# Physical Sciences and Mathematics Commons™

Articles 1 - 30 of 1983

## Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

#### Paleoenvironmental Reconstruction Of Quaternary Saltville, Virginia, Using Ostracode Autecology, Austin Gause

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The Saltville valley in southwestern Virginia is home to Quaternary localities containing paleontological and archaeological remains. Historically the valley has been mined for salt and the small lakes, ponds and springs along the valley floor have a brackish signature. A preliminary report on the site’s ostracode fauna suggested that the site’s water was not always saline. This study analyzed modern and Quaternary ostracodes to understand the valley’s hydrologic and chemical evolution. Sediments contained primarily freshwater species, including the environmentally sensitive Candona crogmaniana. The presence of Pelocypris tuberculatum and a new Fabaeformiscandona species throughout a vertical section spanning ...

May 2020

#### First-Year Computer Science Students: Pathways And Perceptions In Introductory Computer Science Courses, Christina A. Leblanc

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This study examined student perceptions and experiences of an introductory Computer Science course at the University of Maine; COS 125: Introduction to Problem Solving Using Computer Programs. It also explored the pathways that students pursue after taking COS 125, depending on their success in the course, and their motivation to persist. Through characterizing student populations and their performance in their first semester in the Computer Science program, they can be placed into one of three categories that explain their path; a “continuer” (passed COS 125 and decided to stay in the major), a “persister” (did not pass COS 125 and ...

#### Phenolic Phytochemicals And Their Antioxidant Activities In Maine-Grown Asian, American-Hybrid, And European Plums, Hye Weon Hwang

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Plum fruits of 16 plum cultivars derived from three species, Asian, American-hybrid, and European plums, and one cultivar of an interspecific hybrid between Asian plum and apricot were investigated to identify and quantify two major groups of phenolic phytochemicals, anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) by HPLC–DAD/MS. The plums were harvested from 2014 to 2017. Some cultivars were analyzed through consecutive years to determine year-to-year differences and to evaluate the maturity impacts on the concentration of anthocyanins and HCAs from the partial-ripe stage and tree-ripe stage. Anthocyanins were present in red−purple colored plums, but their profiles varied among ...

#### Using Tandem Mass Spectrometry And Irmpd Spectroscopy To Determine The Intrinsic Reactions Of Uranyl-Containing Ions, Irena Tatosian

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Developing a comprehensive understanding of the intrinsic reactivity of uranium-containing species remains an important goal, as it may influence future developments in areas ranging from new approaches to nuclear fuel processing to studies of the migration and fate of the element in the environment. At a more fundamental level, such studies contribute to the understanding of the role that 5-f electrons may play in chemical bonding, the so called “f-electron challenge”. Electrospray ionization (ESI) is an effective way to generate gas-phase complexes containing uranium and uranyl ions for subsequent studies of intrinsic structure and reactivity. Studies in the gas-phase are ...

#### N-Terminal Imine Derivatization For Enhanced De Novo Peptide Sequencing: A Study Of The Fragmentation Pattern Generated From Cid Of Peptide-Imines, Khiry L. Patterson

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In this work, the fragmentation pattern derived from model peptides derivatized to create N-terminal imines (Schiff bases) were evaluated. Collision-induced dissociation of the protonated peptide-imines ([M+H]+) generally produced complete series of the sequence informative an and bn ions, now undoubtedly characteristic of the peptide ion species. A novel product ion was also observed, denoted the yǂ ion, determined by IRMPD spectroscopy and density functional theory to be generated from the elimination of the N-terminal amino acid residue despite the N-terminal modification. It was concluded the pathway involved a nucleophilic attack by an amide nitrogen and the ...

Gray Codes In Music Theory, Isaac L. Vaccaro May 2020

#### Gray Codes In Music Theory, Isaac L. Vaccaro

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

In the branch of Western music theory called serialism, it is desirable to construct chord progressions that use each chord in a chosen set exactly once. We view this problem through the scope of the mathematical theory of Gray codes, the notion of ordering a finite set X so that adjacent elements are related by an element of some specified set R of involutions in the permutation group of X. Using some basic results from the theory of permutation groups we translate the problem of finding Gray codes into the problem of finding Hamiltonian paths and cycles in a Schreier ...

