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Articles 1 - 30 of 227

Full-Text Articles in Medical Anatomy

Aortoduodenal Fistula Forms From Primary Aortic Stump Graft In A Two-Time Multi-Visceral Transplant Patient With Presentation Of Gastrointestinal Bleed And Bowel Perforation: A Case Report, Brielle Corrente Apr 2019

Aortoduodenal Fistula Forms From Primary Aortic Stump Graft In A Two-Time Multi-Visceral Transplant Patient With Presentation Of Gastrointestinal Bleed And Bowel Perforation: A Case Report, Brielle Corrente

Graduate Student Research Symposium

Usually not diagnosed until open laparotomy, aortoduodenalfistulas (ADF) are one of the rarest complications of intestinal transplant surgery. With an incidence rate of only 0.04% at autopsy and only 250 documented cases since the early 1800’s, aortoduodenal fistulas are the most deadly complications of intestinal transplantation with a mortality rate of 100% without surgical intervention. A 39 year old, two-time multi-visceral transplant African American female patient suffered from a primary aortoduodenal fistula formation in a primary modified multi-visceral transplant aortic stump graft site. With emergency open laparotomy repair, revascularization of the secondary multi-visceral transplant was performed, saving the ...


Patient Perceptions Of Planned Organ Removal During Hysterectomy, Zeinab Kassem, Chad M. Coleman, Andrew S. Bossick, Wan-Ting Su, Roopina Sangha, Ganesa Wegienka Jan 2019

Patient Perceptions Of Planned Organ Removal During Hysterectomy, Zeinab Kassem, Chad M. Coleman, Andrew S. Bossick, Wan-Ting Su, Roopina Sangha, Ganesa Wegienka

Journal of Patient-Centered Research and Reviews

Purpose: Previous reports indicate many women may not have a firm grasp on likely outcomes of different hysterectomy procedures. This study aimed to assess women’s self-reported expectations of how they think their anatomy will change after hysterectomy.

Methods: Women scheduled for hysterectomy at a tertiary care hospital, for non-oncological reasons, reported their planned procedure type and the organs they understood would be removed 2 weeks prior to surgery. Patient reports and electronic medical records were reviewed, and kappa statistics (κ) were calculated to assess agreement for all women and within subgroups.

Results: Most of the 456 study participants (mean ...


Diffusion Tensor Imaging: In Vivo White Matter Structural And Connectivity Evaluation Of Glioma Pathophysiology For Future Clinical Application, Shawn D'Souza Jan 2019

Diffusion Tensor Imaging: In Vivo White Matter Structural And Connectivity Evaluation Of Glioma Pathophysiology For Future Clinical Application, Shawn D'Souza

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Gliomas account for 26.5% of all primary central nervous system tumors. Histopathological observation has been the gold standard for diagnosing and studying gliomas, however, this method has several limitations. Recent studies have used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to extract white matter fibers and the diffusion coefficients derived from the magnetic resonance processing to provide non-invasive insights into the extent of tumor invasion, axonal integrity, and pathophysiological differentiation of glioma from metastasis. This work extends the capabilities of DTI by examining whether a tract-based analysis can improve non-invasive localization of tumor impact on white matter integrity. This study also examines ...


The Migration And Developmental Remodeling Of Intrinsic Interneurons In Visual Thalamus And The Role Of Retinal Signaling., Naomi E. Charalambakis Dec 2018

The Migration And Developmental Remodeling Of Intrinsic Interneurons In Visual Thalamus And The Role Of Retinal Signaling., Naomi E. Charalambakis

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) of the mouse is a model system to study the development of thalamic circuitry. While most studies focus on relay neurons of dLGN, little is known about the factors regulating the development of the other principal cell type, intrinsic interneurons. To date, the targeting and migratory path of dLGN interneurons as well as their morphological development remains unclear. Here we examined whether the migration, structure, and function of interneurons relies on retinal signaling. We took a loss-of-function approach and crossed GAD67-GFP mice, which express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in dLGN interneurons, with math5 nulls ...


