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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Higher Body Mass Index In Adolescence Predicts Cardiomyopathy Risk In Midlife: Long-Term Follow-Up Among Swedish Men, Josefina Robertson, Maria Schaufelberger, Martin Lindgren, Martin Adiels, Linus Schiöler, Kjell Torén, John J. V. Mcmurray, Naveed Sattar, Maria Åberg, Annika Rosengren Jan 2019

Higher Body Mass Index In Adolescence Predicts Cardiomyopathy Risk In Midlife: Long-Term Follow-Up Among Swedish Men, Josefina Robertson, Maria Schaufelberger, Martin Lindgren, Martin Adiels, Linus Schiöler, Kjell Torén, John J. V. Mcmurray, Naveed Sattar, Maria Åberg, Annika Rosengren

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Modifiable lifestyle factors in relation to risk for cardiomyopathy, a common and increasing cause of heart failure in the young, have not been widely studied. We sought to investigate a potential link between obesity, a recognized predictor of early heart failure, in adolescence and being diagnosed with cardiomyopathy in adulthood. Methods: This was a nationwide register-based prospective cohort study of 1 668 893 adolescent men (mean age, 18.3 years; SD, 0.7 years) who enlisted for compulsory military service from 1969 to 2005. At baseline, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, and medical disorders were registered, along with ...


Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

Lipotoxicity Plays A Key Role In The Development Of Both Insulin Resistance And Muscle Atrophy In Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Ruth C. R. Meex, Ellen E. Blaak, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Insulin resistance and muscle mass loss often coincide in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Most patients with type 2 diabetes are overweight, and it is well established that obesity and derangements in lipid metabolism play an important role in the development of insulin resistance in these individuals. Specifically, increased adipose tissue mass and dysfunctional adipose tissue lead to systemic lipid overflow and to low‐grade inflammation via altered secretion of adipokines and cytokines. Furthermore, an increased flux of fatty acids from the adipose tissue may contribute to increased fat storage in the liver and in skeletal muscle, resulting in an ...


Changes In Waist Circumference Independent Of Weight: Implications For Population Level Monitoring Of Obesity [Accepted Manuscript], Emma Gearon, Stephanie K. Tanamas, Christopher Stevenson, Venurs Hui Yee Loh, Anna Peters Jun 2018

Changes In Waist Circumference Independent Of Weight: Implications For Population Level Monitoring Of Obesity [Accepted Manuscript], Emma Gearon, Stephanie K. Tanamas, Christopher Stevenson, Venurs Hui Yee Loh, Anna Peters

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

ing of obesity is most commonly conducted using body mass index (BMI). We test the hypothesis that because of increases in waist circumference (WC) independent of increases in weight, BMI alone detects an increasingly smaller proportion of the population with obesity. Methods: Australian adults with measured height, weight, and WC were selected from three nationally representative cross-sectional surveys (1989, 1999–2000, 2011–12; n = 8313, 5903 & 3904). Participants were defined as having obesity using classifications for an obese BMI (≥ 30 kg·m− 2) and substantially-increased-risk WC (≥ 88 cm [women], ≥ 102 cm [men]). Age-standardised prevalence of obesity according to BMI and ...


Multimorbidity In Patients With Heart Failure From 11 Asian Regions: A Prospective Cohort Study Using The Asian-Hf Registry, Jasper Tromp, Wan Ting Tay, Wouter Ouwekerk, Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Jonathan Yap, Michael R. Macdonald, Kirsten Leineweber, John Mcmurray, Michael R. Zile, Inder S. Anand, Carolyn S. P. Lam Jan 2018

Multimorbidity In Patients With Heart Failure From 11 Asian Regions: A Prospective Cohort Study Using The Asian-Hf Registry, Jasper Tromp, Wan Ting Tay, Wouter Ouwekerk, Tiew-Hwa Katherine Teng, Jonathan Yap, Michael R. Macdonald, Kirsten Leineweber, John Mcmurray, Michael R. Zile, Inder S. Anand, Carolyn S. P. Lam

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background
Comorbidities are common in patients with heart failure (HF) and complicate treatment and outcomes. We identified patterns of multimorbidity in Asian patients with HF and their association with patients’ quality of life (QoL) and health outcomes.
Methods and findings
We used data on 6,480 patients with chronic HF (1,204 with preserved ejection fraction) enrolled between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016 in the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry. The ASIAN-HF registry is a prospective cohort study, with patients prospectively enrolled from in- and outpatient clinics from 11 Asian regions (Hong Kong, Taiwan ...


