Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Medicine and Health Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Articles 1 - 30 of 59

Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response To Whey Protein Ingestion Is Greater In Middle-Aged Women When Compared With Men [Accepted Manuscript], Astrid M. H. Horstman, Imre W. K. Kouw, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Henrike M. Hamer, Bart B. L. Groen, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Stefan H. M. Gorissen, Luc J. C. Van Loon Jan 2019

The Muscle Protein Synthetic Response To Whey Protein Ingestion Is Greater In Middle-Aged Women When Compared With Men [Accepted Manuscript], Astrid M. H. Horstman, Imre W. K. Kouw, Jan-Willem Van Dijk, Henrike M. Hamer, Bart B. L. Groen, Janneau Van Kranenburg, Stefan H. M. Gorissen, Luc J. C. Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Rationale: Muscle mass maintenance is largely regulated by the postprandial rise in muscle protein synthesis rates. It remains unclear whether postprandial protein handling differs between women and men. Methods: Healthy men (43 ± 3 years; body mass index, 23.4 ± 0.4 kg/m2; n = 12) and women (46 ± 2 years; body mass index, 21.3 ± 0.5 kg/m2; n = 12) received primed continuous infusions of L-[ring-2H5]-phenylalanine and L-[ring-3,5-2H2]-tyrosine and ingested 25 g intrinsically L-[1-13C]-phenylalanine–labeled whey protein. Blood samples and muscle biopsies were collected to assess dietary protein digestion and amino acid ...


High Dietary Fat Intake Increases Fat Oxidation And Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Trained Humans [Accepted Manuscript], Jill J. Leckey, Nolan J. Hoffman, Evelyn B. Parr, Brooke L. Devlin, Adam J. Trewin, Nigel K. Stepto, James P. Morton, Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley Jun 2018

High Dietary Fat Intake Increases Fat Oxidation And Reduces Skeletal Muscle Mitochondrial Respiration In Trained Humans [Accepted Manuscript], Jill J. Leckey, Nolan J. Hoffman, Evelyn B. Parr, Brooke L. Devlin, Adam J. Trewin, Nigel K. Stepto, James P. Morton, Louise M. Burke, John A. Hawley

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

High-fat, low-carbohydrate (CHO) diets increase whole-body rates of fat oxidation and down-regulate CHO metabolism. We measured substrate utilization and skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration to determine whether these adaptations are driven by high fat or low CHO availability. In a randomized crossover design, 8male cyclists consumed5dof a high-CHO diet [>70%energy intake (EI)], followed by 5dof either an isoenergetic high-fat (HFAT; >65% EI) or high-protein diet (HPRO; >65% EI) with CHO intake clamped at


The Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures Across Western Victoria, Australia [Accepted Manuscript], Kara L. Holloway, Muhammad A. Sajjad, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Mark A. Kotowicz, Patricia M. Livingston, Mustafa Khasraw, Sharon Hakkennes, Trisha L. Dunning, Susan Brumby, Richard S. Page, Daryl Pedler, Alasdair Sutherland, Svetha Venkatesh, Sharon L. Brennan Mar 2018

The Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures Across Western Victoria, Australia [Accepted Manuscript], Kara L. Holloway, Muhammad A. Sajjad, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Mark A. Kotowicz, Patricia M. Livingston, Mustafa Khasraw, Sharon Hakkennes, Trisha L. Dunning, Susan Brumby, Richard S. Page, Daryl Pedler, Alasdair Sutherland, Svetha Venkatesh, Sharon L. Brennan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background Hip fractures are associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Hip fracture incidence varies across different levels of accessibility/remoteness and socioeconomic status (SES). As part of the Ageing, Chronic Disease and Injury Study, we aimed to map the pattern of hip fractures across the western region of the Australian state of Victoria, which contains a range of remoteness levels and SES. Methods Data on hip fractures resulting in hospital admission were extracted from the Victorian Admitted Episodes Dataset (VAED) for men and women aged 40 + years during 2010–2013 inclusive. An age-adjusted incidence rate (per 10,000 population/year ...


Human Metabolomics Reveal Daily Variations Under Nutritional Challenges Specific To Serum And Skeletal Muscle, Shogo Sato, Parr, Evelyn, Brooke Devlin, John Hawley, Paolo Sassone-Corsi Jan 2018

Human Metabolomics Reveal Daily Variations Under Nutritional Challenges Specific To Serum And Skeletal Muscle, Shogo Sato, Parr, Evelyn, Brooke Devlin, John Hawley, Paolo Sassone-Corsi

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: Advances in the field of metabolomics and the concomitant development of bioinformatics tools constitute a promising avenue towards the development of precision medicine and personalized profiling for numerous disease states. Studies in animal models have strengthened this concept, but the application in human subjects is scarce. Methods: Utilizing high-throughput metabolomics, we have analyzed the metabolome levels of human serum and skeletal muscle in the morning and evening in response to divergent nutritional challenges in order to identify unique signatures present in serum and muscle. Results: We reveal dynamic daily variation of human metabolome unique to serum and muscle. The ...


