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Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Computational Quantum Chemistry Studies Of The Interactions Of Amino Acids Side Chains With The Guanine Radical Cation., Edward Acheampong Dec 2018

Computational Quantum Chemistry Studies Of The Interactions Of Amino Acids Side Chains With The Guanine Radical Cation., Edward Acheampong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Guanine is generally accepted as the most easily oxidized DNA base when cells are subjected to ionizing radiation, photoionization or photosensitization. At pH 7, the midpoint reduction potential is on the order of 0.2 – 0.3 V higher than those of the radicals of e.g. tyrosine, tryptophan cysteine and histidine, so that the radical “repair” (or at least, a thermodynamically favorable reaction) involving these amino acids is feasible. Computational quantum studies have been done on tyrosine, tryptophan, cysteine and histidine side chains as they appear in histones. Density functional theory was employed using B3LYP/6-31G+ (d, p) basis ...


Relative Permittivity As A Function Of Co-Solvent And Impedance Spectroscopy For Quantifying Anions In Solution, Yahya Sami Alseiha Dec 2018

Relative Permittivity As A Function Of Co-Solvent And Impedance Spectroscopy For Quantifying Anions In Solution, Yahya Sami Alseiha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This work measured relative permittivity from 15.0 to 55.0 °C of aqueous solutions containing acetone or tetrahydrofuran using a BI 870 dielectric meter. A cubic polynomial fit resulted in coefficients for calculating permittivity as a function of temperature and mole fraction. Literature values for other co-solvent system resulted in similar polynomial coefficients. Using BI 870, permittivity measurements of ionic solutions were not possible because of high conductivity. A simple method using impedance spectroscopy measured these solutions. Impedance decreases with increasing temperature and decreases with increasing ionic strength. Due to the temperature dependence of impedance, all measurements were at ...


Extraction And Purification Of Biologically Active Metabolites From Rhodococcus Sp. Mtm3w5.2, Mohrah Alenazi Dec 2018

Extraction And Purification Of Biologically Active Metabolites From Rhodococcus Sp. Mtm3w5.2, Mohrah Alenazi

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Rhodococcushas been recognized as a potential antibiotic producer. Recently, a strain of Rhodococcussp. MTM3W5.2 was isolated from a soil sample collected in Morristown, Tennessee and was found to produce an inhibitory compound which is active against other related species. The purpose of this research is to extract, purify and analyze the active metabolite. The compound was extracted from RM broth cultures and purified by preliminary fractionation of crude extract through a Sephadex LH-20 column. Further purification was completed using semi-preparative reversed phase column chromatography. Final purification was obtained using multiple rounds of an analytical C18 HPLC column ...


Italian Domination On Ladders And Related Products, Bradley Gardner Dec 2018

Italian Domination On Ladders And Related Products, Bradley Gardner

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An Italian dominating function on a graph $G = (V,E)$ is a function such that $f : V \to \{0,1,2\}$, and for each vertex $v \in V$ for which $f(v) = 0$, we have $\sum_{u\in N(v)}f(u) \geq 2$. The weight of an Italian dominating function is $f(V) = \sum_{v\in V(G)}f(v)$. The minimum weight of all such functions on a graph $G$ is called the Italian domination number of $G$. In this thesis, we will consider Italian domination in various types of products of a graph $G$ with the complete ...


A Normal Form For Words In The Temperley-Lieb Algebra And The Artin Braid Group On Three Strands, Jack Hartsell Dec 2018

A Normal Form For Words In The Temperley-Lieb Algebra And The Artin Braid Group On Three Strands, Jack Hartsell

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The motivation for this thesis is the computer-assisted calculation of the Jones poly- nomial from braid words in the Artin braid group on three strands, denoted B3. The method used for calculation of the Jones polynomial is the original method that was created when the Jones polynomial was first discovered by Vaughan Jones in 1984. This method utilizes the Temperley-Lieb algebra, and in our case the Temperley-Lieb Algebra on three strands, denoted A3, thus generalizations about A3 that assist with the process of calculation are pursued.


