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Australian Catholic University

2017

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Articles 1 - 17 of 17

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

Muscle Force Contributions To Knee Joint Loading, Nirav Maniar Dec 2017

Muscle Force Contributions To Knee Joint Loading, Nirav Maniar

Theses

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are one of the most common knee injuries suffered by athletic populations. ACL injuries are particularly burdensome due to potential surgical requirements, extensive rehabilitation time and associated financial costs for the individual and the community. Additionally, ACL injuries are associated with increased risk of early onset knee osteoarthritis. As such, ACL injury preventative and rehabilitative strategies are of paramount importance.

ACL injuries typically occur during non-contact dynamic tasks, such as unanticipated sidestep cutting. At the time of injury, the knee joint experiences relatively large degrees of knee valgus and rotation (either internal or external) and ...


Self-Concept Of Children With Cerebral Palsy, Sau Kuan Cheong Nov 2017

Self-Concept Of Children With Cerebral Palsy, Sau Kuan Cheong

Theses

Self-concept is the perception that individuals have of themselves across different aspects of life such as academic performance or appearance. The Self-Concept Feedback Loop proposed for this research program conceptualised self-concept as developing through an interactive and iterative process involving social experiences and the cognitive processes of individuals. Through this process, individuals evaluate their behaviour or attributes against their internal standards. Subsequently, this evaluation influences their self-concept. In the general population, low self-concept has been linked to a range of negative outcomes, including poor academic achievement, and behaviour and mental health problems. However, research into the self-concept of children with ...


Teachers' And Students' Perspectives Of Using Restorative Practices In Schools: "It's Got The Power To Change Behaviour", Michelle Kehoe Nov 2017

Teachers' And Students' Perspectives Of Using Restorative Practices In Schools: "It's Got The Power To Change Behaviour", Michelle Kehoe

Theses

In recent decades, there has been a shift away from authoritarian, punitive discipline in school communities and a movement towards approaches that promote inclusion, respectful relationships, and understanding. This shift was due to growing concerns about the negative impact of bullying and victimisation that was not resolved using traditional punitive measures. Whole-school restorative practices is an approach that has been reported as successful, in not only addressing misbehaviour as it occurs, but also as a preventive measure that builds social and emotional skills for all those within the school community.

The aim of this research was to explore teachers’ and ...


Emotion Regulation Strategies In Daily Life: Examining Contextual Variability In The Process Of Emotion Regulation, Robert N. Brockman Oct 2017

Emotion Regulation Strategies In Daily Life: Examining Contextual Variability In The Process Of Emotion Regulation, Robert N. Brockman

Theses

Contemporary theories of emotional well-being emphasize context as being inextricably linked to the process of emotion regulation. Empirical studies of these processes have generally relied upon single-occasion measurement approaches, but such methods are limited in their capacity to uncover regulatory processes that are inherently contextual and dynamic and that unfold over discrete time-periods. In this thesis, I address this gap using a daily process approach in three empirical studies to examine contextual variability in the usefulness of three popular emotion regulation strategies: mindfulness, cognitive reappraisal, and emotion suppression.

In Study 1, I establish a daily process approach as relevant to ...


Experiences Of Patients Who Have Undergone Bronchoscopy With ‘Cautious’ Sedation And Analgesia, Catherine Frances Saxon Oct 2017

Experiences Of Patients Who Have Undergone Bronchoscopy With ‘Cautious’ Sedation And Analgesia, Catherine Frances Saxon

Theses

Background

Bronchoscopy is a procedure that is used to investigate and treat respiratory conditions and disease. Sedation and analgesia are administered during the procedure to reduce the side effects of discomfort and cough. The use of sedation and analgesia is cautioned in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (a high-risk respiratory disease), due to the perceived increased risk of complications. A review of the associated literature examining adult patients’ experiences during flexible bronchoscopy found no qualitative articles on the subject. Due to the numerous quantitative survey-based studies, a significant gap in the literature was identified; that of the patient experience ...


The Cognitive-Behavioural Theory And Treatment For Eating Disorders And Disordered Eating: A Direct Evaluation, Jake Linardon Sep 2017

The Cognitive-Behavioural Theory And Treatment For Eating Disorders And Disordered Eating: A Direct Evaluation, Jake Linardon

Theses

In a series of four studies, the aim of the current research project was to evaluate the cognitive-behavioral theory and treatment (CBT) of eating disorders. The first study (Chapter 5) was a meta-analysis (Linardon, Wade, De la Piedad Garcia, & Brennan, in press) of randomized controlled trials (RCT) testing the efficacy of CBT for eating disorders. Pooling data from 79 RCTs, results showed that therapist-led and guided self-help CBT were efficacious for individuals with bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED). There was no evidence to suggest that CBT was more efficacious than other psychological interventions in anorexia nervosa (AN).