Investigation Of Multiple Imputation Methods For Categorical Variables, Samantha Miranda May 2020

#### Investigation Of Multiple Imputation Methods For Categorical Variables, Samantha Miranda

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

We compare different multiple imputation methods for categorical variables using the MICE package in R. We take a complete data set and remove different levels of missingness and evaluate the imputation methods for each level of missingness. Logistic regression imputation and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) are used for binary variables. Multinomial logit imputation and LDA are used for nominal variables while ordered logit imputation and LDA are used for ordinal variables. After imputation, the regression coefficients, percent deviation index (PDI) values, and relative frequency tables were found for each imputed data set for each level of missingness and compared to ...

May 2020

#### Knot Flow Classification And Its Applications In Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks (Vanet), David Schmidt

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) play a crucial role in the identification and mitigation for attacks on host systems. Of these systems, vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) are difficult to protect due to the dynamic nature of their clients and their necessity for constant interaction with their respective cyber-physical systems. Currently, there is a need for a VANET-specific IDS that meets this criterion. To this end, a spline-based intrusion detection system has been pioneered as a solution. By combining clustering with spline-based general linear model classification, this knot flow classification method (KFC) allows for robust intrusion detection to occur. Due its ...

Mesoporous Adsorbents For Perfluorinated Compounds, Bertha Lotsi May 2020

#### Mesoporous Adsorbents For Perfluorinated Compounds, Bertha Lotsi

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Effective adsorbents for polyfluorinated compounds (PFCs) were successfully prepared. And they were tested in the adsorption of perfluorooctanoic and perfluorooctanesulfonic acids. Bridged silsesquioxanes containing secondary and tertiary amino groups were synthesized by sol-gel condensation of bis[3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl]amine and bis[3-(methylamino)propyl]-trimethoxysilane in acidic media with surfactants. Obtained materials are mesoporous with a high BET surface area. They combine high structural stability with a high concentration of surface amino groups serving as adsorption sites. Batch adsorption tests demonstrated their extremely high adsorption capacity on PFCs: in some experiments, it reached up to 88% of the adsorbent ...

#### Photocatalytic Carbon Dioxide Reduction With Zinc(Ii) Dipyrrin Photosensitizers And Iron Catalyst, Senan Rasheed

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Much of the energy used in the United States and around the globe is obtained from petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Photocatalytic CO2 reduction can be used to transform CO2 to useful fuels and making fossil fuels more renewable. Input of energy is required, and the sun can provide the required energy for this transformation. Photosensitizer, catalyst, and electron donor are required for photocatalytic CO2 reduction.

Due to lack of earth-abundant sensitizers, zinc dipyrrin complexes were synthesized by previous group members and have been used as photosensitizers in this research. The ground and excited state electrochemical properties ...

May 2020

#### Immobilization Of Phosphotungstic Acid On Silica Surface For Catalytic Alkylation Of Aromatic Compounds, Anastasia Kuvayskaya

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Superacidic mesoporous materials containing covalently embedded PTA were synthesized by sol-gel method. Tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and phosphotungstic acid (PTA) were used as precursors in the synthesis, ionic and nonionic surfactants were used as pore-forming agents, the reaction proceeded in acidic media. TEM images revealed mesoporous structure with embedded PTA clusters. FT-IR spectra of obtained materials contained characteristic bands of PTA at 957 cm-1. Synthesized catalysts had high BET surface area and high concentration of acidic sites. Alkylation of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene by 1-decene demonstrated high catalytic activity. The catalyst obtained with Pluronic P123 as a template was the most effective ...

Trees With Unique Italian Dominating Functions Of Minimum Weight, Alyssa England May 2020

#### Trees With Unique Italian Dominating Functions Of Minimum Weight, Alyssa England

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An Italian dominating function, abbreviated IDF, of $G$ is a function $f \colon V(G) \rightarrow \{0, 1, 2\}$ satisfying the condition that for every vertex $v \in V(G)$ with $f(v)=0$, we have $\sum_{u \in N(v)} f(u) \ge 2$. That is, either $v$ is adjacent to at least one vertex $u$ with $f(u) = 2$, or to at least two vertices $x$ and $y$ with $f(x) = f(y) = 1$. The Italian domination number, denoted $\gamma_I$(G), is the minimum weight of an IDF in $G$. In this thesis, we use operations that join ...

