan 2000

The Absorption Spectrum Of The Hydrogen Atom In Crossed Electric And Magnetic Fields, Dongmei Wang

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

This dissertation reports the theoretical interpretation of the measured absorption spectrum of hydrogen atoms in crossed electric and magnetic fields. Closed-orbit theory is modified from two-dimensions to three-dimensions to interpret the large scale structure in the absorption spectrum. A new computational method---a Chirped-Fourier-Transform---is developed to extract the closed orbits from an energy spectrum. A quantitative model is provided to calculate the continuum absorption. We prove that the observed continuum absorption is proportional to the flux of electrons along trajectories which escape within a short time. Einstein-Brillouin-Keller (EBK) quantization theory is applied to obtain an approximate energy spectrum. Our results prove ...


Redistribution Of Rydberg States By Terahertz Radiation, Jonathan David Curley Jan 2000

Redistribution Of Rydberg States By Terahertz Radiation, Jonathan David Curley

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

We present the technique and results of our study of the redistribution of Rydberg states in barium by a half cycle pulse (HCP). A survey of previous research concerning the interaction of half cycle pulses with Rydberg atoms reveals a lack of experimental data in the area of state redistribution. This is primarily due to an inability to identify the redistributed states accurately using the currently available tool: selective field ionization (SFI). We present the limitations of SFI as a state identification tool. We then present a survey of isolated core excitation as a state identification tool, along with its ...


Collision-Induced Secondary Electron And Negative Ion Emission From Metallic Surfaces, John Christopher Tucek Jan 1997

Collision-Induced Secondary Electron And Negative Ion Emission From Metallic Surfaces, John Christopher Tucek

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Absolute yields of negative ions and secondary electrons resulting from collisions of positive sodium ions (Na{dollar}\sp{lcub}+{rcub}){dollar} with polycrystalline aluminum (Al) and molybdenum (Mo) surfaces and the Mo (100) surface have been measured as a function of the oxygen (O) coverage, from none up to several monolayers, for impact energies, E {dollar}<{dollar} 500 eV. Negative oxygen ions (O{dollar}\sp{lcub}-{rcub}){dollar} are found to be the dominant sputtered negative ions and for the three surfaces at all O coverages and Na{dollar}\sp{lcub}+{rcub}{dollar} impact energies. The O{dollar}\sp{lcub}-{rcub}{dollar} and secondary electron yields share a common impact energy threshold at {dollar}\rm E\sb{lcub}th{rcub}\approx 50{dollar} eV, and both have a strong dependence on the oxygen coverage of the surface.;The kinetic energy distributions of the secondary electrons and sputtered O{dollar}\sp{lcub}-{rcub}{dollar} were determined as functions of O coverages and impact energies. The O{dollar}\sp{lcub}-{rcub}{dollar} distributions are characterized by a narrow, low energy peak (at {dollar}\sim{dollar}1-2 eV) followed by a low level, high energy tail. The secondary electrons have a narrow (FWHM {dollar}\sim{dollar} 1-2 eV) kinetic energy distribution, centered essentially at the same most probable kinetic energy as the ions. The shapes of the respective distributions and the most probable kinetic energies are essentially invariant with the impact energy, O coverage and the metal surface.;The results were analyzed in terms of conventional collision cascade model, but the calculation could not be fitted to the experimental results. An electronic excitation mechanism is proposed to augment the collision cascade and to provide a mechanism for secondary electron emission. In the model, adsorbed O, which resides on the surface essentially as O{dollar}\sp{lcub}-{rcub},{dollar} is collisionally excited into an (MO{dollar}\sp{lcub}-{rcub})\sp*{dollar} repulsive state, and as the O{dollar}\sp{lcub}-{rcub}{dollar} exits the surface along the surface potential energy curve, it can decay by emission of an electron to the metal or to the vacuum, or it can survive as an ion. The parameters of this model can be adjusted such that the calculated kinetic energy distribution, together with that of the collision cascade, can reasonably reproduce the experimental observations for the ions and provide a reasonable fit to the corresponding electron kinetic energy distributions as well.


Search For Metastability Of 2s Muonic Neon, Bernard Wilhelm Bach Jan 1995

Search For Metastability Of 2s Muonic Neon, Bernard Wilhelm Bach

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

An experiment was performed at the Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI) to establish the conditions for the metastability of the 2S-state of muonic neon. The muonic atoms were formed by stopping negative muons in the neon-filled target chamber of the PSI cyclotron trap. A pair of intrinsic germanium detectors were used in coincidence to search for the two photon decay of the 2S-state. Both energy and time information from two photon events were written to disk for off-line analysis. Data were accumulated for neon pressures of 40 and 400 Torr. The data were then searched for evidence of two photon transitions ...


Muon Transfer From Muonic Deuterium To Carbon, David William Viel Jan 1994

Muon Transfer From Muonic Deuterium To Carbon, David William Viel

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Negative muons were brought to rest in a gas mixture of 30 torr CH$\sb4$ and 570 torr D$\sb2$, using the cyclotron trap at PSI. The muons formed muonic deuterium atoms which diffused through the mixture and transferred their muons to the carbon of the CH$\sb4$ molecules. A planar germanium detector and a silicon detector were used to observe x-rays from the initial muon cascade in the deuterium, and from subsequent cascade in the muonic carbon after transfer. A transfer rate of (4.5 $\pm$ 1.8) $\times$ 10$\sp{10}$/sec was found which agrees well with ...