'Better To Save One Life Than Build A Seven-Storied Pagoda': A Qualitative Study Of Health Education For Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Shanghai, China, Xian-Liang Liu, Karen Willis, Chiung-Jung (Jo) Wu, Yan Shi, Maree Johnson Jan 2018

'Better To Save One Life Than Build A Seven-Storied Pagoda': A Qualitative Study Of Health Education For Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome And Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus In Shanghai, China, Xian-Liang Liu, Karen Willis, Chiung-Jung (Jo) Wu, Yan Shi, Maree Johnson

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Objective: To describe, from the perspectives of health professionals, the health education currently being provided from hospital admission to discharge to home to patients who present with acute coronary syndrome who also have type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Methods: A qualitative study using semistructured interviews was undertaken in the coronary care unit (CCU) of a major hospital in Shanghai, China. Fifteen health professionals (nine registered nurses and six physicians) from the CCU who delivered health education to patients with acute coronary syndrome and T2DM participated. Participants also completed an Education Content Checklist containing topics consistent with existing national guidelines. Findings ...


Multimorbidity And The Risk Of All-Cause 30-Day Readmission In The Setting Of Multidisciplinary Management Of Chronic Heart Failure: A Retrospective Analysis Of 830 Hospitalized Patients In Australia, Joshua F. Wiley, Yih-Kai Chan, Yasmin Ahamed, Jocasta Ball, Melinda J. Carrington, Barbara Reigel, Simon Stewart Jan 2018

Multimorbidity And The Risk Of All-Cause 30-Day Readmission In The Setting Of Multidisciplinary Management Of Chronic Heart Failure: A Retrospective Analysis Of 830 Hospitalized Patients In Australia, Joshua F. Wiley, Yih-Kai Chan, Yasmin Ahamed, Jocasta Ball, Melinda J. Carrington, Barbara Reigel, Simon Stewart

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Multimorbidity has an adverse effect on health outcomes in hospitalized individuals with chronic heart failure (CHF), but the modulating effect of multidisciplinary management is unknown. Objective: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that increasing morbidity would independently predict an increasing risk of 30-day readmission despite multidisciplinary management of CHF. Methods: We studied patients hospitalized for any reason with heart failure receiving nurse-led, postdischarge multidisciplinary management. We profiled a matrix of expected comorbidities involving the most common coexisting conditions associated with CHF and examined the relationship between multimorbidity and 30-day all-cause readmission. Results: A total of ...


Continuity And Utilization Of Health And Community Care In Elderly Patients With Heart Failure Before And After Hospitalization, Emma Säfström, Tiny Jaarsma, Anna Strömberg Jan 2018

Continuity And Utilization Of Health And Community Care In Elderly Patients With Heart Failure Before And After Hospitalization, Emma Säfström, Tiny Jaarsma, Anna Strömberg

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: The period after hospitalization due to deteriorated heart failure (HF) is characterized as a time of high generalized risk. The transition from hospital to home is often problematic due to insufficient coordination of care, leading to a fragmentation of care rather than a seamless continuum of care. The aim was to describe health and community care utilization prior to and 30 days after hospitalization, and the continuity of care in patients hospitalized due to de novo or deteriorated HF from the patients’ perspective and from a medical chart review. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study with consecutive inclusion of ...


Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar Jan 2018

Non-Knee-Spanning Muscles Contribute To Tibiofemoral Shear As Well As Valgus And Rotational Joint Reaction Moments During Unanticipated Sidestep Cutting, Nirav Maniar, Anthony Schache, Prasanna Sritharan, David Opar

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries are a burdensome condition due to potential surgical requirements and increased risk of long term debilitation. Previous studies indicate that muscle forces play an important role in the development of ligamentous loading, yet these studies have typically used cadaveric models considering only the knee-spanning quadriceps, hamstrings and gastrocnemius muscle groups. Using a musculoskeletal modelling approach, we investigated how lower-limb muscles produce and oppose key tibiofemoral reaction forces and moments during the weight acceptance phase of unanticipated sidestep cutting. Muscles capable of opposing (or controlling the magnitude of) the anterior shear force and the external valgus ...