Having found evidence supporting the efficacy of CBT for certain eating disorder presentations, the second study (Chapter 6), which was a systematic review, focused on identifying the reliable factors that mediate, moderate, or predict outcome during CBT (Linardon, de la Piedad Garcia, & Brennan, 2016b). This review found that mediators and moderators of change have been largely unexplored, and that no reliable predictors of outcome emerged. Therefore, based on existing evidence, it was concluded that it remains unclear how, for whom, and under what conditions, CBT for eating disorders works.

To understand the mechanisms through which CBT for eating disorders may work, a cross-sectional evaluation of the cognitive-behavioral model in a large non-clinical sample was employed for the third study (Chapter 8; under review). This study validated the conceptual pathways hypothesized by the cognitive model; it also identified two additional variables that might be important mechanisms of change during CBT, body checking and dichotomous thinking. The inclusion of body checking and dichotomous thinking within the cognitive-behavioral model explained nearly three times the amount of variance in disordered eating symptoms than the model without ...


Exercise-Nutrient Interactions: Effects On Substrate Metabolism And Performance, Jill J. Leckey Sep 2017

Exercise-Nutrient Interactions: Effects On Substrate Metabolism And Performance, Jill J. Leckey

Theses

During prolonged (> 90 min), continuous steady-state exercise, skeletal muscle is fuelled by both carbohydrate (CHO) (i.e. muscle and liver glycogen, blood glucose and muscle, blood and liver lactate) and fat substrates (i.e. adipose and intramuscular triglycerides [IMTGs], blood-borne free fatty acids [FFAs] and TGs). The specific pattern of substrate oxidation is influenced by the relative exercise intensity, an individual’s training status and their preceding diet. However, it is well accepted that when exercising at high relative intensities (i.e. > 70% maximal oxygen uptake [V̇ O2max]), CHO-based fuels are the predominant fuel source. Despite CHO being important for ...


The Adibox Study: Adiposity And Bone Metabolism: Effects Of Exercise-Induced Weight Loss In Adolescents With Obesity, Elodie Chaplais Aug 2017

The Adibox Study: Adiposity And Bone Metabolism: Effects Of Exercise-Induced Weight Loss In Adolescents With Obesity, Elodie Chaplais

Theses

Introduction: This program of research targeted the impact of an 8-month weight loss intervention induced by physical activity and nutrition on bone health in adolescents with obesity. The overall aim of this thesis was to examine the impact of a lifestyle weight loss intervention on the bone parameters in adolescents with obesity.

Method: Sixty-five adolescents were recruited: 31 (6 males) adolescents with obesity in the weight loss intervention (age: 13.61 (1.27)), 23 normal weight (NW) adolescents (age: 15.90 (0.43)) and 11 (4 males) adolescents with obesity in another control group (14.02 (1.39)). Primary outcomes ...


Associations Between Gait And Isometric Lower Limb Strength Following Stroke, Benjamin Frydlender Mentiplay Jul 2017

Associations Between Gait And Isometric Lower Limb Strength Following Stroke, Benjamin Frydlender Mentiplay

Theses

Stroke is a leading cause of disability worldwide. The most commonly stated goal following stroke is to regain the ability to walk independently, resulting in a large amount of rehabilitation time focussed on gait retraining. Identification of key variables that relate to and affect gait function is important in order to understand the factors associated with impaired gait and to guide future intervention strategies. Reduced muscle strength has been proposed as a key contributor to physical limitations after stroke and is commonly assessed in clinical and research settings. The aim of this thesis was to examine the associations between lower ...


Pilot Study To Determine The Feasibility Of Early Interventions For Ed Attendees Who Present With Moderate And High Levels Of Psychological Distress, Petra Lawrence Jun 2017

Pilot Study To Determine The Feasibility Of Early Interventions For Ed Attendees Who Present With Moderate And High Levels Of Psychological Distress, Petra Lawrence

Theses

Background

Mental health problems result in high levels of morbidity and mortality and impose high societal costs. Population surveys have not only revealed an increasing prevalence of mental illness and sub threshold levels of psychological distress within the community; but also, relatively consistent and unimproved levels of treatment-seeking behaviours. This unmet need for mental health interventions represents an important public health issue for global health care systems. The Emergency Department (ED) represents an ideal access point for hard to reach individuals and can be seen as a gateway to mental health services, particularly for individuals whom are not seeking treatment ...


Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles Jun 2017

Autophagy And Protein Turnover Responses To Exercise-Nutrient Interactions In Human Skeletal Muscle, William J. Smiles

Theses

Skeletal muscle is a dynamic tissue comprising the largest protein reservoir of the human body with a rate of turnover of ~1-2% per day. Protein turnover is regulated by the coordination of intracellular systems regulating protein synthesis and breakdown that converge in a spatiotemporal manner on lysosomal organelles responsible for integrating a variety of contractile and nutritional stimuli. One such system, autophagy, which literally means to ‘self-eat,’ involves capturing of cellular material for deliver to, and disintegration by, the lysosome. The autophagic ‘cargo’ is subsequently recycled for use in synthetic reactions and thus maintenance of protein balance. As a dynamic ...