Microgravity Exerts An Age-Dependent Effect On Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell Development, Jonathan Baio Jun 2018

Microgravity Exerts An Age-Dependent Effect On Cardiovascular Progenitor Cell Development, Jonathan Baio

Loma Linda University Electronic Theses, Dissertations & Projects

The heart and its cellular components are profoundly altered by missions to space and injury on Earth. Increasing evidence has identified that one such alteration induced by spaceflight is the promotion of the efficacious use of stem cells in therapies on Earth. For this reason, neonatal and adult human cardiovascular progenitor cells (CPCs) were cultured aboard the International Space Station (ISS). Subsequently, we assessed the effects of mechanical unloading on developmental properties and signaling. Spaceflight induced the expression of genes that are typically associated with an earlier state of cardiovascular development. In particular, in neonatal CPCs, we measured increased expression ...


The Effect Of Dust Mite Extract On Esophageal Tight Junctions In Eosinophilic Esophagitis, Kyle Hinz May 2018

The Effect Of Dust Mite Extract On Esophageal Tight Junctions In Eosinophilic Esophagitis, Kyle Hinz

Theses & Dissertations

Eosinophilic Esophagitis (EE) is a chronic inflammatory disease that effects individuals of all ages. EE is mediated by an allergen response, causing the release of thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), and subsequent inflammation and eosinophil migration and infiltration of the esophagus through the activation of the JAK/STAT pathway and CD4+ T-cells. EE has typically been associated with food allergies, but studies have shown that aeroallergens can cause EE as well. Current treatments of EE have primarily focused on nonspecific methods, though anti-TSLP is beginning to be tested as a possible treatment for EE. The aim of this study was to ...


The Comparison Of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (Sd-Oct) To Histopathology In A Patient With Diffuse Macular Drusen, Harold Salmons, Ralph Eagle, Md May 2018

The Comparison Of Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (Sd-Oct) To Histopathology In A Patient With Diffuse Macular Drusen, Harold Salmons, Ralph Eagle, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Background: Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) has become a gold standard technique in ophthalmologic practice, and has revolutionized the diagnosis and treatment of retinal disease. As SD-OCT uses low interference interferometry and mathematical algorithms to produce detailed theoretical cross-sectional images of the retina, it is crucial to examine correlations between SD-OCT images and their corresponding histopathologic slides.

Methods: In the present study, careful correlative light microscopy was performed on the eye that was enucleated from an elderly patient who had a uveal melanoma and early agerelated macular degeneration evident clinically as soft drusen. SD-OCT was performed prior to enucleation ...


A New Frontier In Breast Cancer Management: Oncotype Dx, Gabriella Rollo, Jeremy Molligan, Md, Juan P. Palazzo, Md May 2018

A New Frontier In Breast Cancer Management: Oncotype Dx, Gabriella Rollo, Jeremy Molligan, Md, Juan P. Palazzo, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Diagnosing and prognosticating breast cancer has traditionally relied upon histomorphologic analysis and immunohistochemistry. With the recent advent of multigene molecular assays, traditional methods are being augmented with molecular biomarkers. Implementation of the Oncotype DX assay has led to a change in treatment of patients with early stage, estrogen positive cancer. Oncotype DX uses the expression of 21 genes at the mRNA level to determine a 10 year recurrence risk in node negative and 5 year recurrence risk in node positive cancer. 16 malignancy markers related to estrogen, HER2, cell proliferation, and invasion potential are compared with 5 reference genes and ...