Performance Assessment Of The Extended Gower Coefficient On Mixed Data With Varying Types Of Functional Data., Obed Koomson Dec 2018

Performance Assessment Of The Extended Gower Coefficient On Mixed Data With Varying Types Of Functional Data., Obed Koomson

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Clustering is a widely used technique in data mining applications to source, manage, analyze and extract vital information from large amounts of data. Most clustering procedures are limited in their performance when it comes to data with mixed attributes. In recent times, mixed data have evolved to include directional and functional data. In this study, we will give an introduction to clustering with an eye towards the application of the extended Gower coefficient by Hendrickson (2014). We will conduct a simulation study to assess the performance of this coefficient on mixed data whose functional component has strictly-decreasing signal curves and ...


Dreadd Targeting Projections From The Nucleus Accumbens To The Ventral Pallidum With Nicotine Self-Administration, Amanda Smith Dec 2018

Dreadd Targeting Projections From The Nucleus Accumbens To The Ventral Pallidum With Nicotine Self-Administration, Amanda Smith

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Projections from the Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) to the Ventral Pallidum (VP) play a critical role in motivation and reward. Rewards and reward-associated cues are thought to alter this pathway by suppressing GABA release to the VP, however, the role of the NAc to VP pathway has never been investigated with regard to nicotine self-administration. We hypothesized that increasing GABAergic signaling from the NAc to the VP would decrease the reinforcing effects of nicotine. To increase GABA release, CRE dependent DREADD was expressed in the NAc of male rats. Administration of low dose clozapine activated the DREADD receptor and showed a ...


Imidacloprid Persistence, Mobility, And Effect On Ecosystem Function, Joanna Hardin Dec 2018

Imidacloprid Persistence, Mobility, And Effect On Ecosystem Function, Joanna Hardin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid pesticide used to protect against biting and sucking insects. Land managers rely on its systemic properties, however long-term studies investigating imidacloprid effects on ecosystem function are limited. This study investigated imidacloprid applications to Tsuga caroliniana and Tsuga canadensis over time and compared concentrations to measures of ecosystem function including soil respiration, microbial function, and invertebrate density. Results indicate that imidacloprid is persistent (p0.5). Microbial function and invertebrate density were not significantly different between control and treatment locations nor did imidacloprid concentrations correlate with ecosystem functional indicator activity (p>0.05). It is evident that imidacloprid ...


An Evaluation Of Geotagged Twitter Data During Hurricane Irma Using Sentiment Analysis And Topic Modeling For Disaster Resilience, Ike Robert Vayansky Oct 2018

An Evaluation Of Geotagged Twitter Data During Hurricane Irma Using Sentiment Analysis And Topic Modeling For Disaster Resilience, Ike Robert Vayansky

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Disasters require quick response times, thought-out preparations, overall community, and government support. These efforts will ensure prevention of loss of life and reduce possible damages. The United States has been battered by multiple major hurricanes in the recent years and multiple avenues of disaster response efforts were being tested. Hurricane Irma can be recognized as the most popular hurricane in terms of social media attention. Irma made landfall in Florida as a Category 4 storm and preparation measures taken were intensive thus providing a good measure to evaluate in terms of efficacy. The effectiveness of the response methods utilized are ...


Retreat Of The Antarctic Ice Sheet In The Southern Ross Embayment From Records At Amundsen And Liv Glaciers, Southern Transantarctic Mountains, Jillian Pelto Aug 2018

Retreat Of The Antarctic Ice Sheet In The Southern Ross Embayment From Records At Amundsen And Liv Glaciers, Southern Transantarctic Mountains, Jillian Pelto

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Antarctic Ice Sheet contains ~58 m of global sea-level equivalent and thus its future behavior under global warming is of pressing concern. Examination of past ice-sheet behavior during periods of warming climate can afford insight useful for predicting future sea-level rise. This study focuses on a major unanswered question - namely, the cause of Antarctic Ice Sheet retreat following the last glaciation. Documenting the timing and nature of this deglaciation is crucial to understand the mechanisms behind ice-sheet behavior. Here, I examine how the marine portions of the ice sheet responded to the major warming that occurred at the end ...


Three Examples Of Mondoromy Groups, Alice A. Wise Aug 2018

Three Examples Of Mondoromy Groups, Alice A. Wise

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis illustrates the notion of the Monodromy group of a global analytic function through three examples. One is a relatively simple finite example; the others are more complicated infinite cases, one abelian and one non-abelian, which show connections to other parts of mathematics.


Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel Aug 2018

Nitrogen Cycling During A Period Of Environmental Change, Kaizad Patel

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Natural and anthropogenic disturbances have altered the N cycle on the regional to global scale. Although numerous studies have examined the effects of chronic atmospheric N deposition on ecosystem processes, less is known about intra-annual variability of these processes, or how these responses might be altered under conditions of changing climate. The work described in this dissertation focuses on the effects of a changing chemical and physical climate, particularly terrestrial N processes (a) during Maine’s changing winters, and (b) in response to chronic elevated N additions.

Subnivean winter soil processes were examined at the Dwight B. DeMerritt Forest (DBDF ...


Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo Aug 2018

Understanding Student Development Of Science Literacy Skills In An Undergraduate Environmental Science Course, Molly Picillo

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Educators are expected to instill a variety of skills in their students that are necessary to be competent citizens of society. One such set of skills, science literacy skills, broadly encompass the ability of an individual to evaluate reliability of data and information and critically analyze and interpret them (Gormally Brickman, Hallar, & Armstrong, 2009). These skills are utilized in everyday decision-making and given their pertinence, there is a need for citizens to be scientifically literate. Thus, educators need tools and assessments to help students develop these skills and analyze their science literacy. The aim of this study was to develop science literacy interventions that could be easily incorporated into college curricula, providing instructors with exemplars of classroom interventions with the intent to improve students’ science literacy skills. Therefore, the broad research question for this investigation was: How do science literacy interventions impact student proficiency in science literacy skills in college general education courses? I measured effectiveness of the interventions using the Test of Science Literacy Skills (TOSLS, Gormally Brickman, & Lutz, 2012) pre- and post-survey scores, as well as student feedback from pre- and post-survey, follow-up interviews. The TOSLS surveys were given as part of a participation grade to students in a general education undergraduate college course (n = 148). A subset of students volunteered to be interviewed regarding specific questions from the TOSLS survey, after both the pre-survey (n = 12) and the post-survey (n = 5), to further investigate student understanding and interpretation. Interventions were designed by modifying previous assignments from earlier years’ offerings of the class and were conducted both during class and outside of class as homework extensions. These interventions were created by evaluating scores and interviews on the TOSLS survey deployed as a pilot study in a previous semester of the undergraduate course. Based on these pilot data, four survey questions encompassing different science literacy skills of particular difficulty were targeted for intervention. The interventions were: (1) An interactive clicker-based lesson involving graph selection methods; (2) Data summits involving graph interpretation and source evaluation; and (3) A role-play after which students discussed sources of bias.

Although the results indicated no statistically significant changes in the average scores between the pre-survey and post-survey (t test, p = 0.82, α = 0.05), interviewed students recalled ...


The Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Theoretical Framework And Applications To Leak Identification In Pressurized Space Modules, Kenneth R. Bundy Aug 2018

The Hilbert-Huang Transform: A Theoretical Framework And Applications To Leak Identification In Pressurized Space Modules, Kenneth R. Bundy

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Any manned space mission must provide breathable air to its crew. For this reason, air leaks in spacecraft pose a danger to the mission and any astronauts on board. The purpose of this work is twofold: the first is to address the issue of air pressure loss from leaks in spacecraft. Air leaks present a danger to spacecraft crew, and so a method of finding air leaks when they occur is needed. Most leak detection systems localize the leak in some way. Instead, we address the identification of air leaks in a pressurized space module, we aim to determine the ...


Biomass Based Monomers For Synthesis Of Renewably Sourced Polymers, Anushka E. Vithanage Aug 2018

Biomass Based Monomers For Synthesis Of Renewably Sourced Polymers, Anushka E. Vithanage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Limited fossil resources have raised research focus on synthesizing novel, sustainable polymers and renewably sourcing existing petroleum based polymers. This work presents the synthesis and ring opening polymerization (ROP) of a new functionalized lactone monomer, methoxy-δ-hexalactone (MDHL), to yield a functionalized polyester (polyMDHL). MDHL can be renewably sourced from hydroxymethylfurfural, a renewable platform chemical. MDHL was synthesized from methyl cyclopentanone-2-carboxylate by a five-step synthesis with a global yield of 23%. ROP of MDHL was conducted with benzyl alcohol initiator, catalyzed by diphenyl phosphate. 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy verified polyMDHL chemical structure. Targeting higher molecular weights for polyMDHL by increasing ...


