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Articles 1 - 30 of 8479

Full-Text Articles in Physical Sciences and Mathematics

Bird-Safe Buildings Act: Ready To Take Flight, Kerry Sean Cooney May 2021

Bird-Safe Buildings Act: Ready To Take Flight, Kerry Sean Cooney

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


A "Directed Trust" Approach To Intergenerational Solidarity In American Environmental Law And Policy: A Modest Proposal, Lucia A. Silecchia May 2021

A "Directed Trust" Approach To Intergenerational Solidarity In American Environmental Law And Policy: A Modest Proposal, Lucia A. Silecchia

William & Mary Environmental Law and Policy Review

No abstract provided.


Conceptual Framework Linking Resource Size And Recreational Use, Derek Kane May 2021

Conceptual Framework Linking Resource Size And Recreational Use, Derek Kane

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Participation in recreational activities at natural resource systems is important to many people. However, the use of these resource systems can cause negative social and ecological impacts. To manage the potential negative impacts of resource use, natural resource managers must have the ability to quantify and monitor the amount of use that is occurring. Unfortunately, it is difficult and costly to quantify and monitor resource system use. Natural resource management would benefit from uncovering a simple, easily accessible metric that could predict resource system use. The size of a resource system is related to social and ecological aspects of the ...


Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty May 2021

Improving Logistics Efficiency Through Collaborative Truck Routing, Patrick Dougherty

Industrial Engineering Undergraduate Honors Theses

The logistics industry is among the world’s largest and most essential. Specifically, trucking is a massive component of the modern logistics system. In 2012, truck transportation carried 68% of all freight tonnage in the U.S. However, trucking currently faces significant problems with efficiency and sustainability. Of all miles driven by trucks yearly in the U.S., 25% are driven with empty loads and 36% are driven with underutilized loads. In addition to this economic inefficiency, the industry faces social and environmental challenges. Driver turnover rates are near 100%, and trucking accounts for a significant level of greenhouse gas ...


Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi May 2021

Three Centuries Of Vegetation Change In The William & Mary College Woods Reconstructed Using Phytoliths, Timothy Terlizzi

Undergraduate Honors Theses

The College Woods, west of William & Mary’s campus, consists of ~900 acres of protected southern mixed hardwood forest. The woods surround Lake Matoaka, a former millpond established in ~1700. Despite the rich history of the area, little is known about how the dominant vegetative landcover has shifted over the last 300 years. This study set out to quantify the modern vegetation within the College Woods via the phytolith assemblages within the soil and identify shifts in the assemblages since the creation of Lake Matoaka and whether these changes are distinct from the vegetation that existed in the area before the lake. To accomplish this, I studied the composition and preservation of phytoliths – silica bodies generated within and between plant cells. The study focused on the two questions: do the modern phytolith assemblages in the soil of the College Woods reflect the vegetation present and can phytoliths within the sediments of Lake Matoaka be used to identify the dominant vegetative communities over the last ~300 years? I addressed these questions with three approaches: 1) Identify the primary phytolith producing taxa within the College Woods; 2) Identify the modern phytolith assemblages within the soil of the College Woods; 3) Identify the differences between phytolith assemblages from the lake sediment core samples. I found the following: 1) The production of phytoliths varies heavily between and within different common taxa of the College Woods, with species of oaks (Quercus spp.) unpredictably producing phytoliths and beeches (Fagus grandifolia) likely contributing the majority of dicot phytoliths; 2) The modern phytolith assemblages of the College Woods reflect a low phytolith producing environment, and the vegetative homogeneity is reflected in the phytolith record; 3) The ...


Fish Disease Outreach Messages: Testing Of Gain And Loss Frames, Erin L. Pavloski, Heather A. Triezenberg Apr 2021

Fish Disease Outreach Messages: Testing Of Gain And Loss Frames, Erin L. Pavloski, Heather A. Triezenberg

Journal of Extension

Gain and loss framing has been used as a technique in risk communication to shape individuals’ behaviors in many fields. Our community-engaged research, conducted in partnership with the Michigan Department of Natural Resources (MDNR), experimentally tested five message frames to determine efficacy for outreach programs. We found: a) to increase risk perceptions of fish disease use a loss frame in a management context, b) to decrease risk perceptions of fish disease management use a gain frame in a disease context, and c) to motivate behavioral intentions for prevention and risk reduction use a gain frame in a disease context.