Correction To: Geography Of Fracture Incidence In Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Treated With Abaloparatide, Michael Mcclung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D. Miller Jan 2018

Correction To: Geography Of Fracture Incidence In Postmenopausal Women With Osteoporosis Treated With Abaloparatide, Michael Mcclung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D. Miller

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The article Geography of Fracture Incidence in Postmenopausal Women with Osteoporosis Treated with Abaloparatide, written by Michael R. McClung, Gregory C. Williams, Gary Hattersley, Lorraine A. Fitzpatrick, Yamei Wang, Paul D. Miller, was originally published electronically on the publisher’s internet portal (currently SpringerLink) on 28 December 2017 without open access.


High-Impact Mechanical Loading Increases Bone Material Strength In Postmenopausal Women—A 3-Month Intervention Study, Daniel Sundh, Martin Nilsson, Michail Zoulakis, Courtney Pasco, Melis Yilmaz, Galateia J. Kazakia, Martin Hellgren, Mattias Lorentzon Jan 2018

High-Impact Mechanical Loading Increases Bone Material Strength In Postmenopausal Women—A 3-Month Intervention Study, Daniel Sundh, Martin Nilsson, Michail Zoulakis, Courtney Pasco, Melis Yilmaz, Galateia J. Kazakia, Martin Hellgren, Mattias Lorentzon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Bone adapts to loading in several ways, including redistributing bone mass and altered geometry and microarchitecture. Because of previous methodological limitations, it is not known how the bone material strength is affected by mechanical loading in humans. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a 3‐month unilateral high‐impact exercise program on bone material properties and microarchitecture in healthy postmenopausal women. A total of 20 healthy and inactive postmenopausal women (aged 55.6 ± 2.3 years [mean ± SD]) were included and asked to perform an exercise program of daily one‐legged jumps (with incremental number ...


Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Two Regions Of Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, J. A. Kanis, E. V. Mccloskey, H. Johansson, S. S. Strafun, M. O. Korzh, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, V. S. Forosenko, R. O. Vlasenko Jan 2018

Epidemiology Of Hip Fractures In Two Regions Of Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, J. A. Kanis, E. V. Mccloskey, H. Johansson, S. S. Strafun, M. O. Korzh, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, V. S. Forosenko, R. O. Vlasenko

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Worldwide, the number of hip fractures, the most important osteoporotic complication in the elderly, continues to increase in line with the ageing of the population. In some countries, however, including the Ukraine, data on the incidence of hip fracture are limited. This article describes the first analysis to characterize the incidence of hip fracture in the Ukrainian population from the age of 40 years. It is based on data from two regional studies, namely, the Vinnitsa city study and the STOP study, which were performed during 1997–2002 and 2011-2012 years, respectively. Hip fracture incidence rates were demonstrated to increase ...


Age-Associated Impairments In Mitochondrial Adp Sensitivity Contribute To Redox Stress In Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle, Graham P. Holloway, Andrew M. Holwerda, Paula M. Miotto, Marlou L. Dirks, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon Jan 2018

Age-Associated Impairments In Mitochondrial Adp Sensitivity Contribute To Redox Stress In Senescent Human Skeletal Muscle, Graham P. Holloway, Andrew M. Holwerda, Paula M. Miotto, Marlou L. Dirks, Lex B. Verdijk, Luc Van Loon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2O2emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2O2emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2O2and the fraction of electron leak to H2O2, in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined. Moreover, although prolonged resistance training inolder individuals increased muscle mass, strength, and maximal mitochondrial respiration, exercise ...


No Evidence Of Direct Association Between Glut4 And Glycogen In Human Skeletal Muscle, Robyn M. Murphy, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Barnaby P. Frankish, Andrew Garnham, David Stapleton, Mark Hargreaves Jan 2018

No Evidence Of Direct Association Between Glut4 And Glycogen In Human Skeletal Muscle, Robyn M. Murphy, Marcelo Flores-Opazo, Barnaby P. Frankish, Andrew Garnham, David Stapleton, Mark Hargreaves

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Previous studies have demonstrated that exercise increases whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity that is linked with increased GLUT4 at the plasma membrane following insulin stimulation and associated with muscle glycogen depletion. To assess the potential direct association between muscle glycogen and GLUT4, seven untrained, male subjects exercised for 60 min at ~75% VO2 peak, with muscle samples obtained by percutaneous needle biopsy immediately before and after exercise. Exercise reduced muscle glycogen content by ~43%. An ultracentrifugation protocol resulted in a ~2‐3‐fold enriched glycogen fraction from muscle samples for analysis. Total GLUT4 content was unaltered by exercise ...