The Relationship Between Physical Qualities And Activity Profiles Of International Women’S Sevens Players, Tyler Goodale Jun 2017

The Relationship Between Physical Qualities And Activity Profiles Of International Women’S Sevens Players, Tyler Goodale

Theses

Due to its inclusion in the recent Olympic Games, women’s Rugby Sevens has experienced a marked increase in popularity. As a result of the sports’ emergent nature the player profile and performance demands of women’s Rugby Sevens remain poorly understood.

Rugby Sevens is a modified game of 15-a-side Rugby Union, played under similar laws but with fewer players per side and for less total game time. The sport is played in a tournament format with multiple games played in one day and across a 2 to 3-day period. Rugby Sevens is one of the few true contact sports ...


Consensus On A Specialist Clinical Learning And Teaching Framework For Australian Nurse Practitioners, Christopher Helms May 2017

Consensus On A Specialist Clinical Learning And Teaching Framework For Australian Nurse Practitioners, Christopher Helms

Theses

Background

The Australian nurse practitioner (NP) role is represented by over 1,400 endorsed NPs practising in over 50 different specialty areas. Generic standards have broadly supported the role’s behavioural, professional and expanded practice expectations since 2006, and have been used for the accreditation of NP Masters programmes nationally.

The need for consistent and flexible specialty clinical education for NP students has been described in the Australian literature. The clinical learning and teaching of Australian NP specialty roles has traditionally occurred in the student’s workplace, within a specified area of practice. Jurisdictional differences at state/territory and local ...


Antimicrobial Resistance In Urinary Tract Infections Caused By Escherichia Coli, Oyebola Fasugba Apr 2017

Antimicrobial Resistance In Urinary Tract Infections Caused By Escherichia Coli, Oyebola Fasugba

Theses

Urinary tract infections (UTI) are one of the most common bacterial infections in hospital and community settings requiring antimicrobial treatment. Escherichia coli (E. coli), a bacterium frequently implicated in UTI, is becoming increasingly resistant to antimicrobials. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) reduces the effectiveness of antimicrobial agents, leading to difficulty in treatment of patients, with the potential to prolong the duration of illness and increase mortality in patients. To date in Australia, there is a paucity of data comparing resistance patterns over time for hospital- and community-acquired E. coli UTI with no published data on incidence and risk of urinary E. coli ...


Fathers’ Perinatal Mental Health: Impacts, Interventions And Supports, Holly Rominov Mar 2017

Fathers’ Perinatal Mental Health: Impacts, Interventions And Supports, Holly Rominov

Theses

Background. Fathers’ perinatal mental health problems have far reaching implications not only for themselves, but also for their partner, their couple relationship, and their children. The primary objective of this thesis by publication was to generate evidence to inform the development of policy and intervention efforts to promote fathers’ mental health in the perinatal period. The aims of the research were four-fold: first, to determine the extent to which fathers’ experiences of mental health problems impact parenting and their children; second, to undertake a systematic review into interventions targeting fathers’ perinatal mental health; third, to explore fathers’ support needs in ...


An Exploration Of End-Of-Life Care In The Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review Of Qualitative Studies Investigating The Experiences And Perceptions Of The Patient's Family, Alysia Coventry Feb 2017

An Exploration Of End-Of-Life Care In The Intensive Care Unit: A Systematic Review Of Qualitative Studies Investigating The Experiences And Perceptions Of The Patient's Family, Alysia Coventry

Theses

Background and aim: In the absence of rigorous evidence-based clinical guidelines, end-of-life care (EOLC) practices in the ICU vary considerably. Ideally, EOLC should be appropriately planned, implemented and informed by robust evidence; however the ICU is a setting where a patient’s health can deteriorate rapidly. Consequently, families (including family members, relatives and carers) are particularly vulnerable, and may experience shock, uncertainty and powerlessness in this technical and unfamiliar environment during EOLC. Families are optimally positioned to identify the key components of care at the end of life in the ICU, however their views and needs are under-represented in key ...


The Efficacy Of A Trunk Strengthening Program For Improving Postural Stability In People With Parkinson’S Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Ryan Hubble Feb 2017

The Efficacy Of A Trunk Strengthening Program For Improving Postural Stability In People With Parkinson’S Disease: A Randomised Controlled Trial, Ryan Hubble

Theses

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by a series of motor and non-motor symptoms that collectively impact the independence and quality of life of this population. Symptoms of postural instability are amongst the most disabling and appear to be significantly influenced by a reduced capacity to control the trunk segment due to impaired trunk muscle function, muscle weakness and reduced inter-segmental mobility. Considering the trunk comprises approximately 60% of the body’s weight and that standard pharmacological therapies are known to be largely ineffective for the management of symptoms affecting this segment (i.e. axial symptoms), it ...