#### Changes In Land Use Land Cover (Lulc), Surface Water Quality And Modelling Surface Discharge In Beaver Creek Watershed, Northeast Tennessee And Southwest Virginia, Tosin James

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Beaver Creek is an impaired streams that is not supporting its designated use for recreation due to Escherichia coli (E.coli), and sediment. To address this problem, this thesis was divided into two studies.

The first study explored changes in Land Use Land Cover (LULC), and its impact on surface water quality. Changes in E.coli load between 1997-2001 and 2014-2018 were analyzed. Also, Landsat data of 2001, and 2018 were examined in Terrset 18.31. Mann-Whitney test only showed a significant reduction in E.coli for one site. Negative correlation was established between E.coli load, and Developed LULC ...

May 2020

#### An Analysis Of The First Passage To The Origin (Fpo) Distribution, Aradhana Soni

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

What is the probability that in a fair coin toss game (a simple random walk) we go bankrupt in n steps when there is an initial lead of some known or unknown quantity \$m? What is the distribution of the number of steps N that it takes for the lead to vanish? This thesis explores some of the features of this ﬁrst passage to the origin (FPO) distribution. First, we explore the distribution of N when m is known. Next, we compute the maximum likelihood estimators of m for a ﬁxed n and also the posterior distribution of m when ...

#### An Unusual Mastodon Revisited: Providing A Regional Focus For Mammut Americanum (Proboscidea, Mammutidae) In The Southeast, Matthew Inabinett

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A century ago, two large American mastodon Mammut americanum specimens from coastal South Carolina were mounted for display at Amherst College. Their robust build, broad and pentalophodont third molars, and well-developed mandibular tusks were noted as unusual. Here, these specimens are redescribed; three additional mastodon mandibles from the same region of South Carolina are also described. Though collection information on these specimens is sparse, they appear to span >150 ka in the Middle to Late Pleistocene, and probably include the first report of Mammut from the earliest-Rancholabrean Ten Mile Hill Formation. Some “unusual” features — moderately to extremely broad third molars ...

#### Burning With Potential: Understanding The Relationship Between Biochar And Agriculture Of The Northern Glaciated Plains Ecoregion, Kaitlyn Abrahamson

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Achieving global sustainable agriculture is one of the most incredible challenges of this century, yet many continue to try to solve this problem through the development of precision technologies. Biotechnologies, such as biochar, can perform like a precision technology while protecting agricultural land from soil erosion and fertility loss. The Northern Glaciated Plains ecoregion of the United States is little researched in the benefits from the use of biochar through improved soil nutrient capture and water retention, crop health improvements, and yield increases. The study plot has four sections of corn stover biochar and eight sections of control sections. This ...

Jan 2020

#### Phytoremediation Of Saline-Sodic Soils In East Central South Dakota Utilizing Perennial Grass Mixtures, Douglas J. Fiedler

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Several decades of above average precipitation in South Dakota has increased the area of saline and sodic soils, which reduce crop yields and inhibit sensitive plant growth. Saline and sodic soils are difficult to remediate using traditional agricultural crops. Establishing salt tolerant perennial species may restore productivity to salt affected areas. Two perennial grass mixtures (mix 1: slender wheatgrass, beardless wildrye; mix 2: slender wheatgrass, western wheatgrass, green wheatgrass, creeping meadow foxtail) were dormant frost seeded along a topographic gradient in Clark Co., SD. Soils were Forman-Cresbard loam and a Cresbard-Cavour loam with surface electrical conductivity (EC1:1) that ...

Jan 2020

#### Winter Patch Grazing, Patch Burn Grazing, And Bird Communities In Western South Dakota, Jennifer Lutze

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Ground nesting bird species are on a considerable decline and research efforts are being made to increase these populations throughout the Great Plains. Ground nesting bird communities found in the Northern Great Plains are driven greatly by varying amounts of cover and area size. Past research implemented patch-burn grazing to increase structural heterogeneity and to increase grassland bird habitat in the tallgrass prairie. While bird populations were very responsive to this management in the Northern Great Plains fire management is viewed negatively, especially for Midwest cattle ranchers. We implemented research to determine if winter-patch grazing on mixed grass prairie could ...