Impact Of First Meal Size During Prolonged Sitting On Postprandial Glycaemia In Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomised, Crossover Study, Evelyn Parr, Brooke Devlin, Samuel Pinto, David Dunstan, John Hawley Jan 2018

Impact Of First Meal Size During Prolonged Sitting On Postprandial Glycaemia In Individuals With Prediabetes: A Randomised, Crossover Study, Evelyn Parr, Brooke Devlin, Samuel Pinto, David Dunstan, John Hawley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

We compared the impact of a high versus low energy intake first meal on glucose and insulin responses during prolonged sitting in individuals with prediabetes. Thirteen adults with overweight/obesity and prediabetes (mean ± SD age: 60 ± 6 years, BMI: 33 ± 4 kg/m2; 2 h OGTT: 8.9 ± 1.1 mmol/L) completed two randomised trials: 10 h uninterrupted sitting, incorporating three meals with matching macronutrient compositions but different energy distributions: High-Energy Breakfast (HE-BF; breakfast: 50%, lunch: 30%, dinner: 20% energy intake), Low-Energy Breakfast (LE-BF: 20%/30%/50% energy intake). Venous blood was sampled from 08:00–18:00 h ...


How Politics Makes Us Sick: Neoliberal Epidemics, Karen Willis Jan 2017

How Politics Makes Us Sick: Neoliberal Epidemics, Karen Willis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

No abstract provided.


Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage And Body Mass Index Among Residentially Stable Mid-Older Aged Adults: Findings From The Habitat Multilevel Longitudinal Study [Accepted Manuscript], Jerome N. Rachele, Anne Kavanagh, Wendy J. Brown, Aislinn M. Healy, Christina J. Schmid, Gavin Turrell Jan 2017

Neighborhood Socioeconomic Disadvantage And Body Mass Index Among Residentially Stable Mid-Older Aged Adults: Findings From The Habitat Multilevel Longitudinal Study [Accepted Manuscript], Jerome N. Rachele, Anne Kavanagh, Wendy J. Brown, Aislinn M. Healy, Christina J. Schmid, Gavin Turrell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Despite a body of evidence on the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and body mass index (BMI), few studies have examined this relationship over time among ageing populations. This study examined associations between level of neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and the rate of change in BMI over time. The sample included 11,035 participants aged between 40 and 65 years at baseline from the HABITAT study, residing in 200 neighborhoods in Brisbane, Australia. Data were collected biennially over four waves from 2007 to 2013. Self-reported height and weight were used to calculate BMI, while neighborhood disadvantage was measured using a census-based ...


Appetitive Traits Associated With Higher And Lower Body Mass Index: Evaluating The Validity Of The Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire In An Australian Sample, Kimberley M. Mallan, Alison Fildes, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Jayne Drzezdzon, Matthew Sampson, Clare Llewellyn Jan 2017

Appetitive Traits Associated With Higher And Lower Body Mass Index: Evaluating The Validity Of The Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire In An Australian Sample, Kimberley M. Mallan, Alison Fildes, Xochitl De La Piedad Garcia, Jayne Drzezdzon, Matthew Sampson, Clare Llewellyn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The aims of this study were to evaluate the factor structure of the newly developed Adult Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (AEBQ) (Hunot et al., Appetite 105:356-63, 2016) in an Australian sample, and examine associations between the four food approach and four food avoidance appetitive traits with body mass index (BMI). Methods: Participants (N = 998) recruited between May and October 2016 via a university research participation scheme and online social network sites completed an online version of the AEBQ and self-reported demographic and anthropometric data. Of the sample, 84.8% were females, 29.6% had completed a university degree and ...