The Use Of Liquid Biopsy In The Fight Against Cancer, Chamaka Kalutota, Emanual Rubin, Md May 2018

The Use Of Liquid Biopsy In The Fight Against Cancer, Chamaka Kalutota, Emanual Rubin, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

In recent years, liquid biopsy has emerged as a potential alternative/adjunct to standard tissue biopsy in the diagnosis of malignancies. Current use of this technique, which tracks distinctive molecules released from neoplastic cells including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), exosomes, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), cell-free DNA (cfDNA) and miRNA, has generally been limited to determining therapies in lung cancer based on detectable mutations (EFGR, EML4-ALK). However, recent studies have demonstrated the possibility for using these molecules as more efficient prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers in breast, colon, rectum, lung, liver, and pancreatic cancer. Due to the need for standardization in sampled ...


Clinico-Pathological Features And Pd-1/Pd-L1 Expression In Primary Mediastinal Large B Cell Lymphoma, Lydia Glick, Geetha Jagannathan, Md, Guldeep Uppal, Md May 2018

Clinico-Pathological Features And Pd-1/Pd-L1 Expression In Primary Mediastinal Large B Cell Lymphoma, Lydia Glick, Geetha Jagannathan, Md, Guldeep Uppal, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Primary Mediastinal Large B Cell Lymphoma (PMBCL) is a distinct subtype of Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL) that has been historically reported to have a worse prognosis than DLBCL. Occasional studies have reported PD-L1 expression in PMBCL, which can emerge as an important target for immune-check point therapy. This study aimed to evaluate clinico-pathological features and characterize the expression of PD-1 and PD-L1 in a single cohort of 15 patients with PMBCL.

A total of 15 cases of PMBCL were retrieved from records of the department of Pathology; eleven of these had tissue available for additional immunohistochemistry, specifically, PD-L1 ...


Atypical Presentation Of Upshaw Schulman Syndrome: A Case Report, Goutham Ravipati, Bs, David Strayer, Md, Phd, Douglas Drelich, Md May 2018

Atypical Presentation Of Upshaw Schulman Syndrome: A Case Report, Goutham Ravipati, Bs, David Strayer, Md, Phd, Douglas Drelich, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is a rare coagulation disorder with a typical clinical presentation of low platelets and excessive clotting. Mortality for this disorder may be high if untreated and therefore necessitates a high clinical suspicion. Here we describe a 46-year-old African American woman with a past medical history of multiple cerebrovascular accidents presenting to hematology after a suspected diagnosis of TTP. Presumptive diagnosis of acquired TTP called for treatment with IVIg, but a diagnosis of congenital TTP (Upshaw Schulman syndrome) was made after testing showed a lack of ADAMTS13 antibodies. Treatment with fresh frozen plasma (FFP) showed increase in ...


Determining The Role Of Point-Of-Care Hemoglobin Testing In The Resuscitation Of Acutely Hemorrhaging Patients, Eugene P. Warnick, Alexis R. Peedin, Md May 2018

Determining The Role Of Point-Of-Care Hemoglobin Testing In The Resuscitation Of Acutely Hemorrhaging Patients, Eugene P. Warnick, Alexis R. Peedin, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Point-of-care hemoglobin (Hb) testing has not been evaluated in the resuscitation of acutely hemorrhaging patients to guide transfusion therapy. This study assessed the correlation of Hb values determined by point-of-care (EPOC) and traditional laboratory (CBC) methods in patients undergoing massive transfusion. All patients transfused per the massive transfusion protocol (MTP) between February 2013 and October 2017 were identified. The EPOC result was most often within 1 g/dL of the CBC result when EPOC resulted in a Hb between 7-10 g/dL and when drawn within 15 minutes of the CBC specimen. In patients on MTP with an EPOC Hb ...


Implications Of Hobnail Features In Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma And Precursor Lesions, Caroline Dunne, Ba, Stacey K. Mardekian, Md May 2018

Implications Of Hobnail Features In Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma And Precursor Lesions, Caroline Dunne, Ba, Stacey K. Mardekian, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) has the poorest prognosis of all thyroid cancers. Morphologically, it is characterized by pleomorphic undifferentiated cells. In some cases, a differentiated precursor lesion, either papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) or follicular thyroid carcinoma, can be identified adjacent to the anaplastic component. There are certain morphological variants of PTC that are known to be associated with more aggressive behavior, but a recently described, understudied variant is the hobnail variant. It is characterized histologically by micropapillary structures lined by cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm and apically-placed bulging nuclei. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of ...


