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Articles 1 - 30 of 1898

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Bulgaria: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model, E. Kirilova, H. Johansson, N. Kirilov, S. Vladeva, T. Petranova, Z. Kolarov, E. Liu, M. Lorentzon, L. Vandenput, N. C. Harvey, E. Mccloskey, John A. Kanis Jan 2020

Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Bulgaria: Development Of A Country-Specific Frax Model, E. Kirilova, H. Johansson, N. Kirilov, S. Vladeva, T. Petranova, Z. Kolarov, E. Liu, M. Lorentzon, L. Vandenput, N. C. Harvey, E. Mccloskey, John A. Kanis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary: A retrospective population-based survey was undertaken in a region of Bulgaria to determine the incidence of hip fracture. The estimated number of hip fractures nationwide for 2015 was 9322 and is predicted to increase to 11,398 in 2050. The hip fracture rates were used to create a FRAX model. Objective: To describe the epidemiology of hip fractures in Bulgaria, which was then used to develop the country-specific fracture prediction FRAX® tool. Methods: We carried out a retrospective population-based survey in Stara Zagora, Bulgaria, representing approximately 4.6% of the country’s population. We identified hip fractures occurring in ...


Bmd-Related Genetic Risk Scores Predict Site-Specific Fractures As Well As Trabecular And Cortical Bone Microstructure, Maria Nethander, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Claes Ohlsson Jan 2020

Bmd-Related Genetic Risk Scores Predict Site-Specific Fractures As Well As Trabecular And Cortical Bone Microstructure, Maria Nethander, Ulrika Pettersson-Kymmer, Liesbeth Vandenput, Mattias Lorentzon, Magnus Karlsson, Dan Mellström, Claes Ohlsson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Context: It is important to identify patients at highest risk of fractures. Objective: To compare the separate and combined performances of bone-related genetic risk scores (GRSs) for prediction of forearm, hip and vertebral fractures separately, as well as of trabecular and cortical bone microstructure parameters separately. Design, Setting, and Participants: Using 1103 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) independently associated with estimated bone mineral density of the heel (eBMD), we developed a weighted GRS for eBMD and determined its contribution to fracture prediction beyond 2 previously developed GRSs for femur neck BMD (49 SNPs) and lumbar spine BMD (48 SNPs). Associations between ...


Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal Jun 2019

Sport And Physical Activity For Youth With Intellectual Disability: An Analysis Of Determinants And Outcomes, Nathanial J. Kapsal

Theses

Introduction: Extensive research has supported the physical and psychosocial health benefits of physical activity among typically developing youth. These benefits include higher quality of life, lower risk of disease, higher levels of psychological and emotional well-being, greater school engagement, greater motor skills, more frequent prosocial behaviours, and enhanced self-concept. Compared to their typically developing peers, youth with intellectual disability participate less frequently in physical activity, tend to be less fit, have poorer motor control, and worse mental health. Many studies examining sport and physical activity for youth with disability have focused on a limited range of outcomes or interventions, have ...


Measuring Community Walking In Stroke Survivors Using Physiotherapists’ Perspectives And The International Classification Of Functioning, Health And Disability (Icf) Framework, Neelam Nayak May 2019

Measuring Community Walking In Stroke Survivors Using Physiotherapists’ Perspectives And The International Classification Of Functioning, Health And Disability (Icf) Framework, Neelam Nayak

Theses

Community walking is a multifactorial task and an important functional goal for stroke survivors. Measuring community walking is challenging because there is not a good understanding of what is considered successful community walking or how this could be measured. Physiotherapists currently use a range of measures to assess community walking. Furthermore, the factors contributing to community walking that are captured by these measures are not yet well understood. This thesis, comprising two studies, explores these gaps. The first study is a qualitative exploration of physiotherapists’ perspectives of community walking measurement in stroke survivors. Physiotherapists experienced in stroke rehabilitation were recruited ...