Public Perception Of Different Planting Techniques Using Augmented Reality, Sultana Quader Tania Jan 2020

#### Public Perception Of Different Planting Techniques Using Augmented Reality, Sultana Quader Tania

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The objective of this study was to measure public perception of the different planting techniques (block and matrix), which are used at visitor information centers (VICs) and other rights of way (ROW) areas. The main factors that affect public perception of planting techniques were identified through an extensive literature review and qualitative survey from four welcome centers in the state of Georgia. The ranking of those indicators, based on public preferences, was discovered through a quantitative survey. During the first phase of the quantitative survey, images of block and matrix were used. An iOS-based user-friendly and cost-effective augmented reality (AR ...

#### Predicting Student Sustainability Knowledge, Attitudes, And Behaviors: Effects Of Demography, Environmental Science Education, And Sustainability Intervention Programs At Georgia Southern University, Bailey Chandler

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This mixed-methods research approach assesses trends in sustainability knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors in the student population at Georgia Southern University (GS). Students completed a baseline survey in order to determine their knowledge and attitudes about sustainability and what sustainable behaviors they perform. A total of 1,328 useable responses to the baseline survey were gathered. Effects of race, academic class, gender, and prior completion of an environmental science course were tested, as well as the effect of campus (Statesboro and Armstrong). Previously taking an environmental science course and race/ethnicity were the two strongest indicators of knowledge score. Males scored ...

C-Metalated Nitriles: Diastereoselective Alkylations And Arylations, Robert John Mycka Dec 2019

#### C-Metalated Nitriles: Diastereoselective Alkylations And Arylations, Robert John Mycka

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Development of an sp3 hybridized halogen-magnesium exchange route to Grignard reagents, chelation-controlled asymmetric induction of γ- and δ-hydroxynitriles as well as a diastereoselective arylation procedure for C-zincated nitriles have been explored. Sequential addition of i-PrMgCl and n-BuLi to 3- and 4-carbon iodoalcohols triggers a facile halogen-metal exchange to generate cyclic magnesium alkoxides capable of intercepting electrophiles to produce a diverse range of substituted alcohols. This work advances progress toward the synthesis of highly desirable chiral Grignard reagents.

Double deprotonation of γ- and δ-acyclic hydroxynitriles with i-PrMgCl effects highly diastereoselective alkylations via a singly-chelated magnesiated nitriles ...

A Study Of Chloride Levels In Pine Creek, Allegheny County, Pa, Selina Prettner Dec 2019

#### A Study Of Chloride Levels In Pine Creek, Allegheny County, Pa, Selina Prettner

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Pine Creek is a 22.8-mile long tributary to the Allegheny River draining over 67 square miles of northern Allegheny County, PA. The main stem runs along Route 8 and receives extensive runoff from road salt from deicing. A site near Etna, PA sampled biweekly in 2013 consistently showed elevated conductivity that correlated with increased chloride levels. Winter road deicing runoff produced acute chloride concentrations up to 678 mg/L. Chloride fluctuated in the summer and autumn months but did not exceed the USEPA Secondary Drinking Water Standard (250 mg/L) or the aquatic life criterion for chronic concentrations (230 ...

Dec 2019

#### A Qualitative Representation Of Spatial Scenes In R2 With Regions And Lines, Joshua Lewis

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Regions and lines are common geographic abstractions for geographic objects. Collections of regions, lines, and other representations of spatial objects form a spatial scene, along with their relations. For instance, the states of Maine and New Hampshire can be represented by a pair of regions and related based on their topological properties. These two states are adjacent (i.e., they meet along their shared boundary), whereas Maine and Florida are not adjacent (i.e., they are disjoint).

A detailed model for qualitatively describing spatial scenes should capture the essential properties of a configuration such that a description of the represented ...