Metastatic Lobular Breast Carcinoma In A Meningioma: A Case Study, Sara Chapin, Msii, Lawrence C. Kenyon, Md, Phd May 2018

Metastatic Lobular Breast Carcinoma In A Meningioma: A Case Study, Sara Chapin, Msii, Lawrence C. Kenyon, Md, Phd

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Hormonal relationships between breast carcinoma and meningioma have long been reported in the literature. This association may be related to the widespread expression of progesterone receptors in meningiomas. Indeed, meningiomas are more common in women and may demonstrate increased growth during pregnancy. Women have an increased risk of meningioma following breast carcinoma diagnosis and vice versa. However, much more uncommon is a tumor to tumor metastases of breast carcinoma into a meningioma. We report a case of a 56 year old female with a past medical history of breast cancer, found to have a right sphenoorbital meningioma with metastatic lobular ...


Primary Cns Small Mature B-Cell Lymphoma With Plasmacytic Differentiation Presenting As An Amyloidoma: A Case Report And Review Of Literature, Andrew Lynch, Geetha Jagannathan, Md May 2018

Primary Cns Small Mature B-Cell Lymphoma With Plasmacytic Differentiation Presenting As An Amyloidoma: A Case Report And Review Of Literature, Andrew Lynch, Geetha Jagannathan, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSL) without systemic involvement are rare and account for only 2-3% of all brain tumors and <1% of all non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL). Close to 40% of PCNSL are associated with immunosuppression, however, the incidence of primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas has shown an increasing trend in immunocompetent patients in recent decades due to better control of HIV and drug-induced immunosuppression [2]. Here, we describe a case of a primary CNS non-Hodgkin’s small mature B-cell lymphoma with plasmacytic differentiation in an immunocompetent individual. A previously healthy 87-year-old Caucasian woman presented to the neurology clinic with complaints of slowly progressing left sided weakness, predominantly in the left arm and leg over the last 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large, confluent white matter T2-hyperintensity in the right frontal lobe with multifocal nodular enhancement involving the left cerebral hemisphere, cerebellum, and leptomeninges, consistent morphologically with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma. A bone marrow biopsy showed normal trilineage hematopoiesis with no evidence of lymphoma, myeloma or amyloidosis. Our patient was treated with Rituximab but developed an ischemic infarct of the left frontal white matter. She and her family decided to forego further treatment and switch to hospice care.


Comparative Analysis Of Tumor Capsule Thickness And Other Histologic Features In Encapsulated Follicular Variant Of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (Efvptc) And Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (Niftp), Brenda French, Stacey K. Mardekian, Md May 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Tumor Capsule Thickness And Other Histologic Features In Encapsulated Follicular Variant Of Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma (Efvptc) And Noninvasive Follicular Thyroid Neoplasm With Papillary-Like Nuclear Features (Niftp), Brenda French, Stacey K. Mardekian, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Recent reclassification of a subset of non-invasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC) tumors as non-invasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) has led to important changes in the clinical management of patients with these indolent lesions. Although there are established diagnostic criteria to differentiate NIFTP from EFVPTC, our objective was to determine further differences in histological characteristics between NIFTP and noninvasive EFVPTC. Additionally, we sought to identify histological differences between non-invasive and invasive EFVPTC lesions beyond the key finding of invasion. 68 encapsulated follicular lesions with papillary-like nuclear features from patients treated at Thomas Jefferson ...