An Evaluation Of A Model Of Care For Children With Serious Illnesses And Their Families In New Zealand, Cynthia Ward Apr 2019

An Evaluation Of A Model Of Care For Children With Serious Illnesses And Their Families In New Zealand, Cynthia Ward

Theses

Background: Due to advances in knowledge and medical technology, many neonates and children survive pre-term birth and serious illness. They are cared for by their families, predominantly their parents, in the family home. While there is a high demand on health services to provide care to the seriously ill child, the highest burden of care falls on the child’s family. The impact of the child’s complex and highly technical care needs on the family unit is often not understood. Although health service providers can provide high quality care, at times, they do not fully comprehend the issues of ...


Socioemotional Functioning In Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder, Elizabeth Pizarro-Campagna Mar 2019

Socioemotional Functioning In Youth With Borderline Personality Disorder, Elizabeth Pizarro-Campagna

Theses

This thesis makes an original contribution to our understanding of socioemotional functioning in borderline personality disorder (BPD) by critically examining social cognition and emotion regulation BPD research from a developmental perspective. It also extends on previous research, making a novel and important contribution to our understanding of sociocognitive functioning and emotion regulation ability in youth with first presentation BPD. This was achieved via two critical narrative reviews of the existing literature and two empirical studies, which examined aspects of social cognition and emotion regulation considered key to interpersonal functioning in BPD. The empirical studies assessed, 1) unconscious simulation processes, a ...


A Model Of Art Therapy For Aboriginal Children Within The Preschool, Shiri Hergass Feb 2019

A Model Of Art Therapy For Aboriginal Children Within The Preschool, Shiri Hergass

Theses

This research sets out to formally develop the Seasonal Model of Art Therapy, to observe and test it in action, and to address the research question, which examines ways to support educators working with children who have experienced trauma, using art therapy groups in preschools. Case study methodology was utilised, to systematise the approach and to assist in fully articulating its aims, purposes and procedure, ultimately for dissemination to art therapy teams and educators. In addition, the thesis provides a systematic and somewhat exhaustive survey of contributory theories and related research in the literature, which serves towards providing a rationale ...


Patients With Prostate Cancer And Androgen Deprivation Therapy Have Increased Risk Of Fractures—A Study From The Fractures And Fall Injuries In The Elderly Cohort (Frailco), M. Wallander, K. F. Axelsson, D. Lundh, Mattias Lorentzon Jan 2019

Patients With Prostate Cancer And Androgen Deprivation Therapy Have Increased Risk Of Fractures—A Study From The Fractures And Fall Injuries In The Elderly Cohort (Frailco), M. Wallander, K. F. Axelsson, D. Lundh, Mattias Lorentzon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary Osteoporosis is a common complication of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). In this large Swedish cohort study consisting of a total of nearly 180,000 older men, we found that those with prostate cancer and ADT have a significantly increased risk of future osteoporotic fractures. Introduction: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with prostate cancer is associated to increased risk of fractures. In this study, we investigated the relationship between ADT in patients with prostate cancer and the risk of incident fractures and non-skeletal fall injuries both compared to those without ADT and compared to patients without prostate cancer. Methods ...


Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

Dyslexia And Developmental Language Disorder: Comorbid Disorders With Distinct Effects On Reading Comprehension, Margaret J. Snowling, Marianna E. Hayiou-Thomas, Hannah M. Nash, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Reading comprehension draws on both decoding and linguistic comprehension, and poor reading comprehension can be the consequence of a deficit in either of these skills. Methods: Using outcome data from the longitudinal Wellcome Language and Reading Project, we identified three groups of children at age 8 years: children with dyslexia (N = 21) who had deficits in decoding but not oral language, children with Developmental Language Disorder (DLD; N = 38) whose decoding skills were in the normal range, and children who met criteria for both dyslexia and DLD (N = 29). Results: All three groups had reading comprehension difficulties at the ...


