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Full-Text Articles in Psychiatric and Mental Health

Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova Sep 2020

Neurodevelopmental Mechanisms Of Adverse Trauma Outcomes In Emerging Adulthood, Olena Kleshchova

All Dissertations, Theses, and Capstone Projects

Background: Exposure to traumatic stress and adversity during the formative years of development can have adverse effects on mental health, neuroendocrine stress system function, and the brain, that persist into adulthood. One candidate mechanism that might confer vulnerability to enduring adverse outcomes of early life trauma is disruption of normal brain maturation. As the brain matures, functional interactions among brain regions change until the functional brain architecture (i.e., the functional connectome) reaches a mature state in adulthood. Given that different neural circuits have distinct developmental trajectories and sensitive periods, traumatic stress at a given point in development might have ...


Stop Fighting The Coronavirus, Pranay Sinha Jul 2020

Stop Fighting The Coronavirus, Pranay Sinha

Journal of Wellness

During the COVID-19 pandemic, the refrain of war has echoed across the world. It has tainted the way we speak about the pandemic and shaped the way we think about it. Metaphors can direct thought and action. This essay reflects on the ways in which the metaphor of war is disrupting the way we relate to the pandemic, to our society, and to each other and concludes with an alternative metaphor.


Perspective: Responding To The Well-Being Of Health Care Workers And Learners In Academic Medicine During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Cherie C. Hill, Paula G. Gomes, Alayna H. Feng, Cricket C. Gullickson, Carla I. Haack, Sheryl L. Heron Jul 2020

Perspective: Responding To The Well-Being Of Health Care Workers And Learners In Academic Medicine During The Covid-19 Pandemic, Cherie C. Hill, Paula G. Gomes, Alayna H. Feng, Cricket C. Gullickson, Carla I. Haack, Sheryl L. Heron

Journal of Wellness

No abstract provided.


Geriatrics In Clinical Practice And Beyond: Brain Health, The Sixth Vital Sign?, Nannette Hoffman Jul 2020

Geriatrics In Clinical Practice And Beyond: Brain Health, The Sixth Vital Sign?, Nannette Hoffman

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Brain health in middle age and geriatric patients will take on greater importance for health care practitioners in our aging society. This article discusses various approaches clinicians can use for their patients to promote and improve brain health. These are generally the same lifestyle adoptions for cerebrovascular disease and cardiovascular disease prevention: weight management, exercise, and blood pressure and cholesterol lowering. Social stimulation and cognitive activities may also be important for the elderly.


Postpartum Depression: What Is It And How Can Family And Friends Help?, Latisha Tornabeni, Ty Aller Jun 2020

Postpartum Depression: What Is It And How Can Family And Friends Help?, Latisha Tornabeni, Ty Aller

All Current Publications

Peripartum depression, now called

postpartum depression (PPD), is an adjustment disorder manifesting symptoms throughout pregnancy or after childbirth. Women suffering from PPD often experience feelings of depression and fatigue, making it difficult to carry out daily activities (American Psychological Association, 2013). This condition should not be confused with the “baby blues,” which affects up to 80% of mothers and naturally subsides within a couple of weeks after childbirth (National Institute of Mental Health, 2013). Research shows that one in seven women experience PPD (Wishner et al., 2013). This fact sheet reviews how to work through the process of identifying, supporting ...


Medical And Mental Health Comorbidities Among Minority Racial/Ethnic Groups In The United States, Naheed Ahmed, C. Andrew Conway Jun 2020

Medical And Mental Health Comorbidities Among Minority Racial/Ethnic Groups In The United States, Naheed Ahmed, C. Andrew Conway

Journal of Social, Behavioral, and Health Sciences

Objective. To examine the prevalence of and the association between comorbid disorders and race/ethnicity in the United States.

Methods. Using cross-sectional data from the 2012 National Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System [N=45,207,844], we examined comorbidity of psychological distress with self-reported diagnosis of diabetes, angina, and with history of heart attack and stroke. Logistic regression was used to examine between group differences by race/ethnicity.