Ewing’S Sarcoma, Chris Lucasti, Bs, Bruce A. Fenderson, Phd May 2018

Ewing’S Sarcoma, Chris Lucasti, Bs, Bruce A. Fenderson, Phd

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Ewing’s sarcoma is the second most common malignant tumor of the bone occurring in children and adolescents. Typically, patients present between the ages of 10 and 20, with the disease having a slight predilection for males.1 Tumors often arise in the mid-shaft with the femur being the most frequently affected bone. The most common chromosome translocation, t(11;22)(q24;q12), occurs between the EWS gene and the FLI-1 gene. This translocation has been implicated in these aggressive and malignant tumors.1–4 Oftentimes, patients present with pain and swelling in the area of the affected bone or ...


Acquired Resistance Mutations To Egfr Treatment In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Benjamen Schoenberg, Gregory Omerza, Phd May 2018

Acquired Resistance Mutations To Egfr Treatment In Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer, Benjamen Schoenberg, Gregory Omerza, Phd

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is currently the number one cause of cancer death in the United States for both men and women.1 Mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene are detected in approximately 30% of individuals with advanced NSCLC in Asia and 10-15% in Western countries.2 For patients harboring activating EGFR mutations, treatment includes the use of first or second-generation EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as afatinib, gefitinib, or erlotinib.

The purpose of this case study is to review the pathophysiology of the progression of NSCLC in a 63-year-old non-smoking Caucasian woman. The patient presented ...


Genome Editing Technology, Crispr Cas-9, Provides A Potential Future For Xenotransplantation: Can Pigs Become Our New Organ Donors?, Shelby Smith, Bs, Emanual Rubin, Md May 2018

Genome Editing Technology, Crispr Cas-9, Provides A Potential Future For Xenotransplantation: Can Pigs Become Our New Organ Donors?, Shelby Smith, Bs, Emanual Rubin, Md

Department of Pathology Honors Program Student Research Symposium

Organ shortage has been a significant issue in United States for many decades. There were over 116,000 people on the transplant waiting list as of August 2017, with a new person added every 10 minutes. Animals have been considered as potential organ donors for humans, with the pig being the most ideal candidate because of its excellent breeding profile, low maintenance costs, large litters, rapid growth and organ similarity. A notable challenge that comes with porcine organs are endogenous retroviruses that establish themselves in the DNA of offspring in utero, thereby allowing for no time to prevent infection and ...


Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin May 2018

Spinal Cord Trauma: An Overview Of Normal Structure And Function, Primary And Secondary Mechanisms Of Injury, And Emerging Treatment Modalities, Daniel Morin

Senior Honors Theses

The structures of the spinal cord and vertebral column are designed to provide flexibility, while still providing ample protection for the spinal cord deep within. While it does offer remarkable protection against most routine trauma, the spinal cord is still vulnerable to high-force etiologies of trauma and may become damaged as a result. These events are referred to as primary injury. Following the initial injury, the body’s own physiological responses cause a cascade of deleterious effects, known as secondary injury. Secondary injury is a major therapeutic target in mitigating the effects of spinal cord injury (SCI), and much research ...


Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith Apr 2018

Thalamocortical Processing Of Temporal Cues In Sounds, Kasey Smith

Honors Scholar Theses

The ability of the brain to extract meaningful information from complex sounds is what allows mammals to understand species-specific communication as well as important environmental cues such as the sound of water or of potential predators or prey. The auditory cortex of humans and other mammals contains multiple cortical regions that unique sensitivities to both spectral and temporal sound cues. This discourse will explore three main factors proposed to determine these distinct processing capabilities in regard to temporal sound cues; the distribution of glutamate transporters in the thalamus, the architecture of afferent pathways between the thalamus and auditory cortex, and ...


Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore Apr 2018

Functional Anatomy Of Palmar Musculature, Colin W. Moore

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The palmaris longus (PL) and palmaris brevis (PB) are upper limb muscles considered atavistic remnants of those found in animal species. Despite their use in surgical grafting and tendon transfer procedures, the functional role of the PL and PB have not been investigated comprehensively in vivo. Using a multi-modal experimental approach consisting of indwelling fine wire electromyography (EMG), ultrasonography and immunohistochemical muscle staining techniques, the function of the PL and PB in the hand was evaluated both in in vivo and in situ.