Prognostic Implications Of Changes In Amino-Terminal Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide In Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Insights From Ascend-Hf [Accepted Manuscript], Justin L. Grodin, Max J. Liebo, Javed Butler, Marco Metra, G. Michael Felker, Adrian F. Hernandez, Adriaan A. Voors, John J. V. Mcmurray, Paul W. Armstrong, Christopher M. O'Connor, Randall C. Starling, Richard W. Troughton, W. H. Wilson Tang Jan 2019

Prognostic Implications Of Changes In Amino-Terminal Pro–B-Type Natriuretic Peptide In Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: Insights From Ascend-Hf [Accepted Manuscript], Justin L. Grodin, Max J. Liebo, Javed Butler, Marco Metra, G. Michael Felker, Adrian F. Hernandez, Adriaan A. Voors, John J. V. Mcmurray, Paul W. Armstrong, Christopher M. O'Connor, Randall C. Starling, Richard W. Troughton, W. H. Wilson Tang

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Amino-terminal pro–B-type natriuretic peptide (NTproBNP) is closely associated with prognosis in acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF). As a result, there has been great interest measuring it during the course of treatment. The prognostic implications in both short-term and follow-up changes in NTproBNP need further clarification. Methods: Baseline, 48–72 hour, and 30-day NTproBNP levels were measured in 795 subjects in the ASCEND-HF trial. Multivariable logistic and Cox-proportional hazards models were used to test the association between static, relative, and absolute changes in NTproBNP with outcomes during and after ADHF. Results: The median NTproBNP at baseline was 5773 (2981 ...


Sacubitril/Valsartan In Asian Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction, Pooja Dewan, Kieran F. Docherty, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2019

Sacubitril/Valsartan In Asian Patients With Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction, Pooja Dewan, Kieran F. Docherty, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The Prospective comparison of Angiotensin Receptor-neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI) with Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure (HF) trial (PARADIGM-HF) showed that adding a neprilysin inhibitor (sacubitril) to a renin-angiotensin system blocker (and other standard therapy) reduced morbidity and mortality in ambulatory patients with chronic HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). In PARADIGM-HF, valsartan combined with sacubitril (a so-called ARNI) was superior to the current gold standard of an ACEI, specifically enalapril, reducing the risk of the primary composite outcome of cardiovascular (CV) death or first HF hospitalization by 20% and all-cause ...


Systematic Literature Review Of Health Impact Assessments In Low And Middle-Income Countries, Meelan Thondoo, David Rojas-Rueda, Joyeeta Gupta, Daniel H. De Vries, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Systematic Literature Review Of Health Impact Assessments In Low And Middle-Income Countries, Meelan Thondoo, David Rojas-Rueda, Joyeeta Gupta, Daniel H. De Vries, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Health Impact Assessments (HIAs) motivate effective measures for safeguarding public health. There is consensus that HIAs in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) are lacking, but no study systematically focuses on those that have been successfully conducted across all regions of the world, nor do they highlight factors that may enable or hinder their implementation. Our objectives are to (1) systematically review, geographically map, and characterize HIA activity in LMICs; and (2) apply a process evaluation method to identify factors which are important to improve HIA implementation in LMICs. A systematic review of peer-reviewed HIAs in 156 LMICs was performed in ...


Effects Of A Short Residential Thermal Spa Program To Prevent Work-Related Stress/Burnout On Stress Biomarkers: The Thermstress Proof Of Concept Study, Frederic Dutheil, Elodie Chaplais, Audrey Vilmant, Denise Lanoir, Daniel Courteix, Pascale Duche, Armand Abergel, Daniela M. Pfabigan, Shihui Han, Laurie Mondillon, Guillaume Vallet, Martial Mermillod, Gil Boudet, Phillippe Obert, Omar Izem, Yves Boirie, Bruno Pereira, Francois-Xavier Lesage Jan 2019

Effects Of A Short Residential Thermal Spa Program To Prevent Work-Related Stress/Burnout On Stress Biomarkers: The Thermstress Proof Of Concept Study, Frederic Dutheil, Elodie Chaplais, Audrey Vilmant, Denise Lanoir, Daniel Courteix, Pascale Duche, Armand Abergel, Daniela M. Pfabigan, Shihui Han, Laurie Mondillon, Guillaume Vallet, Martial Mermillod, Gil Boudet, Phillippe Obert, Omar Izem, Yves Boirie, Bruno Pereira, Francois-Xavier Lesage

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective Work-related stress is a public health issue. Stress has multiple physical and psychological consequences, the most serious of which are increased mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. The ThermStress protocol was designed to offer a short residential thermal spa program for work-related stress prevention that is compatible with a professional context. Methods Participants will be 56 male and female workers aged 18 years or above. All participants will undergo a 6-day residential spa program comprising psychological intervention, physical activity, thermal spa treatment, health education, eating disorder therapy and a follow-up. On six occasions, participants’ heart rate variability, cardiac remodelling and function ...