#### The Effects Of Sediment Acidification And Temperature On The Immune Capacity Of The Atlantic Jackknife (Razor) Clam (Ensis Leei M. Huber, 2015), Brian Preziosi

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Sediment acidification has been shown to negatively impact clams of economic importance such as the soft-shell clam, Mya arenaria Linnaeus, 1758, and hard clam, Mercenaria mercenaria (Linnaeus, 1758). Effects of sediment acidification on razor clams, including the Atlantic jackknife clam Ensis leei M. Huber, 2015, are unknown. E. leei has been identified as a species with potential for aquaculture operations on the New England coast. E. leei may be resilient to acidification and thus persist in acidified sediments where other clams cannot. To this end, the impact of acidified surface sediment on the internal immune capacity of adult (mean shell ...

Dec 2019

#### Theory Of Lexicographic Differentiation In The Banach Space Setting, Jaeho Choi

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Derivative information is useful for many problems found in science and engineering that require equation solving or optimization. Driven by its utility and mathematical curiosity, researchers over the years have developed a variety of generalized derivatives. In this thesis, we will first take a look at Clarke’s generalized derivative for locally Lipschitz continuous functions between Euclidean spaces, which roughly is the smallest convex set containing all nearby derivatives of a domain point of interest. Clarke’s generalized derivative in this setting possesses a strong theoretical and numerical toolkit, which is analogous to that of the classical derivative. It includes ...

#### Northern Conifer Forest Management: Silvicultural, Economic, And Ecological Outcomes From 65 Years Of Study, Maren Granstrom

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

While forest managers once sought primarily to produce sustainable revenue from harvests, there is now growing value placed on non-timber outcomes like wildlife habitat, climate adaptability, and carbon storage. When deciding how to manage land for the future, foresters and landowners must assess the many outcomes of forestry activities and be aware of the tradeoffs inherent to achieving different goals. Given the slow growth of trees relative to other commercial crops, it is rare to have the continuity of land ownership, researchers, and funding needed to follow a stand for a full rotation or to observe a tree from recruitment ...

Dec 2019

#### Stability And Reactivity Analysis Of Single Metal And Bimetallic Nanostructures By Anodic Stripping Voltammetry., Dhruba Kumar Pattadar

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

This dissertation has two main themes. The first involves studies aimed at developing anodic stripping voltammetry (ASV) as an analytical tool to characterize metal nanoparticles (NPs), with a focus on the size and aggregate structure of single metal NPs and the composition and atomic arrangement of bimetallic NPs. The second main theme involves studies that use ASV and electrochemical surface area-to-volume (SA/V) measurements to study the unique reactivity and transformations of single metal and bimetallic NPs. The transformations involve size and composition changes in response to ozone and electrochemical potential. Reactions involve size dependent galvanic exchange and electrocatalytic activity ...

Dec 2019

#### Laser Spectroscopy Investigations Of Jet-Cooled Metal-Containing Free Radicals., Anam Chandra Paul

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Metal-containing free radicals are important intermediates in metal-surface reactions and the interactions between metals and organic molecules. Among metal-containing free radicals, monovalent derivatives of alkaline earth metals have been extensively investigated by using spectroscopic techniques in a gas phase, mainly in Broida ovens or under supersonic-jet-cooled conditions. In the present study, the results of performed spectroscopic investigations of both metal-containing monoalkoxides (CaOR) and metal oxides (MO) radicals have been reported. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) and dispersed fluorescence (DF) spectra of the electronic transition of the calcium CaOR radicals have been obtained under jet-cooled conditions. Complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and ...

#### Statistical Methods For Estimating And Testing Treatment Effect For Multiple Treatment Groups In Observational Studies., Xiaofang Yan

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

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#### Oxygen Deficient Perovskites: Effect Of Structure On Electrical Conductivity, Magnetism And Electrocatalytic Activity., Ram Krishna Hona

##### Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The present thesis deals with the synthesis and study of the physico-chemical properties of perovskite based oxide materials. Several novel oxygen deficient perovskites (ODP) have been synthesized by conventional solid state synthesis method. The novel compounds are CaSrFe2O6-δ, CaSrFeCoO6-δ, Ca2Fe1.5Ga0.5O5, CaSrFeGaO5 and BaSrFe2O5. Their magnetic, charge transport and electrocatalytic properties have been studied. Structural effect on electrical conductivity, magnetic and electrocatalytic properties have been studied in some series of ODPs. CaSrFe2O6-δ, CaSrFeCoO6-δ, Ca2Fe1.5Ga0 ...