Photoabsorption Spectra Of Hydrogen And Alkali Atoms In Electric Fields, Jing Gao Jan 1994

Photoabsorption Spectra Of Hydrogen And Alkali Atoms In Electric Fields, Jing Gao

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

A systematic study of the photoabsorption spectra of highly excited hydrogen and alkali atoms in electric fields is presented, based on the semiclassical closed-orbit theory. In most respects, hydrogen and alkali atoms behave similarly, because the excited alkali atoms have a single electron outside of a small ionic core, and the core only produces small shifts of energy levels and small phase shifts of scattered wave functions.;For hydrogen, the classical motion of the excited electron is regular and closed orbits can be enumerated. Above the zero-field ionization threshold, the system is rather simple. There is only one closed orbit ...


Collisions Of Atomic Hydrogen With Oxygen, Sulfur, Sodium And Halogen Anions At Low Energies, James Anthony Fedchak Jan 1994

Collisions Of Atomic Hydrogen With Oxygen, Sulfur, Sodium And Halogen Anions At Low Energies, James Anthony Fedchak

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Total electron detachment and charge transfer cross sections, $\sigma\sb{\rm e}$(E) and $\sigma\sb{\rm ct}$(E), have been measured for collisions of the negative ions O$\sp{-}$, S$\sp{-}$, F$\sp{-}$, Cl$\sp{-}$, Br$\sp{-}$, I$\sp{-}$, Na$\sp{-}$, and K$\sp{-}$ with atomic hydrogen for laboratory energies ranging from 2 to 500 eV. For the systems F$\sp{-}$, Cl$\sp{-}$, Br$\sp{-}$, O$\sp{-}$ and S$\sp{-}$ + H, $\sigma\sb{\rm e}$(E) displays no barrier for associative detachment; the results are found to be adequately described by simple curve-crossing models based upon available intermolecular potentials ...


Photoabsorption Spectra Of Hydrogen In Magnetic Fields, John A. Shaw Jan 1993

Photoabsorption Spectra Of Hydrogen In Magnetic Fields, John A. Shaw

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Measurements of the absorption spectrum of atomic H in strong magnetic fields have been analyzed. The measurements, performed by the Bielefeld, Germany experimental group, investigated the photoabsorption to levels near the ionization threshold in magnetic fields ranging from 2.7 to 6 Tesla. Taking advantage of a classical scaling law, the photon energy and the magnetic field strength were varied simultaneously in the experiment and the absorption rate vs. B{dollar}\sp{lcub}-1/3{rcub}{dollar} at fixed scaled-energy, {dollar}\varepsilon{dollar} = E/(B/B{dollar}\sb{lcub}\rm o{rcub})\sp{lcub}2/3{rcub}{dollar} was measured ...


A Study Of Molecular Order And Motion In Nematic Liquid Crystal Mixtures, Jon Michael Goetz Jan 1993

A Study Of Molecular Order And Motion In Nematic Liquid Crystal Mixtures, Jon Michael Goetz

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Materials which flow like fluids, but possess anisotropic properties like molecular crystals, are called 'liquid crystals'. Studies of liquid crystals contribute to our understanding of how molecular orientation influences macroscopic properties. This thesis presents experimental and theoretical investigations of molecular order and dynamics in nematic liquid crystal systems. First, deuterium nuclear magnetic resonance is used to determine the degree of orientational order of both components of a liquid crystal mixture simultaneously. The temperature dependence of the four order parameters is interpreted using a newly developed mean field theory of nematic binary mixtures composed of biaxial molecules. Next, mean field theory ...


Formation And Desorption Of Negative Ions From Metal Surfaces, Douglas Hugh Baker Jan 1992

Formation And Desorption Of Negative Ions From Metal Surfaces, Douglas Hugh Baker

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Investigations of negative ion and electron emission from gas-covered metal surfaces due to the impact of low energy (30-300 eV) positive ions and, separately, photons (2-5 eV) are presented. In both cases, the negative ion formation process is thought to occur via electron tunneling from the surface or its substrate to a sputtered or photodesorbed neutral atom or molecule.;In particular, absolute total negative ion and electron yields for collisions of positive alkali ions with a gas-covered Mo substrate have been measured. Mass analysis of the sputtered negative ions show that O{dollar}\sb2\sp-{dollar} is the dominant ion ...


Low-Energy Collisions Of Negative Ions With Atomic Hydrogen, Michael A. Huels Jan 1991

Low-Energy Collisions Of Negative Ions With Atomic Hydrogen, Michael A. Huels

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

Total cross sections for charge transfer and electron detachment for collisions of a variety of negative ions with atomic hydrogen have been separately determined for laboratory collision energies ranging from about 5 eV to 500 eV. The experiments are performed with an apparatus that utilizes a crossed-beam configuration with a radio-frequency discharge as the source of atomic hydrogen.;For collisions of H{dollar}\sp-{dollar}(D{dollar}\sp-{dollar}) with H the charge transfer cross sections increase monotonically with decreasing energy and display an isotope effect. at the lowest collision energies, the electron detachment cross sections are about one order ...


A Superconducting Compact Hydrogen Maser Resonator, David B. Opie Jan 1991

A Superconducting Compact Hydrogen Maser Resonator, David B. Opie

Dissertations, Theses, and Masters Projects

The discovery of high critical temperature superconductors (HTSC) has raised the temperature at which the greatly reduced surface resistance, characteristic of superconducting materials, may be exploited. For microwave frequencies below 100 GHz, the surface resistance, R{dollar}\sb{lcub}s{rcub}{dollar}, at liquid nitrogen temperatures (77K) of the new HTSC materials is found to be better than copper measured at the same temperature and frequency. Consequently, the miniaturization of passive microwave components will be among the first applications of these new materials. This dissertation details the development, testing and evaluation of a superconducting compact hydrogen maser resonator made from ...