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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Machine Learning-Based Models For Assessing Impacts Before, During And After Hurricane Events, Julie L. Harvey Sep 2019

Machine Learning-Based Models For Assessing Impacts Before, During And After Hurricane Events, Julie L. Harvey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Social media provides an abundant amount of real-time information that can be used before, during, and after extreme weather events. Government officials, emergency managers, and other decision makers can use social media data for decision-making, preparation, and assistance. Machine learning-based models can be used to analyze data collected from social media. Social media data and cloud cover temperature as physical sensor data was analyzed in this study using machine learning techniques. Data was collected from Twitter regarding Hurricane Florence from September 11, 2018 through September 20, 2018 and Hurricane Michael from October 1, 2018 through October 18, 2018. Natural language ...


Clustering Of Multiple Instance Data., Andrew D. Karem May 2019

Clustering Of Multiple Instance Data., Andrew D. Karem

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An emergent area of research in machine learning that aims to develop tools to analyze data where objects have multiple representations is Multiple Instance Learning (MIL). In MIL, each object is represented by a bag that includes a collection of feature vectors called instances. A bag is positive if it contains at least one positive instance, and negative if no instances are positive. One of the main objectives in MIL is to identify a region in the instance feature space with high correlation to instances from positive bags and low correlation to instances from negative bags -- this region is referred ...


Studying And Handling Iterated Algorithmic Biases In Human And Machine Learning Interaction., Wenlong Sun May 2019

Studying And Handling Iterated Algorithmic Biases In Human And Machine Learning Interaction., Wenlong Sun

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Algorithmic bias consists of biased predictions born from ingesting unchecked information, such as biased samples and biased labels. Furthermore, the interaction between people and algorithms can exacerbate bias such that neither the human nor the algorithms receive unbiased data. Thus, algorithmic bias can be introduced not only before and after the machine learning process but sometimes also in the middle of the learning process. With a handful of exceptions, only a few categories of bias have been studied in Machine Learning, and there are few, if any, studies of the impact of bias on both human behavior and algorithm performance ...


Real-Time Automated Weld Quality Analysis From Ultrasonic B-Scan Using Deep Learning, Zarreen Naowal Reza Jan 2019

Real-Time Automated Weld Quality Analysis From Ultrasonic B-Scan Using Deep Learning, Zarreen Naowal Reza

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Resistance spot welding is a widely used process for joining metals using electrically generated heat or Joule heating. It is one of the most commonly used techniques in automotive industry to weld sheet metals in order to form a car body. Although, industrial robots are used as automated spot welders in massive scale in the industries, the weld quality inspection process still requires human involvement to decide if a weld should be passed as acceptable or not. Not only it is a tedious and error- prone job, but also it costs industries lots of time and money. Therefore, making this ...


Computer Vision-Based Traffic Sign Detection And Extraction: A Hybrid Approach Using Gis And Machine Learning, Zihao Wu Jan 2019

Computer Vision-Based Traffic Sign Detection And Extraction: A Hybrid Approach Using Gis And Machine Learning, Zihao Wu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Traffic sign detection and positioning have drawn considerable attention because of the recent development of autonomous driving and intelligent transportation systems. In order to detect and pinpoint traffic signs accurately, this research proposes two methods. In the first method, geo-tagged Google Street View images and road networks were utilized to locate traffic signs. In the second method, both traffic signs categories and locations were identified and extracted from the location-based GoPro video. TensorFlow is the machine learning framework used to implement these two methods. To that end, 363 stop signs were detected and mapped accurately using the first method (Google ...


Regression Tree Construction For Reinforcement Learning Problems With A General Action Space, Anthony S. Bush Jr Jan 2019

Regression Tree Construction For Reinforcement Learning Problems With A General Action Space, Anthony S. Bush Jr

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Part of the implementation of Reinforcement Learning is constructing a regression of values against states and actions and using that regression model to optimize over actions for a given state. One such common regression technique is that of a decision tree; or in the case of continuous input, a regression tree. In such a case, we fix the states and optimize over actions; however, standard regression trees do not easily optimize over a subset of the input variables\cite{Card1993}. The technique we propose in this thesis is a hybrid of regression trees and kernel regression. First, a regression tree ...