Results. Unadjusted results indicate that American Indian [OR 4.01, 95%CI: 1.78, 9.04] and Hispanic [OR 1.55, 95%CI: 1.04, 2.33] participants were more likely to ...


Exploration Of Physician Attitudes About Self-Care And Personal Mental Health: Possible Barriers To Physician Well Being, Candich Farrar Jun 2020

Exploration Of Physician Attitudes About Self-Care And Personal Mental Health: Possible Barriers To Physician Well Being, Candich Farrar

Dissertations

The present study was designed to examine physicians’ mental health, attitudes, and behaviors toward self-care and the utilization of mental health services. As the medical field can be very demanding and exhausting, it is believed that many physicians suffer from mental illnesses such as anxiety and depression. However, it was theorized that many physicians do not engage in adequate self-care regimes or seek support and suppress their symptoms, which may further exacerbate their illnesses. A thorough literature review was performed to explore the following: possible barriers to physicians seeking mental health services to address high rates of mental illnesses, physicians ...


Suicidal Ideation Among United States Veterans: A Systematic Review, Champagne D. Moore Jun 2020

Suicidal Ideation Among United States Veterans: A Systematic Review, Champagne D. Moore

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Objective: The goal of this study was to conduct a systematic review of suicidal ideation and associated factors among US veterans.

Methods: PRISMA guidelines for identifying and collecting published peer-reviewed articles were employed. Article characteristics were assessed, and trends were analyzed.

Results: Study results show that US veterans have higher rates of suicide as compared to non-US veterans. Among US veterans, the most common means of suicide was firearms, especially among males. Factors such as gun legislation was related to suicide rate among the population.

Conclusion: Veteran suicide prevention must be a public health priority. Prevention measures should further address ...


Mental Health Screening For Low Income Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Project, Allison Bryden May 2020

Mental Health Screening For Low Income Adolescents: An Evidence-Based Project, Allison Bryden

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

TITLE: Mental Health Screening For Low-Income Adolescents

BACKGROUND: Nearly 80% of adolescents in the United States will suffer from a mental illness and not receive evaluation or services. Children from low socio-economic backgrounds have an increased risk of mental health disorders which permeate into adulthood, leading to additional negative sequel and lower quality of life. Among adolescent mental health conditions, depression and anxiety are the most common. Literature has suggested provider intuition alone has low sensitivity and specificity for detecting mental illness and that screening tools are indicated.

PURPOSE: The aim of this project is to implement standardized routine ...


It's More Than Just "Baby Blues" - Screening For Postpartum Depression In A Pediatric Setting, Breanna M. Lazar, Martha G. Fuller May 2020

It's More Than Just "Baby Blues" - Screening For Postpartum Depression In A Pediatric Setting, Breanna M. Lazar, Martha G. Fuller

Doctor of Nursing Practice Final Manuscripts

Abstract

Background: Postpartum depression (PPD) is estimated to affect up to 1 out of 7 women. Evidence and American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) guidelines support maternal screening for PPD in a pediatric setting during well-child visits. The pediatric office is frequently visited during the first year of life and is a suitable setting to perform screening.

Aims of Service Change: Implement AAP recommended PPD screening at a busy primary care practice in Southern California using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9).

Details of Innovation: In this pilot project, mothers (who were not patients of the pediatric practice) consented to be screened ...


The Relationship Between Traumatic Brain Injuries, Impulsivity, And Crime, Brian Ramanauskas May 2020

The Relationship Between Traumatic Brain Injuries, Impulsivity, And Crime, Brian Ramanauskas

Student Theses

The rate of traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are increasing each year, impacting an estimated 1.4 million Americans. After further investigation, researchers have concluded that 8.5% of the general public sustains at least one TBI, whereas this number ranges from 25% to 87% in criminal populations. In the literature, impulsivity is frequently described as poorly conceived, prematurely expressed, or inappropriate behaviors. Additionally, poor impulse control has been shown to significantly impact the likelihood of criminal activity, increasing the rate of recidivism. The current study examined an archival dataset of 95 incarcerated individuals from a private correctional facility in a ...