Effectiveness Of Preventive Dental Programs Offered To Mothers By Non-Dental Professionals To Control Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Review, Ajesh George, Mariana S. Sousa, Ariana C. Kong, Anthony Blinkhorn, Tiffany Patterson Norrie, Jann Foster, Hannah G. Dahlen, Shilpi Ajwani, Maree Johnson Jan 2019

Effectiveness Of Preventive Dental Programs Offered To Mothers By Non-Dental Professionals To Control Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Review, Ajesh George, Mariana S. Sousa, Ariana C. Kong, Anthony Blinkhorn, Tiffany Patterson Norrie, Jann Foster, Hannah G. Dahlen, Shilpi Ajwani, Maree Johnson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Early childhood caries is a common chronic childhood disease and maternal oral health is a risk factor. Improving the oral health behaviours of pregnant women/young mothers can positively influence the oral health of children and reduce their caries risk. Such preventative strategies have been undertaken by non-dental professionals producing mixed results encompassing various interventions across the perinatal period. However, no comprehensive review of these studies has been undertaken. The aim of this review was to assess the effectiveness of maternal oral health programs undertaken during the antenatal and/or postnatal period by non-dental health professionals to reduce early ...


Stage 2 Registered Report: There Is No Appreciable Relationship Between Strength Of Hand Preference And Language Ability In 6-To 7-Year-Old Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme Jan 2019

Stage 2 Registered Report: There Is No Appreciable Relationship Between Strength Of Hand Preference And Language Ability In 6-To 7-Year-Old Children, Verena E. Pritchard, Stephanie A. Malone, Kelly Burgoyne, Michelle Heron-Delaney, Dorothy V. M. Bishop, Charles Hulme

Faculty of Education and Arts Publications

Background: Weak or inconsistent hand preference has been postulated to be a risk factor for developmental language delay. Following on from our Registered Stage 1 report this study assessed the extent to which variations in language skills are associated with the strength of hand preference. Methods: Data are drawn from a large sample (N = 569) of 6- to 7-year-old children unselected for ability, assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Hand preference was assessed using the Quantitative Hand Preference (QHP) task and five uni-manual motor tasks. Language skills (expressive and receptive vocabulary, receptive grammar, and morphological awareness) were assessed ...


Long-Term Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Weight Loss At 10 Or More Years For All Bariatric Procedures And A Single-Centre Review Of 20-Year Outcomes After Adjustable Gastric Banding, Paul E. O'Brien, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan, Stewart Skinner, Paul Burton, Andrew Smith, Gary Crosthwaite, Wendy A. Brown Jan 2019

Long-Term Outcomes After Bariatric Surgery: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis Of Weight Loss At 10 Or More Years For All Bariatric Procedures And A Single-Centre Review Of 20-Year Outcomes After Adjustable Gastric Banding, Paul E. O'Brien, Annemarie Hindle, Leah Brennan, Stewart Skinner, Paul Burton, Andrew Smith, Gary Crosthwaite, Wendy A. Brown

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: Durability is a key requirement for the broad acceptance of bariatric surgery. We report on durability at and beyond 10 years with a systematic review and meta-analysis of all reports providing data at 10 or more years and a single-centre study of laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB) with 20 years of follow-up. Methods: Systematic review with meta-analysis was performed on all eligble reports containing 10 or more years of follow-up data on weight loss after bariatric surgery. In addition, a prospective cohort study of LAGB patients measuring weight loss and reoperation at up to 20 years is presented. Results ...