The Adibox Study: Adiposity And Bone Metabolism: Effects Of Exercise-Induced Weight Loss In Adolescents With Obesity, Elodie Chaplais Aug 2017

The Adibox Study: Adiposity And Bone Metabolism: Effects Of Exercise-Induced Weight Loss In Adolescents With Obesity, Elodie Chaplais

Theses

Introduction: This program of research targeted the impact of an 8-month weight loss intervention induced by physical activity and nutrition on bone health in adolescents with obesity. The overall aim of this thesis was to examine the impact of a lifestyle weight loss intervention on the bone parameters in adolescents with obesity.

Method: Sixty-five adolescents were recruited: 31 (6 males) adolescents with obesity in the weight loss intervention (age: 13.61 (1.27)), 23 normal weight (NW) adolescents (age: 15.90 (0.43)) and 11 (4 males) adolescents with obesity in another control group (14.02 (1.39)). Primary outcomes ...


Gluteus Medius Activation During Running Is A Risk Factor For Season Hamstring Injuries In Elite Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, Jason Bonacci, Marianne Dilani Mendis, Craig Christie, Andrew Rotstein, Julie Anne Hides Feb 2017

Gluteus Medius Activation During Running Is A Risk Factor For Season Hamstring Injuries In Elite Footballers [Accepted Manuscript], Melinda M. Franettovich Smith, Jason Bonacci, Marianne Dilani Mendis, Craig Christie, Andrew Rotstein, Julie Anne Hides

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

To investigate if size and activation of the gluteal muscles is a risk factor for hamstring injuries in elite AFL players. Design Prospective cohort study. Methods Twenty-six elitemale footballers from a professional Australian Football League (AFL) club participated in the study. At the beginning of the season bilateral gluteus medius (GMED) and gluteus maximus (GMAX) muscle volume was measured from magnetic resonance images and electromyographic recordings of the same muscles were obtained during running. History of hamstring injury in the pre-season and incidence of hamstring injury during the season were determined from club medical data. Results Nine players (35%) incurred ...


Association Of Cardiovascular System Medications With Cognitive Function And Dementia In Older Adults Living In Nursing Homes In Australia, Enwu Liu, Suzanne M. Dyer, Lisa Kouladjian O'Donnell, Rachel Milte, Clare E. Bradley, Stephanie L. Harrison, Emmanuel S. Gnanamanickam, Craig Whitehead, Maria Crotty Jan 2017

Association Of Cardiovascular System Medications With Cognitive Function And Dementia In Older Adults Living In Nursing Homes In Australia, Enwu Liu, Suzanne M. Dyer, Lisa Kouladjian O'Donnell, Rachel Milte, Clare E. Bradley, Stephanie L. Harrison, Emmanuel S. Gnanamanickam, Craig Whitehead, Maria Crotty

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

OBJECTIVE:
To examine associations between cardiovascular system medication use with cognition function and diagnosis of dementia in older adults living in nursing homes in Australia.
METHODS:
As part of a cross-sectional study of 17 Australian nursing homes examining quality of life and resource use, we examined the association between cognitive impairment and cardiovascular medication use (identified using the Anatomical Therapeutic Classification System) using general linear regression and logistic regression models. People who were receiving end of life care were excluded.
RESULTS:
Participants included 541 residents with a mean age of 85.5 years (± 8.5), a mean Psychogeriatric Assessment Scale-Cognitive ...


Musculoskeletal Decline And Mortality: Prospective Data From The Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Julie Pasco, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Kara Holloway, Sharon Brennan-Olsen, Natalie Hyde, Mark Kotowicz Jan 2017

Musculoskeletal Decline And Mortality: Prospective Data From The Geelong Osteoporosis Study, Julie Pasco, Mohammadreza Mohebbi, Kara Holloway, Sharon Brennan-Olsen, Natalie Hyde, Mark Kotowicz

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background We aimed to examine the relationship between musculoskeletal deterioration and all-cause mortality in a cohort of women studied prospectively over a decade. Methods A cohort of 750 women aged 50–94 years was followed for a decade after femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD) and appendicular lean mass (ALM) were measured using dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, in conjunction with comorbidities, health behaviour data, and other clinical measures. The outcome was all-cause mortality identified from the Australian National Deaths Index. Using Cox proportional hazards models and age as the time variable, mortality risks were estimated according to BMD groups (ideal-BMD ...