The Efficacy Of Art Therapy As An Adjunctive Therapy For Psychosis: A Literature Review, Erin Tillquist May 2020

The Efficacy Of Art Therapy As An Adjunctive Therapy For Psychosis: A Literature Review, Erin Tillquist

Expressive Therapies Capstone Theses

Psychosis is a serious symptom of mental illness that is characterized by a detachment from reality. This can include experiencing visual, auditory, or tactile hallucinations, as well as delusions or false beliefs (American Psychiatric Association, DSM-V, 2013). Psychosis is a symptom of many disorders including schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, substance use disorder, and dementia, among many others. Art therapy is often overlooked as a valuable treatment for psychosis, mainly due to a lack of research in the field and the difficulty of maintaining controlled research parameters with this acute population (Tamminga & Lahti, 2011). Likewise, psychosis is generally perceived as manageable through ...


Assessing The Effect Of Chronic Dopamine Receptor 2 Blockade As A Potential Model Of Secondary Negative Symptoms In Rats Using The Fr5/Chow Feeding Choice Task, Cyrene Nicholas May 2020

Assessing The Effect Of Chronic Dopamine Receptor 2 Blockade As A Potential Model Of Secondary Negative Symptoms In Rats Using The Fr5/Chow Feeding Choice Task, Cyrene Nicholas

Honors Scholar Theses

Haloperidol, a dopamine (DA) D2 receptor antagonist, is an antipsychotic drug which is commonly used to treat schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. These disorders are often characterized by elevated striatal dopamine, which is speculated to have a role in producing positive symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, and paranoia, as well as symptoms related to motivational salience and reward prediction. Individuals with schizophrenia also exhibit negative symptoms, such as amotivation, anergia, fatigue, and apathy among others. While some negative symptoms of schizophrenia are inherent to the pathophysiology, other negative symptoms are hypothesized to be partially induced by chronic exposure to antipsychotic ...


Examination Of Sleep Disturbance, Anxiety Sensitivity, And Depression In An Undergraduate Sample, Dasha Grace May 2020

Examination Of Sleep Disturbance, Anxiety Sensitivity, And Depression In An Undergraduate Sample, Dasha Grace

Honors Theses

Sleep contributes to overall well-being, mental health, and daily functioning. Sleep disturbances negatively affect psychological, physiological, and biological processing, and the quality of sleep is similarly affected by these processes. The effects of sleep disturbance call for a greater understanding of depression and anxiety sensitivity among college students. Studies have found that sleep disturbance affects nearly 90% of the college student population. The aims of the current study were to examine: 1) types and rates of sleep disturbance among a sample of college students, 2) associations between sleep disturbance, AS, and depression symptoms, and 3) AS and depression symptoms by ...


Behers' "Spiritual Care For People Living With Dementia Using Multisensory Interventions: A Practical Guide For Chaplains" (Book Review), Craighton Hippenhammer May 2020

Behers' "Spiritual Care For People Living With Dementia Using Multisensory Interventions: A Practical Guide For Chaplains" (Book Review), Craighton Hippenhammer

The Christian Librarian

No abstract provided.


College Education Can Induce Stress, Anxiety, And Depression – Are You Sad?, Nathan L. Boyd May 2020

College Education Can Induce Stress, Anxiety, And Depression – Are You Sad?, Nathan L. Boyd

2020 Symposium Posters

College students must manage a great deal of stress, including heavy loads of coursework, deadlines, finances, families, working part-time or full-time, and choosing their lifelong careers. The Center for Collegiate Mental Health has reported that stress, anxiety, and depression (SAD) are the leading reasons that students reach out for mental health services. However, stigma has been identified as the primary barrier to treatment. Students should be encouraged to seek the help of medical professionals and develop healthy habits because these serious conditions can negatively affect educational performance, work performance, and quality of life. Secondary research methods will be used to ...