Tumour-Specific And Organ-Specific Protein Synthesis Rates In Patients With Pancreatic Cancer, David P.J. Van Dijk, Astrid M. H. Horstman, Joey S. J. Smeets, Marcel Den Dulk, Heike I. Grabsch, Cornelis H. C. Dejong, Sander S. Rensen, Steven W. M. Olde Damink, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

Tumour-Specific And Organ-Specific Protein Synthesis Rates In Patients With Pancreatic Cancer, David P.J. Van Dijk, Astrid M. H. Horstman, Joey S. J. Smeets, Marcel Den Dulk, Heike I. Grabsch, Cornelis H. C. Dejong, Sander S. Rensen, Steven W. M. Olde Damink, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Living tissues maintain a fine balance between protein synthesis and protein breakdown rates. Animal studies indicate that protein synthesis rates are higher in organs when compared with skeletal muscle tissue. As such, organ and tumour protein synthesis could have major effects on whole‐body protein metabolism in wasting disorders such as cancer cachexia. We aimed to assess protein synthesis rates in pancreatic tumour tissue and healthy pancreas, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue in vivo in humans. Methods: In eight patients with pancreatic cancer undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy, primed continuous infusions with L‐[ring‐13C6]phenylalanine and L‐[3,5‐2H2]tyrosine ...


Comparison Of Older And Newer Generation Active Style Pro Accelerometers In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Surveillance Under A Free-Living Environment, Shohei Yano, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Levi Frehlich, Gavin R. Mccormack, Koichiro Oka Jan 2019

Comparison Of Older And Newer Generation Active Style Pro Accelerometers In Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior Surveillance Under A Free-Living Environment, Shohei Yano, Mohammad Javad Koohsari, Ai Shibata, Kaori Ishii, Levi Frehlich, Gavin R. Mccormack, Koichiro Oka

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background. Comparability of accelerometers in epidemiological studies is important for public health researchers. This study aimed to compare physical activity (light, LPA; moderate, MPA; and moderate-to-vigorous, MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) data collected using two Omron triaxial accelerometer generations (Active style Pro, ASP) among a sample of Japanese workers in a free-living environment. Methods. Thirty active and sedentary workers (24–62 years) wore two types of ASP accelerometers, the HJA-350IT (350IT) and the HJA-750C (750C), simultaneously for seven consecutive days to represent a typical week. The accelerometers estimated daily average step counts and time spent per day in LPA, MPA ...


Expoapp: An Integrated System To Assess Multiple Personal Environmental Exposures, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Erik Van Nunen, Ariadna Curto, Albert Rodriguez, Mario Fernandez-Nieto, Alessio Naccarati, Sonia Tarallo, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Roel Vermeulen, Gerard Hoek, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen Jan 2019

Expoapp: An Integrated System To Assess Multiple Personal Environmental Exposures, David Donaire-Gonzalez, Antònia Valentín, Erik Van Nunen, Ariadna Curto, Albert Rodriguez, Mario Fernandez-Nieto, Alessio Naccarati, Sonia Tarallo, Ming-Yi Tsai, Nicole M. Probst-Hensch, Roel Vermeulen, Gerard Hoek, Paolo Vineis, John Gulliver, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To assess environmental exposures at the individual level, new assessment methods and tools are required. We developed an exposure assessment system (ExpoApp) for smartphones. ExpoApp integrates: (i) geo-location and accelerometry measurements from a waist attached smartphone, (ii) data from portable monitors, (iii) geographic information systems, and (iv) individual's information. ExpoApp calculates time spent in microenvironments, physical activity level, inhalation rate, and environmental exposures and doses (e.g., green spaces, inhaled ultrafine particles- UFP). We deployed ExpoApp in a panel study of 158 adults from five cities (Amsterdam and Utrecht- the Netherlands, Basel- Switzerland, Norwich- UK, and Torino- Italy) with ...