The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman Apr 2021

The Effect Of Changing Substrate On Arctic Aquatic Invertebrates Abundance, Tom Dolman

Michael D. Wilson Symposium

Climate change is directly affecting tundra ecosystems in northern regions, and warming temperatures have caused discontinuous permafrost and thawing sediments across the region. This project investigates how increasing erosion and the foraging patterns of migratory snow geese may degrade habitat for aquatic invertebrates in the upper Mast River, located in Wapusk National Park, Manitoba, Canada. In the past two decades, many of the important species of aquatic invertebrates have shown declines. Declining invertebrate populations are predicted to affect aquatic ecosystems and decrease the resources available to shorebirds and waterfowl, which breed and migrate through this area.


Impact Of Whitetail Deer Overpopulation With Hunting On The Decline, Matthew J. Lamprinos Apr 2021

Impact Of Whitetail Deer Overpopulation With Hunting On The Decline, Matthew J. Lamprinos

English Department: Research for Change - Wicked Problems in Our World

The whitetail deer is a key species for Pennsylvania’s forests, but their ecological balance has been disturbed by unregulated growth and urban sprawl. The deer population in Pennsylvania has exploded since the 1880’s causing a wide range of damage on the ecosystem, and humans. To reduce deer populations to sustainable levels, the Pennsylvania Game Commission relies heavily on hunters to dedicate time in the fall to go out and fill the tags the they issue. Hunter participation all around the world is decreasing for a variety of reasons. Fewer hunters out in the field causes revenue losses for ...


Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams Apr 2021

Using Enclosed Y-Mazes To Assess Chemosensory Behavior In Reptiles, M. Rockwell Parker, Andrea F. Currylow, Eric A. Tillman, Charlotte J. Robinson, Jilian M. Josimovich, Isabella M.G. Bukovich, Lauren A. Nazarian, Melia G. Nafus, Bryan M. Kluever, Amy A. Yackel Adams

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Reptiles utilize a variety of environmental cues to inform and drive animal behavior such as chemical scent trails produced by food or conspecifics. Decrypting the scent-trailing behavior of vertebrates, particularly invasive species, enables the discovery of cues that induce exploratory behavior and can aid in the development of valuable basic and applied biological tools. However, pinpointing behaviors dominantly driven by chemical cues versus other competing environmental cues can be challenging. Y-mazes are common tools used in animal behavior research that allow quantification of vertebrate chemosensory behavior across a range of taxa. By reducing external stimuli, Y-mazes remove confounding factors and ...


Assessing The Impacts To Society Associated With The Use Of Alternative Ammunition For Hunting On National Wildlife Refuges, Christopher Cahill Apr 2021

Assessing The Impacts To Society Associated With The Use Of Alternative Ammunition For Hunting On National Wildlife Refuges, Christopher Cahill

Masters Theses

Attempts to eliminate lead ammunition use for hunting through regulatory approaches can be controversial and contentious, despite extensive scientific evidence of the detrimental effect of lead on wildlife species. In the United States, voluntary approaches to non-lead use that have used outreach and education in place of regulatory approaches have achieved sustained behavioral change in hunter ammunition choice. However, voluntary approaches to alternative ammunition use can be confronted with both practical and social barriers. In collaboration with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and U.S. Geological Survey Cooperative Research Units Program, this study assessed the practical and social barriers ...


Occurrence And Potential Transformation Pathways Of Nitrogen Species In The Intermediate Vadose Zone, Jordan Shields Apr 2021

Occurrence And Potential Transformation Pathways Of Nitrogen Species In The Intermediate Vadose Zone, Jordan Shields

Dissertations & Theses in Natural Resources

Nebraska is a large agricultural producing state with a heavy reliance on groundwater resources and nitrogen fertilizer application to maintain output. Poor management, such as excessive fertilizer application, improper timing, and over irrigation can lead to contamination of groundwater. Nitrate is the leading groundwater contaminant in Nebraska and chronic consumption at medium to high concentrations leads to adverse health effects. Nitrate, a highly soluble anion, is present in the root zone in numerous forms and undergoes biogeochemical transformations before being leached through the profile. In order to predict the timing and quantity of nitrate contamination in groundwater, researchers study the ...


Educating For Sustainable Forestry: Perspectives On The Career Readiness Of New Professionals, Samantha Jones Apr 2021

Educating For Sustainable Forestry: Perspectives On The Career Readiness Of New Professionals, Samantha Jones

Education Doctorate Dissertations

This qualitative phenomenological study explored forestry career readiness from the perspective of forestry employers and early career forestry professionals. A virtual focus group interview, individual online interviews, and a review of forestry education documents produced study data. Participants were selected through snowball sampling. Data were analyzed through open and axial coding. Salient themes emerging from this inquiry centered on the dynamic complexity of forestry, field competence, interpersonal skills, and situated learning. Study findings concluded that sustainable forest management required field skills to conduct remote forestry activities and interpersonal skills to negotiate diverse stakeholder interests. Implications for educational practice and recommendations ...