Mechanistic Studies Of Reducible Metal Oxides As Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts, Akbar Mahdavi Shakib Aug 2018

Mechanistic Studies Of Reducible Metal Oxides As Hydrodeoxygenation Catalysts, Akbar Mahdavi Shakib

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrodeoxygenation of phenol to benzene using ruthenium supported titania catalysts strongly varies depending on the support crystal structure and preparation conditions. Here, we performed spectroscopic characterization of titania supports to identify the surface impurities common to commercial and synthesized titania samples using a variety of spectroscopic methods. Sulfate impurities were detected for the commercial anatase samples and a procedure for their elimination was proposed so that inactive catalysts gained reactivity. Surface hydroxyls of different TiO2 samples (anatase, rutile, and pyrogenic) were identified using diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) experiments performed on vigorously cleaned surfaces and a facet-specific assignment ...


Rediscovering The Interpersonal: Models Of Networked Communication In New Media Performance, Alicia Champlin Aug 2018

Rediscovering The Interpersonal: Models Of Networked Communication In New Media Performance, Alicia Champlin

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This paper examines the themes of human perception and participation within the contemporary paradigm and relates the hallmarks of the major paradigm shift which occurred in the mid-20th century from a structural view of the world to a systems view. In this context, the author’s creative practice is described, outlining a methodology for working with the communication networks and interpersonal feedback loops that help to define our relationships to each other and to media since that paradigm shift. This research is framed within a larger field of inquiry into the impact of contemporary New Media Art as we experience ...


Immobilization Of Gold Nanoparticles On Nitrided Carbon Fiber Ultramicroelectrodes By Direct Reduction, George Affadu-Danful Aug 2018

Immobilization Of Gold Nanoparticles On Nitrided Carbon Fiber Ultramicroelectrodes By Direct Reduction, George Affadu-Danful

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Due to enhanced properties such as large surface area-to-volume ratio, metal nanoparticles are often employed as catalysts for various applications. However, most studies involving nanoparticle catalysts have been conducted on collections of particles rather than single nanoparticles. Results obtained for ensemble systems can be difficult to interpret due to variations in particle loading and interparticle distance, which are often challenging to control and characterize. In this study, two immobilization strategies for incorporating gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) on carbon fiber ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) were compared with the goal of extending these techniques to nanoelectrodes for studies of single AuNPs. Both layer-by-layer deposition of ...


Comparing Laser Assisted Pulling And Chemical Vapor Deposition Methods In The Fabrication Of Carbon Ultramicro- And Nanoelectrodes, Theophilus Neequaye Aug 2018

Comparing Laser Assisted Pulling And Chemical Vapor Deposition Methods In The Fabrication Of Carbon Ultramicro- And Nanoelectrodes, Theophilus Neequaye

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs) (limiting dimensions <~25 μm) and nanoelectrodes (<~100 nm) exhibit enhanced electrochemical properties compared to macroscopic electrodes. Their small sizes and enhanced properties make them well-suited for various interesting and important applications such as measuring redox-active species in nonaqueous solvents, studying intermediates of fast electrochemical reactions, and investigating electrochemical and electrocatalytic properties of single nanoparticles. While UMEs are commercially available, nanoelectrode fabrication is still largely confined to research labs. Various methods for constructing nanoelectrodes have been reported and continue to be developed, but most require considerable expertise, and comparisons between different fabrication processes are lacking. In this work, a comparison of laser-assisted pulling and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods of electrode fabrication is made with the aim of optimizing production of carbon nanoelectrodes for single nanoparticle electrochemical measurements. By examining effects of pulling parameters, post-pulling treatments, and CVD processing, electrodes as small as ~50 nm were successfully produced.


Developing Optimization Techniques For Logistical Tendering Using Reverse Combinatorial Auctions, Jennifer Kiser Aug 2018

Developing Optimization Techniques For Logistical Tendering Using Reverse Combinatorial Auctions, Jennifer Kiser

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In business-to-business logistical sourcing events, companies regularly use a bidding process known as tendering in the procurement of transportation services from third-party providers. Usually in the form of an auction involving a single buyer and one or more sellers, the buyer must make decisions regarding with which suppliers to partner and how to distribute the transportation lanes and volume among its suppliers; this is equivalent to solving the optimization problem commonly referred to as the Winner Determination Problem. In order to take into account the complexities inherent to the procurement problem, such as considering a supplier’s network, economies of ...