Data Patterns Discovery Using Unsupervised Learning, Rachel A. Lewis Jan 2019

Data Patterns Discovery Using Unsupervised Learning, Rachel A. Lewis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Self-care activities classification poses significant challenges in identifying children’s unique functional abilities and needs within the exceptional children healthcare system. The accuracy of diagnosing a child's self-care problem, such as toileting or dressing, is highly influenced by an occupational therapists’ experience and time constraints. Thus, there is a need for objective means to detect and predict in advance the self-care problems of children with physical and motor disabilities. We use clustering to discover interesting information from self-care problems, perform automatic classification of binary data, and discover outliers. The advantages are twofold: the advancement of knowledge on identifying self-care ...


Ifocus: A Framework For Non-Intrusive Assessment Of Student Attention Level In Classrooms, Narayanan Veliyath Jan 2019

Ifocus: A Framework For Non-Intrusive Assessment Of Student Attention Level In Classrooms, Narayanan Veliyath

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The process of learning is not merely determined by what the instructor teaches, but also by how the student receives that information. An attentive student will naturally be more open to obtaining knowledge than a bored or frustrated student. In recent years, tools such as skin temperature measurements and body posture calculations have been developed for the purpose of determining a student's affect, or emotional state of mind. However, measuring eye-gaze data is particularly noteworthy in that it can collect measurements non-intrusively, while also being relatively simple to set up and use. This paper details how data obtained from ...


Applying Machine Learning Algorithms For The Analysis Of Biological Sequences And Medical Records, Shaopeng Gu Jan 2019

Applying Machine Learning Algorithms For The Analysis Of Biological Sequences And Medical Records, Shaopeng Gu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The modern sequencing technology revolutionizes the genomic research and triggers explosive growth of DNA, RNA, and protein sequences. How to infer the structure and function from biological sequences is a fundamentally important task in genomics and proteomics fields. With the development of statistical and machine learning methods, an integrated and user-friendly tool containing the state-of-the-art data mining methods are needed. Here, we propose SeqFea-Learn, a comprehensive Python pipeline that integrating multiple steps: feature extraction, dimensionality reduction, feature selection, predicting model constructions based on machine learning and deep learning approaches to analyze sequences. We used enhancers, RNA N6- methyladenosine sites and ...


A Transfer Learning Approach For Sentiment Classification., Omar Abdelwahab Dec 2018

A Transfer Learning Approach For Sentiment Classification., Omar Abdelwahab

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The idea of developing machine learning systems or Artificial Intelligence agents that would learn from different tasks and be able to accumulate that knowledge with time so that it functions successfully on a new task that it has not seen before is an idea and a research area that is still being explored. In this work, we will lay out an algorithm that allows a machine learning system or an AI agent to learn from k different domains then uses some or no data from the new task for the system to perform strongly on that new task. In order ...


Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard May 2018

Longitudinal Tracking Of Physiological State With Electromyographic Signals., Robert Warren Stallard

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Electrophysiological measurements have been used in recent history to classify instantaneous physiological configurations, e.g., hand gestures. This work investigates the feasibility of working with changes in physiological configurations over time (i.e., longitudinally) using a variety of algorithms from the machine learning domain. We demonstrate a high degree of classification accuracy for a binary classification problem derived from electromyography measurements before and after a 35-day bedrest. The problem difficulty is increased with a more dynamic experiment testing for changes in astronaut sensorimotor performance by taking electromyography and force plate measurements before, during, and after a jump from a small ...


Rnn-Based Generation Of Polyphonic Music And Jazz Improvisation, Andrew Hannum Jan 2018

Rnn-Based Generation Of Polyphonic Music And Jazz Improvisation, Andrew Hannum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper presents techniques developed for algorithmic composition of both polyphonic music, and of simulated jazz improvisation, using multiple novel data sources and the character-based recurrent neural network architecture char-rnn. In addition, techniques and tooling are presented aimed at using the results of the algorithmic composition to create exercises for musical pedagogy.