The purpose of Study 1 was to determine whether the PL provides synergistic contributions to thenar contractions ...


A Closer Look At The Global Management Of Spina Bifida: The Implementation Of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy In The Treatment Of Spina Bifida-Related Hydrocephalus In Africa, Caryssa Burckart Apr 2018

A Closer Look At The Global Management Of Spina Bifida: The Implementation Of Endoscopic Third Ventriculostomy In The Treatment Of Spina Bifida-Related Hydrocephalus In Africa, Caryssa Burckart

Senior Honors Theses

Spina bifida, specifically myelomeningocele, is a debilitating neural tube defect that affects patients and families throughout the world. Traditional management and treatment methods are described, followed by an explanation of why this is often inadequate in providing care for those in impoverished areas of the world, including many regions of Africa. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy is proposed as a promising alternative to traditional methods for treating hydrocephalus, an often associated condition, and the implementation of this treatment method in Africa is explored. In order to relieve Africa of the burden of spina bifida-related hydrocephalus and improve global management of spina bifida ...


Histopathology Report On Colon Cancer Specimens; Measuring Surgical Quality, An Increasing Stress For Surgeons, Stefan Morarasu, Tudor Frunza, Karina Bilavschi, Ana Maria Patrascu, Sorinel Lunca, Gabriel Dimofte Mar 2018

Histopathology Report On Colon Cancer Specimens; Measuring Surgical Quality, An Increasing Stress For Surgeons, Stefan Morarasu, Tudor Frunza, Karina Bilavschi, Ana Maria Patrascu, Sorinel Lunca, Gabriel Dimofte

Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences

Introduction. Improving the quality of surgical resections by evaluating surgical specimens is probably the most important feedback a surgeon can receive. Moreover, prognosis of patients with colon cancer is based on achieving appropriate resection margins and assessment of lymph node status. For these reasons we aim to provide a retrospective analysis on colon cancer specimens operated by a single surgical team.

Materials and Methods. 88 patients operated between 2013 and 2016 were included in the study. Data were gathered prospectively and assessed by multivariate analysis for the main variables (age, gender, tumor staging, specimen length, distance to closest resection margin ...


Self-Directed Learning Modules Enhance Mastery Of Diagnostic Imaging In Dissection-Based Anatomy Course For Physician Assistant Students, Guiyan Zhang, Bruce Fenderson, Xuan Zuo Mar 2018

Self-Directed Learning Modules Enhance Mastery Of Diagnostic Imaging In Dissection-Based Anatomy Course For Physician Assistant Students, Guiyan Zhang, Bruce Fenderson, Xuan Zuo

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Posters

Abstract

The virtues of using computer-based learning modules as an alternative to traditional didactic lectures were tested in a human anatomy course for Physician Assistant (PA) students. Self-directed learning modules on diagnostic imaging were created using ArticulateTM software and provided online as homework assignments for PA students taking a human anatomy lecture and dissection laboratory course. These interactive self-learning modules replaced the content of traditional didactic lectures on the same topics that had been given in previous years. For the PA class of 2016 (n=103), diagnostic imaging was taught via traditional lectures, whereas for the PA class of 2017 ...


Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber Feb 2018

Temporal Changes In Innate Immune Signals In A Rat Model Of Alcohol Withdrawal In Emotional And Cardiorespiratory Homeostatic Nuclei., Kate Freeman, Anthony Brureau, Rajanikanth Vadigepalli, Mary M Staehle, Melanie M Brureau, Gregory E Gonye, Jan B Hoek, D Craig Hooper, James S Schwaber

Mary Staehle

BACKGROUND: Chronic alcohol use changes the brain's inflammatory state. However, there is little work examining the progression of the cytokine response during alcohol withdrawal, a period of profound autonomic and emotional upset. This study examines the inflammatory response in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and dorsal vagal complex (DVC), brain regions neuroanatomically associated with affective and cardiorespiratory regulation in an in vivo rat model of withdrawal following a single chronic exposure.