Synthesis And Characterization Of Zinc(Ii) Dipyrrin Photosensitizers, Norah Alqahtani Aug 2018

Synthesis And Characterization Of Zinc(Ii) Dipyrrin Photosensitizers, Norah Alqahtani

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Photocatalytic carbon dioxide reduction transforms CO2 to useful chemicals and fuels, reducing CO2 emissions and making fossil fuels more renewable. Due to a lack of earthabundant sensitizers, we want to design new earth-abundant sensitizers to go with the many known carbon dioxide reduction catalysts. Zn(II) dipyrrin complexes strongly absorb visible light, but their excited state properties have not been widely studied. To investigate their photophysical properties, two Zn dipyrrin complexes, with and without heavy atoms, were synthesized and characterized by NMR and mass spectrometry. The photophysical properties of the two complexes were measured in polar and non-polar solvents, particularly ...


Hydrolysis Of Cellulose And Biomass Using Blue Molybdenum, Farouk Awudu Aug 2018

Hydrolysis Of Cellulose And Biomass Using Blue Molybdenum, Farouk Awudu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass is an important and ongoing subject of research due to generating precursors for biofuel synthesis. This work involves hydrolysis of microcrystalline cellulose and Arundo donax to glucose. Methods for acid hydrolysis include the use of sulfuric acid, phosphomolybdic acid, blue molybdenum using low concentrations at 40-100 °C. For comparison purposes, enzymatic hydrolysis was also carried out using cellulase. Products were quantified by measuring total organic carbon and reducible sugars using dinitrosalicylic acid. Use of phosphomolybdic acid, blue molybdenum and sulfuric acid even at 6.0 M did not increase the amount of glucose compared to using ...


3d-Printed Fluidic Devices And Incorporated Graphite Electrodes For Electrochemical Immunoassay Of Biomarker Proteins, Abdulhameed Alabdulwaheed Aug 2018

3d-Printed Fluidic Devices And Incorporated Graphite Electrodes For Electrochemical Immunoassay Of Biomarker Proteins, Abdulhameed Alabdulwaheed

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Biomarkers are measurable indicators of health status or disease state that can be used for diagnosis and may help guide patient treatment strategies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and other many clinical techniques currently used for measuring biomarker proteins lack sensitivity, demand high analysis cost, are often not well-suited for measuring multiple biomarkers in a single sample, and require long analysis times. Here, we demonstrate simple, low-cost 3D-printed flow-through devices with integrated electrodes modified with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for electrochemical immunoassays of S100B, a biomarker protein related to conditions like skin cancer and brain injuries. Flow-through devices are fabricated from photocurable-resin ...


Clustering Mixed Data: An Extension Of The Gower Coefficient With Weighted L2 Distance, Augustine Oppong Aug 2018

Clustering Mixed Data: An Extension Of The Gower Coefficient With Weighted L2 Distance, Augustine Oppong

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sorting out data into partitions is increasing becoming complex as the constituents of data is growing outward everyday. Mixed data comprises continuous, categorical, directional functional and other types of variables. Clustering mixed data is based on special dissimilarities of the variables. Some data types may influence the clustering solution. Assigning appropriate weight to the functional data may improve the performance of the clustering algorithm. In this paper we use the extension of the Gower coefficient with judciously chosen weight for the L2 to cluster mixed data.The benefits of weighting are demonstrated both in in applications to the Buoy data ...


The Expected Number Of Patterns In A Random Generated Permutation On [N] = {1,2,...,N}, Evelyn Fokuoh Aug 2018

The Expected Number Of Patterns In A Random Generated Permutation On [N] = {1,2,...,N}, Evelyn Fokuoh

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Previous work by Flaxman (2004) and Biers-Ariel et al. (2018) focused on the number of distinct words embedded in a string of words of length n. In this thesis, we will extend this work to permutations, focusing on the maximum number of distinct permutations contained in a permutation on [n] = {1,2,...,n} and on the expected number of distinct permutations contained in a random permutation on [n]. We further considered the problem where repetition of subsequences are as a result of the occurrence of (Type A and/or Type B) replications. Our method of enumerating the Type A replications ...