Health Care Professionals’ Perceptions Of Home Telemonitoring In Heart Failure Care: Cross-Sectional Survey, Ina Thon Aamodt, Edita Lycholip, Jelena Celutkiene, Anna Strömberg, Dan Atar, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Thomas G. Von Lueder, Ragnhild Hellesø, Tiny Jaarsma, Irene Lie Jan 2019

Health Care Professionals’ Perceptions Of Home Telemonitoring In Heart Failure Care: Cross-Sectional Survey, Ina Thon Aamodt, Edita Lycholip, Jelena Celutkiene, Anna Strömberg, Dan Atar, Ragnhild Sørum Falk, Thomas G. Von Lueder, Ragnhild Hellesø, Tiny Jaarsma, Irene Lie

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Noninvasive telemonitoring (TM) can be used in heart failure (HF) patients to perform early detection of decompensation at home, prevent unnecessary health care utilization, and decrease health care costs. However, the evidence is not sufficient to be part of HF guidelines for follow-up care, and we have no knowledge of how TM is used in the Nordic Baltic region. Objective: The aim of this study was to describe health care professionals’ (HCPs) perception of and presumed experience with noninvasive TM in daily HF patient care, perspectives of the relevance of and reasons for applying noninvasive TM, and barriers to ...


High Versus Low Dietary Protein Intake And Bone Health In Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Inge Groenendijk, Laura Den Boeft, J. C. Van Loon, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot Jan 2019

High Versus Low Dietary Protein Intake And Bone Health In Older Adults: A Systematic Review And Meta-Analysis, Inge Groenendijk, Laura Den Boeft, J. C. Van Loon, Lisette C. P. G. M. De Groot

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Protein may play a beneficial role in the prevention of bone loss and in slowing down osteoporosis. The effect of dietary protein may be different in older adults compared to younger adults, since this population has a greater need for protein. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to investigate the impact of a dietary protein intake above the Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) of 0.8 g/kg body weight/day from any source on Bone Mineral Density (BMD)/Bone Mineral Content (BMC), bone turnover markers, and fracture risk in older adults compared to a lower dietary protein ...


International Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Definition, Diagnosis, Assessment, Intervention And Psychosocial Aspects Of Developmental Coordination Disorder, Rainer Blank, Anna L. Barnett, John Cairney, Dido Green, Amanda Kirby, Helene Polatajko, Sara Rosenblum, Bouwein C. M. Smits-Engelsman, David Sugden, Peter Wilson, Sabine Vinçon Jan 2019

International Clinical Practice Recommendations On The Definition, Diagnosis, Assessment, Intervention And Psychosocial Aspects Of Developmental Coordination Disorder, Rainer Blank, Anna L. Barnett, John Cairney, Dido Green, Amanda Kirby, Helene Polatajko, Sara Rosenblum, Bouwein C. M. Smits-Engelsman, David Sugden, Peter Wilson, Sabine Vinçon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim These international clinical practice recommendations (CPR) for developmental coordination disorder (DCD), initiated by the European Academy of Childhood Disability (EACD), aim to address key questions on the definition, diagnosis, assessment, intervention, and psychosocial aspects of DCD relevant for clinical practice. Method Key questions in five areas were considered through literature reviews and formal expert consensus. For recommendations based on evidence, literature searches on ‘mechanisms’, ‘assessment’, and ‘intervention’ were updated since the last recommendations in 2012. New searches were conducted for ‘psychosocial issues’ and ‘adolescents/adults’. Evidence was rated according to the Oxford Centre for Evidence‐Based Medicine (level of ...


Outcomes And Effect Of Treatment According To Etiology In Hfref: An Analysis Of Paradigm-Hf, Craig Balmforth, Joanne Simpson, Li Shen, Pardeep S. Jhund, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Adel R. Rizkala, Jean L. Rouleau, Victor C. Shi, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, John J. V. Mcmurray Jan 2019

Outcomes And Effect Of Treatment According To Etiology In Hfref: An Analysis Of Paradigm-Hf, Craig Balmforth, Joanne Simpson, Li Shen, Pardeep S. Jhund, Martin P. Lefkowitz, Adel R. Rizkala, Jean L. Rouleau, Victor C. Shi, Scott D. Solomon, Karl Swedberg, Michael R. Zile, Milton Packer, John J. V. Mcmurray

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare outcomes (and the effect of sacubitril/valsartan) according to etiology in the PARADIGM-HF (Prospective comparison of angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin inhibitor [ARNI] with angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor [ACEI] to Determine Impact on Global Mortality and morbidity in Heart Failure) trial. Background Etiology of heart failure (HF) has changed over time in more developed countries and is also evolving in non-Western societies. Outcomes may vary according to etiology, as may the effects of therapy. Methods We examined outcomes and the effect of sacubtril/valsartan according to investigator-reported etiology in PARADIGM-HF. The outcomes analyzed were the primary composite ...


Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard Jan 2019

Special Environments: Altitude And Heat, Philo U. Saunders, Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Robert F. Chapman, Julien D. Périard

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-level athletes are always looking at ways to maximize training adaptations for competition performance, and using altered environmental conditions to achieve this outcome has become increasingly popular by elite athletes. Furthermore, a series of potential nutrition and hydration interventions may also optimize the adaptation to altered environments. Altitude training was first used to prepare for competition at altitude, and it still is today; however, more often now, elite athletes embark on a series of altitude training camps to try to improve sea-level performance. Similarly, the use of heat acclimation/acclimatization to optimize performance in hot/humid environmental conditions is a ...


The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

The Structural Connectome In Traumatic Brain Injury: A Meta-Analysis Of Graph Metrics [Accepted Manuscript], Phoebe Imms, Adam Clemente, Mark Cook, Wendyl D'Souza, Peter H. Wilson, Derek K. Jones, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Although recent structural connectivity studies of traumatic brain injury (TBI) have used graph theory to evaluate alterations in global integration and functional segregation, pooled analysis is needed to examine the robust patterns of change in graph metrics across studies. Following a systematic search, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria for review. Of these, ten studies were included in a random-effects meta-analysis of global graph metrics, and subgroup analyses examined the confounding effects of severity and time since injury. The meta-analysis revealed significantly higher values of normalised clustering coefficient (gö=ö1.445, CI=[0.512, 2.378], pö=ö0.002) and ...


To Live A Life With Copd: The Consequences Of Symptom Burden, Helena Johansson, Carina Berterö, Katarina Berg, Lise-Lotte Jonasson Jan 2019

To Live A Life With Copd: The Consequences Of Symptom Burden, Helena Johansson, Carina Berterö, Katarina Berg, Lise-Lotte Jonasson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prevalent illness that, due to its symptoms and treatment, entails a significant burden for the affected person, and his/her family, health care and private finances. Today, knowledge and understanding are sparse regarding COPD-affected persons’ own lived experiences and about the symptom burden and its effect on their daily life. Due to this knowledge gap the aim of this study was to identify and describe the symptom burden and its effect on daily life in people with COPD, based on their own lived experiences. Subject and method: Eleven males and 14 females ...


Traffic Related Air Pollution And The Burden Of Childhood Asthma In The Contiguous United States In 2000 And 2010, Raed Alotaibi, Mathew Bechle, Julian D. Marshall, Tara Ramani, Josias Zietsman, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis Jan 2019

Traffic Related Air Pollution And The Burden Of Childhood Asthma In The Contiguous United States In 2000 And 2010, Raed Alotaibi, Mathew Bechle, Julian D. Marshall, Tara Ramani, Josias Zietsman, Mark J. Nieuwenhuijsen, Haneen Khreis