METHODS: For qRT-PCR studies, we measured the expression of TNF-α, NOS-2, Ccl2 (MCP-1), MHC II invariant chain CD74, and the TNF receptor Tnfrsf1a in CeA and ...


A Comparison Of Hamstring Injury Recovery Rates In Male And Female Athletes, Amanda Hall Jan 2018

A Comparison Of Hamstring Injury Recovery Rates In Male And Female Athletes, Amanda Hall

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Excerpt from Introduction

Hamstring injuries are among the most common muscular injuries sustained by athletes across multiple levels of various sports (Askling et al). Most hamstring injuries occur during similar movements and under similar conditions, where the muscle is required to be explosive. Thus, athletes that participate in sports where “sprinting, kicking, or high-speed skilled movements” are required, experience an increased likelihood of suffering a hamstring injury (Erickson and Sherry). After injury, athletes are then subjected to different methods of rehabilitation to heal and strengthen the afflicted area. However, some athletes take longer than others to return and impatience may ...


Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old, James T. Yancy Jan 2018

Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old, James T. Yancy

Graduate Student Theses, Dissertations, & Professional Papers

Yancy, James T. (J.T.), MAT., May 2018 AthleticTraining

Examining Upper Extremity Injuries In Male Baseball Players Between The Ages Of 14 To 22 Years Old

Chairperson: Melanie McGrath

The number of upper extremity injuries is increasing in advanced baseball (14 to 22 years old) at an alarming rate. The length of seasons, multiple leagues and the velocity of throwing in overhead sports are the most common causes of elbow and shoulder injuries. In addition, biomechanical variables also influence the risk of injury. Any alteration in range of motion (ROM) directly impacts the biomechanics of overhead activities, such as pitching ...


Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., Caitlin M. Logan, Caitlin J. Bowen, A. Sue Menko Nov 2017

Induction Of Immune Surveillance Of The Dysmorphogenic Lens., Caitlin M. Logan, Caitlin J. Bowen, A. Sue Menko

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

The lens has been considered to be an immune privileged site not susceptible to the immune processes normally associated with tissue injury and wound repair. However, as greater insight into the immune surveillance process is gained, we have reevaluated the concept of immune privilege. Our studies using an N-cadherin lens-specific conditional knockout mouse, N-cadΔlens, show that loss of this cell-cell junctional protein leads to lens degeneration, necrosis and fibrotic change, postnatally. The degeneration of this tissue induces an immune response resulting in immune cells populating the lens that contribute to the development of fibrosis. Additionally, we demonstrate that the lens ...


Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., Valentina Debattisti, Akos A. Gerencser, Masao Saotome, Sudipto Das, György Hajnóczky Nov 2017

Ros Control Mitochondrial Motility Through P38 And The Motor Adaptor Miro/Trak., Valentina Debattisti, Akos A. Gerencser, Masao Saotome, Sudipto Das, György Hajnóczky

Department of Pathology, Anatomy, and Cell Biology Faculty Papers

Mitochondrial distribution and motility are recognized as central to many cellular functions, but their regulation by signaling mechanisms remains to be elucidated. Here, we report that reactive oxygen species (ROS), either derived from an extracellular source or intracellularly generated, control mitochondrial distribution and function by dose-dependently, specifically, and reversibly decreasing mitochondrial motility in both rat hippocampal primary cultured neurons and cell lines. ROS decrease motility independently of cytoplasmic [Ca2+], mitochondrial membrane potential, or permeability transition pore opening, known effectors of oxidative stress. However, multiple lines of genetic and pharmacological evidence support that a ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), p38α, is ...