The 2-Domination Number Of A Caterpillar, Presley Chukwukere Aug 2018

The 2-Domination Number Of A Caterpillar, Presley Chukwukere

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A set D of vertices in a graph G is a 2-dominating set of G if every vertex in V − D has at least two neighbors in D. The 2-domination number of a graph G, denoted by γ2(G), is the minimum cardinality of a 2- dominating set of G. In this thesis, we discuss the 2-domination number of a special family of trees, called caterpillars. A caterpillar is a graph denoted by Pk(x1, x2, ..., xk), where xi is the number of leaves attached to the ith vertex of the path Pk ...


Wald Confidence Intervals For A Single Poisson Parameter And Binomial Misclassification Parameter When The Data Is Subject To Misclassification, Nishantha Janith Chandrasena Poddiwala Hewage Aug 2018

Wald Confidence Intervals For A Single Poisson Parameter And Binomial Misclassification Parameter When The Data Is Subject To Misclassification, Nishantha Janith Chandrasena Poddiwala Hewage

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This thesis is based on a Poisson model that uses both error-free data and error-prone data subject to misclassification in the form of false-negative and false-positive counts. We present maximum likelihood estimators (MLEs), Fisher's Information, and Wald statistics for Poisson rate parameter and the two misclassification parameters. Next, we invert the Wald statistics to get asymptotic confidence intervals for Poisson rate parameter and false-negative rate parameter. The coverage and width properties for various sample size and parameter configurations are studied via a simulation study. Finally, we apply the MLEs and confidence intervals to one real data set and another ...


Novel Relative Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Determination Using Carbon Dioxide Onset With Sta/Ir, Antonio David Trevino Aug 2018

Novel Relative Spontaneous Ignition Temperature Determination Using Carbon Dioxide Onset With Sta/Ir, Antonio David Trevino

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Simultaneous thermal analysis, coupled with infrared spectroscopy (STA/IR), was utilized to monitor the evolution of gaseous products during the thermal degradation of samples from Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow), Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet), and Ilex vomitoria (yaupon) plants. Identification of carbon dioxide was successful with a spectral match of 90.2 percent and further used in the determination of relative spontaneous ignition temperature, or RSIT. The RSIT value during the growing season for Chinese tallow, Chinese tallow stem, Chinese privet, and Yaupon were 208.4°C, 250.3°C, 210.1°C, and 232.3°C respectively. During the dormant ...


Polarized Bow Shock Nebulae Reveal Features Of The Winds And Environments Of Massive Stars, Manisha Shrestha Aug 2018

Polarized Bow Shock Nebulae Reveal Features Of The Winds And Environments Of Massive Stars, Manisha Shrestha

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Massive stars strongly affect their surroundings through their energetic stellar winds during their lifetime and through their energetic deaths as supernovae. When a stellar wind interacts with the local interstellar medium (ISM), if the relative velocity between wind and ISM is supersonic, then a stellar wind bow shock is formed. Bow shocks and related density enhancements produced by the winds of massive stars moving through the interstellar medium provide important information regarding the motions of the stars, the properties of their stellar winds, and the characteristics of the local medium. Since bow shock nebulae are aspherical structures, light scattering within ...


Fuel Specific Emissions Trends For In-Use Medium And Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fleets In California, Molly J. Haugen Aug 2018

Fuel Specific Emissions Trends For In-Use Medium And Heavy-Duty Vehicle Fleets In California, Molly J. Haugen

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

New heavy-duty vehicle regulations have caused significant reductions in hazardous air pollutants, such as particulate matter (PM) and nitrogen oxides (NOx), due to better engine management and utilization of advanced after-treatment systems. The University of Denver has collected data for gaseous and PM emission measurements from on-road heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). The On-Road Heavy-Duty Vehicle Emissions Measurement System (OHMS) collected fuel specific emission information on individual HDVs of in-use fleets at two California locations in the spring of 2013, 2015 and 2017. These complimentary fleets, studied over multiple years, produced 7,075 measurements of gaseous and particle emission data providing ...