Reimagining The Duck Stamp, Hunting Licensure And Public Land Preservation, Alec Wayne Boyd-Devine Apr 2021

Reimagining The Duck Stamp, Hunting Licensure And Public Land Preservation, Alec Wayne Boyd-Devine

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

The American Migratory Bird Hunting and Conservation Stamp, or Duck Stamp, is a form of licensure issued by the Federal Government for waterfowl hunters. Why do physical stamps act as licensure to hunt waterfowl on both public and private land in the United States? How did the stamp become the key that grants access to resources that supposedly should be owned by the public? The duck stamp has been well-documented in conservation communities as a resource which has made significant positive impacts on the environment. The increase of anti-hunting sentiments in our society combined with fewer hunters per capita may ...


Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Jessica Hendricks, Tamia Rudnicky Apr 2021

Expanding The Use Of Natural And Nature-Based Infrastructure To Enhance Coastal Resiliency, Marcia Berman, Pamela Mason, Jessica Hendricks, Tamia Rudnicky

Reports

The vulnerability of coastal communities and the growing risks of coastal infrastructure continue largely due to past and ongoing patterns of development in high risk areas. This project is focused on increasing the use of natural and nature-based features (NNBFs) to increase resilience of coastal communities to flooding caused by extreme weather events.


Revisiting Hudson County Water Co. V. Mccarter: Realism, The Public Trust Doctrine, And Environmental Conservation In The Lochner Era, Steven Huffman Apr 2021

Revisiting Hudson County Water Co. V. Mccarter: Realism, The Public Trust Doctrine, And Environmental Conservation In The Lochner Era, Steven Huffman

Masters Theses & Specialist Projects

Legal histories of the Gilded Age and Progressive Era tend to focus inordinately on economic regulation within a doctrinal framework in which private rights, equal protection, and “substantive” due process guided judicial decision-making. Consequently, the overarching economic context in prevailing legal historiography obscures an important yet oft-overlooked development in the linkage between public rights, natural resource trusteeship, and the early-twentieth-century environmental conservation movement. This development is inextricably tied to the evolution of water law in the late nineteenth century and the expansion of the American commercial republic. A normative understanding of public water rights during this period is confined to ...


A Dynamic Programming Approach To Determine Optimum Modularity Level In Industrial Packaging, Marshal Louie, Kumar B Mar 2021

A Dynamic Programming Approach To Determine Optimum Modularity Level In Industrial Packaging, Marshal Louie, Kumar B

Journal of Applied Packaging Research

Modular packaging facilitate customization for accommodating variable product sizes in a product family. When determining package sizes for product variability, packaging engineers does not find difficulty to determine package dimension for less product variety whereas if the product variety is more, then determining the dimension of modular package involves complex decision-making and time-consuming process to find the optimal solution. This in turn directly impacts the overall lead time of the supply chain. Thus, in this paper a dynamic programming is developed to determine the quantity and dimension of modular packages for every demand of assorted products sizes. The program helps ...


Participant And Socio-Ecological Outcomes Of The Hofmann Open-Water Laboratory (Howl) Citizen Science Project, Meredith Hovis, Frederick Cubbage, Madhusudan Katti, Kathleen Mcginley Mar 2021

Participant And Socio-Ecological Outcomes Of The Hofmann Open-Water Laboratory (Howl) Citizen Science Project, Meredith Hovis, Frederick Cubbage, Madhusudan Katti, Kathleen Mcginley

Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship

Citizen science, also known as participatory research, combines the efforts of professional researchers and community volunteers to collect data. We have established one such collaborative project in eastern North Carolina, near the 79,000-acre Hofmann Forest, called the Hofmann Open-Water Laboratory (HOWL) citizen science project. The White Oak River, New River, and Trent River all flow out of the Hofmann. The Hofmann is an ecological keystone in the region, acting as a natural filtration system for harmful runoff that occurs in the coastal plain of North Carolina. Our purposes for this study were twofold: (a) to evaluate the HOWL project ...


Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal Mar 2021

Publications And Other Works By R. F. Diffendal, Jr., Robert F. Diffendal

Papers in Natural Resources

Articles
Chapters in Books

Books
Field Guides
Geologic Maps
Other Maps
Cover Photographs
Other Photographs
Newspaper and Other Articles
Test-Hole Logs
Television Programs
Geonotes
Abstracts
Reviews
Manuscripts Accepted (A) , Submitted (S) or In Preparation (P)
Geologic Maps in Press
Geologic Maps-Nebraska
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Updated March 2021


Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, And The Social Sciences Department Mar 2021

Solutions Human Centered Approach To Conservation, Illustration Department, History, Philosophy, And The Social Sciences Department

Illustration Course Work & Materials

"These essays were were written and illustrated by students at the Rhode Island school of Design in February, 2021. Their perspectives are entirely personal and reflect their efforts within a 5.5-week fused studio/seminar course that was centered on the Sixth Mass Extinction and how biodiversity is changing because of humans. Discovering that science communication is more than delivering just the facts, students were invited to research a topic of personal interest that is relevant to human impacts on biodiversity. Through analysis of data and other scientific information, each sought to synthesize their research and opinions on their topic ...


Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor Mar 2021

Great Expectations: Deconstructing The Process Pathways Underlying Beaver-Related Restoration, Caroline S. Nash, Gordon E. Grant, Susan Charnley, Jason B. Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Mark B. Hausner, David S. Pilliod, Jimmy Taylor

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

Beaver-related restoration is a process-based strategy that seeks to address wide-ranging ecological objectives by reestablishing dam building in degraded stream systems. Although the beaver-related restoration has broad appeal, especially in water-limited systems, its effectiveness is not yet well documented. In this article, we present a process-expectation framework that links beaver-related restoration tactics to commonly expected outcomes by identifying the set of process pathways that must occur to achieve those expected outcomes. We explore the contingency implicit within this framework using social and biophysical data from project and research sites. This analysis reveals that outcomes are often predicated on complex process ...


Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren Mar 2021

Toxicity Of Sodium Nitrite-Based Vertebrate Pesticides For European Starlings (Sturnus Vulgaris), Scott J. Werner, Shelagh T. Deliberto, Hailey E. Mclean, Katherine E. Horak, Kirt C. Vercauteren

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In the 21st century, invasive animals rank second only to habitat destruction as the greatest threat to global biodiversity. Socially-acceptable and cost-effective strategies are needed to reduce the negative economic and environmental impacts of invasive animals. We investigated the potential for sodium nitrite (SN; CAS 7632-00-0) to serve as an avian toxicant for European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris L.). We also assessed the non-target hazard of an experimental formulation of SN that is being developed as a toxicant for invasive wild pigs (Sus scrofa L.). In gavage experiments with European starlings, we identified a lowest observed adverse effect level (LOAEL) for ...


Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto Mar 2021

Sars-Cov-2 Exposure In Escaped Mink, Utah, Usa, Susan A. Shriner, Jeremy W. Ellis, J. Jeffrey Root, Annette Roug, Scott R. Stopak, Gerald W. Wiscomb, Jared R. Zierenberg, Hon S. Ip, Mia Kim Torchetti, Thomas J. Deliberto

USDA National Wildlife Research Center - Staff Publications

In August 2020, outbreaks of coronavirus disease were confirmed on mink farms in Utah, USA. We surveyed mammals captured on and around farms for evidence of infection or exposure. Free-ranging mink, presumed domestic escapees, exhibited high antibody titers, suggesting a potential severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 transmission pathway to native wildlife.

We report a wildlife epidemiologic investigation of mammals captured on or near properties in Utah, USA, where outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection occurred in farmed mink. Mink farms are relatively common in the United States, and most are small family farms. The US ...


Moonlight: A Photo Essay, David A. Westbrook Feb 2021

Moonlight: A Photo Essay, David A. Westbrook

Journal Articles

No abstract provided.


Modeling The Release And Spreading Of Permanganate From Aerated Slow-Release Oxidants In A Laboratory Flow Tank, Ann Kambhu, Yusong Li, Troy E. Gilmore, Steve D. Comfort Feb 2021

Modeling The Release And Spreading Of Permanganate From Aerated Slow-Release Oxidants In A Laboratory Flow Tank, Ann Kambhu, Yusong Li, Troy E. Gilmore, Steve D. Comfort

Papers in Natural Resources

Aerated, slow-release oxidants are a relatively new technology for treating contaminated aquifers. A critical need for advancing this technology is developing a reliable method for predicting the radius of influence (ROI) around each drive point. In this work, we report a series of laboratory flow tank experiments and numerical modeling efforts designed to predict the release and spreading of permanganate from aerated oxidant candles (oxidant-wax composites). To mimic the design of the oxidant delivery system used in the field, a double screen was used in a series of flow tank experiments where the oxidant was placed inside the inner screen ...