Perceptions Of Help-Seeking Likelihood For Depression: Examining The Relative Predictive Value Of Ethnicity And Barriers To Care, Linda Esperanza Guzman May 2020

Perceptions Of Help-Seeking Likelihood For Depression: Examining The Relative Predictive Value Of Ethnicity And Barriers To Care, Linda Esperanza Guzman

Theses and Dissertations

Latinx and non-Latinx White adults 18 years of age and older experience depression at proportional rates. However, Latinxs seek specialized care for depression at lower rates than non-Latinx Whites, suggesting these groups experience barriers in accessing care differently. This study sought to test the theoretical steps of help-seeking as informed by the Gaining Access and Treatment Equity model (GATE model; Bridges, 2018). According to the GATE model, successful help-seeking means navigating a series of barriers: sequentially, these are perceived need, attitudinal barriers, and structural barriers. Participants (N = 987) were either Latinx (n = 437) or non-Latinx White (n = 550) undergraduate students ...


Adolescent Depressive Symptoms, Co-Rumination, And Friendship: A Longitudinal, Observational Study, Raegan Harrington May 2020

Adolescent Depressive Symptoms, Co-Rumination, And Friendship: A Longitudinal, Observational Study, Raegan Harrington

Honors College

Depressive symptoms and positive friendship quality are typically inversely correlated across numerous past studies, with most studies involving only two time points. At the same time, co-rumination (Rose, 2002), the mutually encouraged, speculative, repetitive, and negatively focused discussion of problems between friends, has been linked to increased depressive symptoms and increased friendship quality concurrently and over time (Calmes & Roberts, 2008; Rose et al., 2007, 2014). Yet unclear is how co-rumination impacts associations of depressive symptoms and friendship quality over time and the nature of these relations over more than two time points. Additionally, understudied are observations of co-rumination, with only one published ...


Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito Apr 2020

Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, Ashan T. Hatharasinghe, Hossein Akhondi, Don Pepito

HCA Healthcare Journal of Medicine

Introduction: Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include encephalopathy, motor deficits, ataxia, and meningeal signs. In most cases, ADEM is preceded by either vaccination or viral illness. Here, we present a case with neither of the two predisposing elements.

Discussion: A 28-year-old Hispanic female presenting with substance use and suicidal ideation was placed on an involuntary psychiatric hold, started on olanzapine and scheduled for a psychiatric facility transfer. The following day, she was noted to have neurological deficits when ambulating. Computed tomography of the brain showed a right frontal ...


Promoting Resilience In Self-Management (Prism): Adverse Childhood Experiences And Impacts On Emotion Regulation, Kasey Ann Macedo Apr 2020

Promoting Resilience In Self-Management (Prism): Adverse Childhood Experiences And Impacts On Emotion Regulation, Kasey Ann Macedo

Honors Scholar Theses

PRISM (Promoting Resilience in Self-Management) is a mindfulness-based intervention that aims to strengthen emotion regulation skills among individuals by employing cognitive behavioral therapy components. The purpose of the current study is to identify the relationship between adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) and depression, as well as to examine the changes in emotion regulation strategies of participants by comparing pre and post test data. The participants were voluntarily recruited from the Cornerstone Foundation, a homeless shelter, food pantry, and community center in Vernon, CT. The 13 participants completed PRISM through four weeks of two-hour workshop sessions in a small-group format. Results indicate ...


Feasibility Of An Online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Program To Improve Insomnia, Mood, And Quality Of Life In Bereaved Adults Ages 55 And Older, Cassandra Godzik Apr 2020

Feasibility Of An Online Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Program To Improve Insomnia, Mood, And Quality Of Life In Bereaved Adults Ages 55 And Older, Cassandra Godzik

Graduate School of Nursing Dissertations

Objective: To determine the feasibility of an online cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in bereaved older adults.

Participants: The study participants include adults aged 55 and older (N = 30) that lost a loved one within the past five years and are currently experiencing symptoms of insomnia.

Methods: This study used an experimental design and was guided by the Transitions Theory developed by Meleis. Descriptive statistics and t-tests were used to measure changes within and between groups. Experimental arm had the CBT-I online treatment and the control arm had attention controlled online tasks. Intervention fidelity was measured.

Results: The ...