The Impact Of Data Sovereignty On American Indian Self-Determination: A Framework Proof Of Concept Using Data Science, Joseph Carver Robertson Jan 2018

The Impact Of Data Sovereignty On American Indian Self-Determination: A Framework Proof Of Concept Using Data Science, Joseph Carver Robertson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Data Sovereignty Initiative is a collection of ideas that was designed to create SMART solutions for tribal communities. This concept was to develop a horizontal governance framework to create a strategic act of sovereignty using data science. The core concept of this idea was to present data sovereignty as a way for tribal communities to take ownership of data in order to affect policy and strategic decisions that are data driven in nature. The case studies in this manuscript were developed around statistical theories of spatial statistics, exploratory data analysis, and machine learning. And although these case studies are ...


Old English Character Recognition Using Neural Networks, Sattajit Sutradhar Jan 2018

Old English Character Recognition Using Neural Networks, Sattajit Sutradhar

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Character recognition has been capturing the interest of researchers since the beginning of the twentieth century. While the Optical Character Recognition for printed material is very robust and widespread nowadays, the recognition of handwritten materials lags behind. In our digital era more and more historical, handwritten documents are digitized and made available to the general public. However, these digital copies of handwritten materials lack the automatic content recognition feature of their printed materials counterparts. We are proposing a practical, accurate, and computationally efficient method for Old English character recognition from manuscript images. Our method relies on a modern machine learning ...


Accurate And Justifiable : New Algorithms For Explainable Recommendations., Behnoush Abdollahi Aug 2017

Accurate And Justifiable : New Algorithms For Explainable Recommendations., Behnoush Abdollahi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Websites and online services thrive with large amounts of online information, products, and choices, that are available but exceedingly difficult to find and discover. This has prompted two major paradigms to help sift through information: information retrieval and recommender systems. The broad family of information retrieval techniques has given rise to the modern search engines which return relevant results, following a user's explicit query. The broad family of recommender systems, on the other hand, works in a more subtle manner, and do not require an explicit query to provide relevant results. Collaborative Filtering (CF) recommender systems are based on ...


Dynamic Adversarial Mining - Effectively Applying Machine Learning In Adversarial Non-Stationary Environments., Tegjyot Singh Sethi Aug 2017

Dynamic Adversarial Mining - Effectively Applying Machine Learning In Adversarial Non-Stationary Environments., Tegjyot Singh Sethi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While understanding of machine learning and data mining is still in its budding stages, the engineering applications of the same has found immense acceptance and success. Cybersecurity applications such as intrusion detection systems, spam filtering, and CAPTCHA authentication, have all begun adopting machine learning as a viable technique to deal with large scale adversarial activity. However, the naive usage of machine learning in an adversarial setting is prone to reverse engineering and evasion attacks, as most of these techniques were designed primarily for a static setting. The security domain is a dynamic landscape, with an ongoing never ending arms race ...


Using A Multi Variate Pattern Analysis (Mvpa) Approach To Decode Fmri Responses To Fear And Anxiety., Sajjad Torabian Esfahani May 2017

Using A Multi Variate Pattern Analysis (Mvpa) Approach To Decode Fmri Responses To Fear And Anxiety., Sajjad Torabian Esfahani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study analyzed fMRI responses to fear and anxiety using a Multi Variate Pattern Analysis (MVPA) approach. Compared to conventional univariate methods which only represent regions of activation, MVPA provides us with more detailed patterns of voxels. We successfully found different patterns for fear and anxiety through separate classification attempts in each subject’s representational space. Further, we transformed all the individual models into a standard space to do group analysis. Results showed that subjects share a more common fear response. Also, the amygdala and hippocampus areas are more important for differentiating fear than anxiety.


Audio-Based Productivity Forecasting Of Construction Cyclic Activities, Chris A. Sabillon Jan 2017

Audio-Based Productivity Forecasting Of Construction Cyclic Activities, Chris A. Sabillon

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to its high cost, project managers must be able to monitor the performance of construction heavy equipment promptly. This cannot be achieved through traditional management techniques, which are based on direct observation or on estimations from historical data. Some manufacturers have started to integrate their proprietary technologies, but construction contractors are unlikely to have a fleet of entirely new and single manufacturer equipment for this to represent a solution. Third party automated approaches include the use of active sensors such as accelerometers and gyroscopes, passive technologies such as computer vision and image processing, and audio signal processing. Hitherto, most ...