Knowledge-Exchange In The Pacific: Outcomes Of The Tropic (Translational Research For Obesity Prevention In Communities) Project, Peter Kremer, Helen Mavoa, Gade Waqa, Marjory Moodie, Marita Mccabe, Boyd Swinburn Jan 2017

Knowledge-Exchange In The Pacific: Outcomes Of The Tropic (Translational Research For Obesity Prevention In Communities) Project, Peter Kremer, Helen Mavoa, Gade Waqa, Marjory Moodie, Marita Mccabe, Boyd Swinburn

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The Pacific TROPIC (Translational Research for Obesity Prevention in Communities) project aimed to design, implement and evaluate a knowledge-broking approach to evidence-informed policy making to address obesity in Fiji. This paper reports on the quantitative evaluation of the knowledge-broking intervention through assessment of participants’ perceptions of evidence use and development of policy/advocacy briefs. Methods: Selected staff from six organizations - four government Ministries and two nongovernment organizations (NGOs) - participated in the project. The intervention comprised workshops and supported development of policy/advocacy briefs. Workshops addressed obesity and policy cycles and developing participants’ skills in accessing, assessing, adapting and applying ...


Ethnic Differences In Overweight And Obesity And The Influence Of Acculturation On Immigrant Bodyweight: Evidence From A National Sample Of Australian Adults, Karen Menigoz, Andrea G. Nathan, Gavin Turrell Jan 2016

Ethnic Differences In Overweight And Obesity And The Influence Of Acculturation On Immigrant Bodyweight: Evidence From A National Sample Of Australian Adults, Karen Menigoz, Andrea G. Nathan, Gavin Turrell

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Despite growing international migration and documented ethnic differences in overweight and obesity in developed countries, no research has described the epidemiology of immigrant overweight and obesity at a national level in Australia, a country where immigrants comprise 28.1 % of the population. The aim of this study was to examine ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI) and overweight/obesity in Australia and the influence of acculturation on bodyweight among Australian immigrants. Methods Data from the national Household Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA) survey were used to examine mean BMI and odds of overweight/obesity comparing immigrants ...


Physical Activity, Television Viewing Time And 12-Year Changes In Waist Circumference, Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka, Takemi Sugiyama, Jo Salmon, David Dunstan, Neville Owen Jan 2016

Physical Activity, Television Viewing Time And 12-Year Changes In Waist Circumference, Ai Shibata, Koichiro Oka, Takemi Sugiyama, Jo Salmon, David Dunstan, Neville Owen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: Both moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior can be associated with adult adiposity. Much of the relevant evidence is from cross-sectional studies or from prospective studies with relevant exposure measures at a single time point prior to weight gain or incident obesity. This study examined whether changes in MVPA and television (TV) viewing time are associated with subsequent changes in waist circumference, using data from three separate observation points in a large population-based prospective study of Australian adults.

Methods: Data were obtained from the Australian Diabetes, Obesity and Lifestyle study collected in 1999-2000 (baseline), 2004–05 (Wave 2 ...


Salivary Leptin Concentrations In Bruneian Secondary School Children, Adi Idris, Ahmed Gharib Khamis, Nur Basirah Ghazali, Michael Steele, David Koh, Nik Ani Tuah Jan 2016

Salivary Leptin Concentrations In Bruneian Secondary School Children, Adi Idris, Ahmed Gharib Khamis, Nur Basirah Ghazali, Michael Steele, David Koh, Nik Ani Tuah

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: To investigate the association between leptin levels and body mass index in Bruneian secondary school students. Methods: The body mass index of Bruneian secondary school students (aged 11–18 years) was determined before collecting their saliva using the passive drool technique. Salivary leptin concentration was determined by ELISA. Results: Correlation and partial correlation (controlled for age) analyses showed no significant differences between the levels of salivary leptin of normal weight and overweight students. Conclusions: No significant increase in the salivary leptin concentration was observed in overweight compared with normal weight Bruneian secondary school students.


The Ampk Activator R419 Improves Exercise Capacity And Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Mice, Katarina Marcinko, Adam L. Bujak, James S. V. Lally, Rebecca J. Ford, Tammy H. Wong, Brennan K. Smith, Bruce Ernest Kemp, Yonchu Jenkins, Wei Li, Todd M. Kinsella, Yasumichi Hitoshi, Gregory R. Steinberg Jan 2015

The Ampk Activator R419 Improves Exercise Capacity And Skeletal Muscle Insulin Sensitivity In Obese Mice, Katarina Marcinko, Adam L. Bujak, James S. V. Lally, Rebecca J. Ford, Tammy H. Wong, Brennan K. Smith, Bruce Ernest Kemp, Yonchu Jenkins, Wei Li, Todd M. Kinsella, Yasumichi Hitoshi, Gregory R. Steinberg

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Skeletal muscle AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is important for regulating glucose homeostasis, mitochondrial content and exercise capacity. R419 is a mitochondrial complex-I inhibitor that has recently been shown to acutely activate AMPK in myotubes. Our main objective was to examine whether R419 treatment improves insulin sensitivity and exercise capacity in obese insulin resistant mice and whether skeletal muscle AMPK was important for mediating potential effects. Methods: Glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, and electron transport chain content/activity were examined in wildtype (WT) and AMPK β1β2 muscle-specific null (AMPK-MKO) mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) with or without R419 ...