Celebrities In Rehab: Who Is More At Risk?, Skye Downey, Anastasia Kuhles, Beth Kulikov, Vanessa Martinez, Karl Schneider, Sydney Weinreb, Tes Tuason Phd Apr 2020

Celebrities In Rehab: Who Is More At Risk?, Skye Downey, Anastasia Kuhles, Beth Kulikov, Vanessa Martinez, Karl Schneider, Sydney Weinreb, Tes Tuason Phd

Showcase of Osprey Advancements in Research and Scholarship (SOARS)

Does celebrity status make people more likely to need rehab? The purpose of the current study is to better understand the trends in substance abuse rehabilitation admittance among celebrities from 2005 to 2020. The authors became interested in the topic due to its myriad implications within the clinical mental health counseling field. Popular lore indicates a positive correlation between celebrity status and substance abuse. Previous studies have covered the predictive factors of celebrity downfall, but few have gone into specific trends among rehabilitation admittance. This mixed method review is designed to further look at the specific factors in celebrity status ...


Perspectives On Indigenous Mental Health, Erika Alegria Apr 2020

Perspectives On Indigenous Mental Health, Erika Alegria

Honours Bachelor of Early Childhood Leadership (HBECL) Capstone Research Posters

The primary purpose of this study was to explore the diverse perspectives of social service practitioners on the mental health of indigenous youth and communities while examining current methods of practice used in mental health services. This qualitative research study used a narrative design and collected data through a total of five semi-structured, face-to-face interviews involving two Child and Youth Workers, and three Social Workers; three of these five participants are also Registered Early Childhood Educators. The primary research question investigated in this study was: what are Social Service practitioners’ perspectives of how they support mental health issues in indigenous ...


Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Pbde) And Poly- And Perfluoroalkyl Substance (Pfas) Exposures During Pregnancy And Maternal Depression, Ann M. Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M. Braun, Andreas Sjodin, Antonia M. Calafat, Yingying Xu, Kim N. Dietrich, Bruce P. Lanphear, Aimin Chen Apr 2020

Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (Pbde) And Poly- And Perfluoroalkyl Substance (Pfas) Exposures During Pregnancy And Maternal Depression, Ann M. Vuong, Kimberly Yolton, Joseph M. Braun, Andreas Sjodin, Antonia M. Calafat, Yingying Xu, Kim N. Dietrich, Bruce P. Lanphear, Aimin Chen

Environmental & Occupational Health Faculty Publications

Background: Experimental studies in rodents suggest that polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and poly- and perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) may contribute to depressive symptoms. Few studies have examined the impact of these chemicals on depression in adults. Objective: To examine the associations between serum PBDE and PFAS concentrations during pregnancy and repeated measures of depressive symptoms in women assessed from pregnancy to 8 years postpartum. Methods: This study was based on 377 women from the Health Outcomes and Measures of the Environment Study, a birth cohort in Cincinnati, OH (USA). PBDEs (BDE-28, -47, -99, -100, -153, and ∑PBDEs) and PFAS (perfluorooctanoate [PFOA ...


Impact Of Rational And Experiential Thinking Styles On Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Among Young Adults, Ayesha Rafique, Hania Habib, Fariha Abdul Rehman, Shabnam Arshi Apr 2020

Impact Of Rational And Experiential Thinking Styles On Interpersonal Conflict Resolution Among Young Adults, Ayesha Rafique, Hania Habib, Fariha Abdul Rehman, Shabnam Arshi

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

This research aimed to find the relationship between thinking styles (rational or experiential) and interpersonal conflict resolution (ICR) in young adults. A sample of 99 females and 103 males, age range 18 to 40 years, was selected via convenient and snow-ball sampling. Thinking styles were assessed using Rational-Experiential Inventory-40, and ICR was measured using Conflict Resolution Questionnaire. Regression analysis was used to predict ICR based on thinking style covariates and several relevant demographic covariates, including gender and family birth order. Rational thinking style (RTS) was most prevalent among young adults and was the strongest predictor of ICR. In addition, gender ...