Developing Farmer Typologies To Inform Conservation Outreach In Agricultural Landscapes, Suraj Upadhaya, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lisa A. Schulte Feb 2021

Developing Farmer Typologies To Inform Conservation Outreach In Agricultural Landscapes, Suraj Upadhaya, J. Gordon Arbuckle, Lisa A. Schulte

Sociology Publications

Understanding factors that motivate conservation behavior among farmers is crucial to addressing societal, soil, water, and wildlife conservation goals. Farmers employ soil conservation practices to maintain agricultural productivity while minimizing impacts to water and wildlife in the long-term. The majority of conservation programs are voluntary in nature and some farmers are more willing and/or able to implement conservation practices than others. To inform the development of more effective conservation outreach and incentive programs, we created a farmer typology using data from three waves (2015, 2016, 2018) of a longitudinal survey of 358 farmers from Iowa, a highly productive agricultural ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2021

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-third year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2020, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007, ASMFC 2020).

We also report on two fisheryindependent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 3) and the Chickahominy River (year 6; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of ...


Mussel Musings On The Powell River, Aggy Vanderpool Jan 2021

Mussel Musings On The Powell River, Aggy Vanderpool

Cumberland Mountain Naturalist

No abstract provided.


Farm Benchmarking: The Application Of Business, Conservation And Labor Indicators, Mark Cannella, Sara Ziegler,, Qingbin Wang, Mary Peabody, Thomas Leahey, Heather M. Darby Jan 2021

Farm Benchmarking: The Application Of Business, Conservation And Labor Indicators, Mark Cannella, Sara Ziegler,, Qingbin Wang, Mary Peabody, Thomas Leahey, Heather M. Darby

USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) Center

Farm benchmarking programs will move Vermont’s food system towards important sustainability outcomes by establishing enhanced monitoring of priority indicators and facilitating the adoption of best practices. Farmers, researchers, policy agencies and development professionals agree there is a lack of regular and consistent data available to guide private and public initiatives. This paper identifies and contextualizes over forty priority indicators capable of measuring business performance, conservation, farm labor and community development.

Benchmarking methods need to be adapted to better represent the diversity of enterprises present in Vermont’s agricultural portfolio. The integration of University Extension objectives with food systems research ...


Genome-Wide Snps Redefines Species Boundaries And Conservation Units In The Freshwater Mussel Genus Cyprogenia Of North America, Kevin Roe, Kyung Seok Kim Jan 2021

Genome-Wide Snps Redefines Species Boundaries And Conservation Units In The Freshwater Mussel Genus Cyprogenia Of North America, Kevin Roe, Kyung Seok Kim

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Detailed information on species delineation and population genetic structure is a prerequisite for designing effective restoration and conservation strategies for imperiled organisms. Phylogenomic and population genomic analyses based on genome-wide ddRAD-Seq data has identified three allopatric lineages in the North American freshwater mussel genus Cyprogenia. Cyprogenia stegaria is restricted to the Eastern Highlands and displays little genetic structuring within this region. However, two allopatric clusters of C. aberti in the Ozark and Ouachita highlands exhibit substantial levels (mean FST = 0.120) of genetic differentiation and each warrants recognition as a distinct evolutionary lineage. Lineages of Cyprogenia in the Ouachita ...


Comment On: “A Review Of The Complementary Principle Of Evaporation: From The Original Linear Relationship To Generalized Nonlinear Functions” By Han And Tian (2020), Richard D. Crago, Jozsef Szilagyi, Russell Qualls Jan 2021

Comment On: “A Review Of The Complementary Principle Of Evaporation: From The Original Linear Relationship To Generalized Nonlinear Functions” By Han And Tian (2020), Richard D. Crago, Jozsef Szilagyi, Russell Qualls

Papers in Natural Resources

The paper by Han and Tian (2020) reviews the history of developments in the complementary relationship (CR) between actual and potential evaporation and introduces the generalized complementary principle (GCP) developed by the authors. This comment assesses whether the GCP: (1) can give reasonable results from a wide range of surfaces worldwide; (2) is supported by experimental data that verify the three stages of evaporation implicit in the GCP, particularly in the wet-surface limit; (3) has been proven to be correct by the authors in a previous paper; and (4) is supported by model studies showing that wet surfaces occur predominantly ...