Beliefs About Causes Of Weight Gain, Effective Weight Gain Prevention Strategies, And Barriers To Weight Management In The Australian Population, Rachel Dryer, Nicole Ware Jan 2014

Beliefs About Causes Of Weight Gain, Effective Weight Gain Prevention Strategies, And Barriers To Weight Management In The Australian Population, Rachel Dryer, Nicole Ware

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Purpose: To identify beliefs held by the general public regarding causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management; and to examine whether such beliefs predict the actual body mass of participants.
Methods: A questionnaire-based survey was administered to participants recruited from regional and metropolitan areas of Australia. This questionnaire obtained demographic information, height, weight; as well as beliefs about causes of weight gain, weight prevention strategies, and barriers to weight management.
Results: The sample consisted of 376 participants (94 males, 282 females) between the ages of 18 years and 88 years (mean age = 43.25, SD ...


Predictors Of Trips To Food Destinations., Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, James F. Sallis, Brian Saelens, Karen Glanz, Jim Chapman Jan 2012

Predictors Of Trips To Food Destinations., Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, James F. Sallis, Brian Saelens, Karen Glanz, Jim Chapman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background :Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods: Atlanta residents ( N = 4800 ) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of ...


Predictors Of Trips To Food Destinations, Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, James F. Sallis, Brian Saelens, Karen Glanz, Jim Chapman Jan 2012

Predictors Of Trips To Food Destinations, Jacqueline Kerr, Lawrence Frank, James F. Sallis, Brian Saelens, Karen Glanz, Jim Chapman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Food environment studies have focused on ethnic and income disparities in food access. Few studies have investigated distance travelled for food and did not aim to inform the geographic scales at which to study the relationship between food environments and obesity. Further, studies have not considered neighborhood design as a predictor of food purchasing behavior. Methods Atlanta residents (N = 4800) who completed a travel diary and reported purchasing or consuming food at one of five food locations were included in the analyses. A total of 11,995 food-related trips were reported. Using mixed modeling to adjust for clustering of ...


Environmental Factors Associated With Overweight Among Adults In Nigeria, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Babatunde O. Adegoke, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Benedicte Deforche, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, James F. Sallis Jan 2012

Environmental Factors Associated With Overweight Among Adults In Nigeria, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Babatunde O. Adegoke, Adetoyeje Y. Oyeyemi, Benedicte Deforche, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, James F. Sallis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Understanding environmental factors related to obesity can inform interventions for the world wide obesity epidemic, yet no study has been conducted in this context in Africa. This study examined associations between neighbourhood environment variables and overweight in Nigerian adults. Methods: A total of 1818 randomly selected residents (age: 20-65 years, 40% female, 31% overweight and 61.2% response) living in high and low socioeconomic (SES) neighbourhoods in Metropolitan Maiduguri, Nigeria, participated in a cross-sectional study. Anthropometric measurements of height and weight and an interview-assisted self-reported measure of 16 items of perceived neighborhood environments were conducted. The primary outcome was ...


Contribution Of Gait Analysis To The Understanding Of Motor Development, Cameron Wilson Mar 2009

Contribution Of Gait Analysis To The Understanding Of Motor Development, Cameron Wilson

Theses

Findings from two studies are presented. Both focused on the gait of Australian primary aged children and the information that this fundamental motor skill provides towards understanding the development of motor performance. In study one 87 (47 male, 40 female) children (5 - 9 years) participated. Children were tested using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC) (Henderson & Sugden, 1996), and the GAITRite walkway system. Gait parameters of the motor impaired and typically developing children were compared. Walking at a self-selected normal pace the motor impaired children did not significantly differ from their typically developing peers. A comparison of the gait ...