The Role Of Biotransformation Processes In Mediating Interactions Between Psychotropic Drugs And Natural Products, Nicolae Bacinschi, Ina Pogonea, Lilia Podgurschi, Maria Mihalachi-Anghel, Emil Ștefănescu, Bogdan Socea, Marin Chianu Apr 2020

The Role Of Biotransformation Processes In Mediating Interactions Between Psychotropic Drugs And Natural Products, Nicolae Bacinschi, Ina Pogonea, Lilia Podgurschi, Maria Mihalachi-Anghel, Emil Ștefănescu, Bogdan Socea, Marin Chianu

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Many patients are not aware that natural products such as fruit juices or plant infusions can cause significant interactions with several drugs, some of which can be dangerous, especially when the medical treatment is for neurological or psychiatric disorders. Among the most predisposed for interacting with drugs are citric juices, particularly grapefruit and plant infusions, especially St John`s wort (Hypericum perforatum). Understanding the mechanism and the frequency of this type of interaction helps to avoid it. The goal of this research was to identify and summarize the most relevant reports on interactions between psychotropic drugs and natural beverages, in ...


Anorexia Nervosa And Reproduction: Connecting Brain To Gonads, Mihaela Poterasu, David L. Rowland, Corina Ciobanu, Simona Fica Apr 2020

Anorexia Nervosa And Reproduction: Connecting Brain To Gonads, Mihaela Poterasu, David L. Rowland, Corina Ciobanu, Simona Fica

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disorder that predominantly affects young women and is characterized by low caloric intake and a major dissatisfaction with one’s body image. It is often overlooked and, while patients and family seek medical help, emaciation and nutritional misbalances may become extreme and potentially life threatening. Among the many somatic complications, an accumulation of early endocrine adaptations occurs, leading to functional amenorrhea and impaired reproduction as a result of dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian axis. Even though these conditions are reversible, long-term consequences may affect the fertility of women with AN and can lead to maternal ...


Teaching And Researching With A Mental Health Diagnosis: Practices And Perspectives On Academic Ableism, Ann Green, Alyssa _, Lucia Dura, Patrick Harris, Leah Heilig, Bailey Kirby, Jay Mcclintick, Emily Pfender, Rebecca Carrasco Apr 2020

Teaching And Researching With A Mental Health Diagnosis: Practices And Perspectives On Academic Ableism, Ann Green, Alyssa _, Lucia Dura, Patrick Harris, Leah Heilig, Bailey Kirby, Jay Mcclintick, Emily Pfender, Rebecca Carrasco

Rhetoric of Health & Medicine

Abstract: Nine people with mental health diagnoses wrote a dialogue to discuss how we navigate our conditions and ask for accommodations within an academic setting. We cogitate on the challenges of obtaining a diagnosis, how and when we disclose, the affordances and challenges of our symptoms, seeking accommodations, and advocating for ourselves. We consider how current scholarship and other perspectives are changing the conversation about mental health in the academy. We conclude that while the 2008 revisions to the Americans with Disabilities Act have addressed necessary accommodations, that those with mental health conditions are still seeking access.


The Abodamfo: Ghana’S Marginalization Of Their ‘Other’, Rockling Afariwaa Apr 2020

The Abodamfo: Ghana’S Marginalization Of Their ‘Other’, Rockling Afariwaa

Student Writing

Traditional practices and thinking of most Ghanaians, has kept them from accepting and adapting to the social needs of their mentally ill population. The mentally ill are no longer accused of being witches, hung, or killed, and although the way people perceive and react to the mentally ill, in general, has evolved since the periods of Sigmund Freud, other forms of persecution against them exist in today’s societies. These persecutions are in the form of stigmatization, discrimination, and marginalization. Through Individual stigmatization and structural stigmatizations of mentally ill people in Ghana, by the societies and communities in which they ...


Marginalization And Criminalization Of People With Mental Illness, Ariana Walker Apr 2020

Marginalization And Criminalization Of People With Mental Illness, Ariana Walker

Student Writing

It is worth noting that people with a mental illness or disorder have a stigma around them that dictates how others treat them. With this stigma comes discrimination stemming from an already established opinion and experience with a person who has a mental illness. People who have a mental illness that affects their life are marginalized within our society, which means they get treated differently than the majority. This essay will serve as a discussion of the treatment history of mental disorders, forced institutionalization of the people, the impact deinstitutionalization had, and how this led to today’s problem of ...