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Asthma is one of the leading chronic airway diseases among children in the United States (US). Emerging evidence indicates that Traffic Related Air Pollution (TRAP), as opposed to ambient air pollution, leads to the onset of childhood asthma. We estimated the number of incident asthma cases among children attributable to TRAP in the contiguous US, for the years 2000 and 2010. Methods The number of incident childhood asthma cases and percentage due to TRAP were estimated using standard burden of disease assessment methods. We combined children (<18 years) counts and pollutant exposures at populated US census blocks with a national asthma incidence rate and meta-analysis derived concentration response functions (CRF). NO2, PM2.5 and PM10 were used as surrogates of TRAP exposures, with NO2 being most specific. Annual average concentrations were obtained from previously validated land-use regression (LUR) models. Asthma incidence rate and a CRF for each pollutant were obtained from the literature. Estimates were stratified by urban or rural living and by median household income. We also estimated the number of preventable cases among blocks that exceeded the limit for two counterfactual scenarios. The first scenario used the recommended air quality annual averages from the World Health Organization (WHO) as a limit. The second scenario used the minimum modeled concentration for each pollutant, in either year, as a limit. Results Average concentrations in 2000 and 2010, respectively, were 20.6 and 13.2 μg/m3 for NO2, 12.1 and 9 μg/m3 for PM2.5 and 21.5 and 17.9 μg/m3 for PM10. Attributable number of cases ranged between 209,100–331,200 for the year 2000 and 141,900–286,500 for 2010, depending on the pollutant. Asthma incident cases due to TRAP represented 27%–42% of all cases in 2000 and 18%–36% in 2010. Percentage of cases due to TRAP were higher (1) in urban areas than rural areas, and (2) in block groups with lowest median household income. Online open-access interactive maps and tables summarizing findings at the county level and 498 major US cities, are available at [https://carteehdata.org/l/s/TRAP-burden-of-childhood-asthma]. Assuming that pollutants did not exceed WHO air quality recommendations, the number of incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 300 and 53,400, depending on the pollutant and year. Assuming that pollutant levels were limited to the minimum modeled concentration, the number of childhood asthma incident cases that could have been prevented ranged between 127,700 and 317,600, depending on the pollutant and year. Conclusion This is the first study to estimate the burden of incident childhood asthma attributable to TRAP at a national scale in the US. The attributable burden of childhood asthma dropped by 33% between 2000 and 2010. However, a significant proportion of cases can be prevented.


Associations Between Gait-Related Falls And Gait Adaptations When Stepping Onto A Curb: A Prospective Falls Study [Accepted Manuscript], Steven Van Andel, Michael H. Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping Jan 2019

Associations Between Gait-Related Falls And Gait Adaptations When Stepping Onto A Curb: A Prospective Falls Study [Accepted Manuscript], Steven Van Andel, Michael H. Cole, Gert-Jan Pepping

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objectives. Examine gait regulation during the approach to stepping onto a curb for older adults who did or did not report gait-related falls over a 12-month follow-up. Methods. Ninety-eight participants aged 60 years and older were analyzed. Primary outcomes were step length adaptations (lengthening or shortening) during a curb approach and the occurrence of a gait-related fall during a 12-month follow-up. Results. Linear-mixed effects modelling indicated stronger adaptations towards the end of the approach. Participants who reported experiencing a gait-related fall showed a stronger relationship between the adjustment required and adjustment produced; indicating different gait adaptations during the step leading ...


White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs Jan 2019

White Matter Organization In Developmental Coordination Disorder: A Pilot Study Exploring The Added Value Of Constrained Spherical Deconvolution, Christian Hyde, Ian Fuelscher, Peter G. Enticott, Derek K. Jones, Shawna Farquharson, Tim J. Silk, Jacqueline Williams, Karen Caeyenberghs

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies of white matter organization in sensorimotor tracts in developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have adopted diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), a method unable to reconcile pathways with ‘crossing fibres’. In response to limitations of the commonly adopted DTI approach, the present study employed a framework that can reconcile the ‘crossing fibre’ problem (i.e., constrained spherical deconvolution- CSD) to characterize white matter tissue organization of sensorimotor tracts in young adults with DCD. Participants were 19 healthy adults aged 18–46: 7 met diagnostic criteria for DCD (4 females) and 12 were controls (3 females). All underwent high angular diffusion MRI ...


The Impact Of A New Exercise Facility On Physical Activity At The Community Level: A Non-Randomized Panel Study In Japan, Akio Kubota, Munehiro Matsushita, Ben J. Smith, Takemi Sugiyama, Takashi Arao Jan 2019

The Impact Of A New Exercise Facility On Physical Activity At The Community Level: A Non-Randomized Panel Study In Japan, Akio Kubota, Munehiro Matsushita, Ben J. Smith, Takemi Sugiyama, Takashi Arao

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Considering that building a sports facility is a major investment to promote population health, it is important to understand whether it is effective in increasing the level of physical activity (PA) in the community. This study examined the impact of building a new multipurpose exercise facility on community-level PA in Japan. Methods This non-randomised panel study compared two sites: an intervention site where a new exercise facility was built (opened after baseline data collection) and a control site where there was no such additional exercise facility. From each site, 3200 adult residents (aged 30–74 years) were randomly selected ...