Sparse Feature Learning For Image Analysis In Segmentation, Classification, And Disease Diagnosis., Ehsan Hosseini-Asl May 2016

Sparse Feature Learning For Image Analysis In Segmentation, Classification, And Disease Diagnosis., Ehsan Hosseini-Asl

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The success of machine learning algorithms generally depends on intermediate data representation, called features that disentangle the hidden factors of variation in data. Moreover, machine learning models are required to be generalized, in order to reduce the specificity or bias toward the training dataset. Unsupervised feature learning is useful in taking advantage of large amount of unlabeled data, which is available to capture these variations. However, learned features are required to capture variational patterns in data space. In this dissertation, unsupervised feature learning with sparsity is investigated for sparse and local feature extraction with application to lung segmentation, interpretable deep ...


Greenc5: An Adaptive, Energy-Aware Collection For Green Software Development, Junya Michanan Jan 2016

Greenc5: An Adaptive, Energy-Aware Collection For Green Software Development, Junya Michanan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Dynamic data structures in software applications have been shown to have a large impact on system performance. In this paper, we explore energy saving opportunities of interface-based dynamic data structures. Our results suggest that savings opportunities exist in the C5 Collection between 16.95% and 97.50%. We propose a prototype and architecture for creating adaptive green data structures by applying machine learning tools to build a model for predicting energy efficient data structures based on the dynamic workload. Our neural network model can classify energy efficient data structures based on features such as the number of elements, frequency of ...


A Near-To-Far Learning Framework For Terrain Characterization Using An Aerial/Ground-Vehicle Team, Ashkan Hajjam Jan 2016

A Near-To-Far Learning Framework For Terrain Characterization Using An Aerial/Ground-Vehicle Team, Ashkan Hajjam

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this thesis, a novel framework for adaptive terrain characterization of untraversed far terrain in a natural outdoor setting is presented. The system learns the association between visual appearance of different terrain and the proprioceptive characteristics of that terrain in a self-supervised framework. The proprioceptive characteristics of the terrain are acquired by inertial sensors recording measurements of one second traversals that are mapped into the frequency domain and later through a clustering technique classified into discrete proprioceptive classes. Later, these labels are used as training inputs to the adaptive visual classifier. The visual classifier uses images captured by an aerial ...


Implementation Of A New Sigmoid Function In Backpropagation Neural Networks., Jeffrey A. Bonnell Aug 2011

Implementation Of A New Sigmoid Function In Backpropagation Neural Networks., Jeffrey A. Bonnell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis presents the use of a new sigmoid activation function in backpropagation artificial neural networks (ANNs). ANNs using conventional activation functions may generalize poorly when trained on a set which includes quirky, mislabeled, unbalanced, or otherwise complicated data. This new activation function is an attempt to improve generalization and reduce overtraining on mislabeled or irrelevant data by restricting training when inputs to the hidden neurons are sufficiently small. This activation function includes a flattened, low-training region which grows or shrinks during back-propagation to ensure a desired proportion of inputs inside the low-training region. With a desired low-training proportion of ...


Predicting Flavonoid Ugt Regioselectivity With Graphical Residue Models And Machine Learning., Arthur Rhydon Jackson Dec 2009

Predicting Flavonoid Ugt Regioselectivity With Graphical Residue Models And Machine Learning., Arthur Rhydon Jackson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Machine learning is applied to a challenging and biologically significant protein classification problem: the prediction of flavonoid UGT acceptor regioselectivity from primary protein sequence. Novel indices characterizing graphical models of protein residues are introduced. The indices are compared with existing amino acid indices and found to cluster residues appropriately. A variety of models employing the indices are then investigated by examining their performance when analyzed using nearest neighbor, support vector machine, and Bayesian neural network classifiers. Improvements over nearest neighbor classifications relying on standard alignment similarity scores are reported.