Increased Cortical Porosity Is Associated With Daily, Not Weekly, Administration Of Equivalent Doses Of Teriparatide, Roger Zebaze, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Yu Peng, Ali Ghasem Zadeh, Kyoko Hirano, Hiroshi Yamane, Aya Takakura, Yukihiro Isogai, Toshinori Ishizuya, Ego Seeman Jan 2017

Increased Cortical Porosity Is Associated With Daily, Not Weekly, Administration Of Equivalent Doses Of Teriparatide, Roger Zebaze, Ryoko Takao-Kawabata, Yu Peng, Ali Ghasem Zadeh, Kyoko Hirano, Hiroshi Yamane, Aya Takakura, Yukihiro Isogai, Toshinori Ishizuya, Ego Seeman

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Introduction: The pharmacokinetic profile of parathyroid hormone (PTH) determines its effects on bone resorption and formation. When administered intermittently, anabolic effects are favored in comparison with the continuous treatment. Among the intermittent treatment regimens, lower frequency of administration may have a lower effect on bone remodeling. We therefore hypothesized that weekly administration of teriparatide will produce less increase in intracortical remodeling and porosity than reported using daily treatment. Methods: We treated 17 female New Zealand white rabbits aged 6 months for 1 month with teriparatide [human PTH(1-34)] as follows. (i) Vehicle-treated Control (n = 4); (ii) 20 μg/kg daily ...


On The Brain Structure Heterogeneity Of Autism: Parsing Out Acquisition Site Effects With Significance-Weighted Principal Component Analysis, Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M. H. Young, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V. Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G. M. Murphy, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Anthony J. Bailey, Simon Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, Edward T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Michael C. Craig, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Meng Chuan Lai, Michael V. Lombardo, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan G. M. Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Sally J. Wheelwright, Steven C. Williams Jan 2017

On The Brain Structure Heterogeneity Of Autism: Parsing Out Acquisition Site Effects With Significance-Weighted Principal Component Analysis, Francisco Jesús Martinez-Murcia, Meng-Chuan Lai, Juan Manuel Górriz, Javier Ramírez, Adam M. H. Young, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Michael V. Lombardo, Simon Baron-Cohen, Declan G. M. Murphy, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Anthony J. Bailey, Simon Baron-Cohen, Patrick F. Bolton, Edward T. Bullmore, Sarah Carrington, Marco Catani, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Michael C. Craig, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Christine Ecker, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Meng Chuan Lai, Michael V. Lombardo, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan G. M. Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, John Suckling, Sally J. Wheelwright, Steven C. Williams

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Neuroimaging studies have reported structural and physiological differences that could help understand the causes and development of Autism Spectrum Disorder ( ASD ). Many of them rely on multisite designs, with the recruitment of larger samples increasing statistical power. However, recent large-scale studies have put some findings into question, considering the results to be strongly dependent on the database used, and demonstrating the substantial heterogeneity within this clinically defined category. One major source of variance may be the acquisition of the data in multiple centres. In this work we analysed the differences found in the multisite, multi-modal neuroimaging database from the UK ...


Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho Signalling (Stars) Is Reduced In Ageing Human Skeletal Muscle And Targeted By Mir-628-5p, Andrew Russell, M. A. Wallace, M. Kalanon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, P. A.D. Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Séverine Lamon Jan 2017

Striated Muscle Activator Of Rho Signalling (Stars) Is Reduced In Ageing Human Skeletal Muscle And Targeted By Mir-628-5p, Andrew Russell, M. A. Wallace, M. Kalanon, Evelyn Zacharewicz, P. A.D. Gatta, Andrew Garnham, Séverine Lamon

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Aim: The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) is a muscle-specific actin-binding protein. The STARS signalling pathway is activated by resistance exercise and is anticipated to play a role in signal mechan-otransduction. Animal studies have reported a negative regulation of STARS signalling with age, but such regulation has not been investigated in humans. Methods: Ten young (18–30 years) and 10 older (60–75 years) subjects completed an acute bout of resistance exercise. Gene and protein expres-sion of members of the STARS signalling pathway and miRNA expression of a subset of miRNAs, predicted or known to target members of ...


Data On Gender Contrasts In The Risk Of Incident Myocardial Infarction By Age: The Tromsø Study 1979-2012, Grethe Albrektsen, Ivar Heuch, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Dag Steinar Thelle, Tom Wilsgaard, Inger Njølstad, Kaare Harald Bønaa Jan 2017

Data On Gender Contrasts In The Risk Of Incident Myocardial Infarction By Age: The Tromsø Study 1979-2012, Grethe Albrektsen, Ivar Heuch, Maja-Lisa Løchen, Dag Steinar Thelle, Tom Wilsgaard, Inger Njølstad, Kaare Harald Bønaa

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

The data presented in this article relate to the research article entitled “Risk of incident myocardial infarction by gender: Interactions with serum lipids, blood pressure and smoking. The Tromsø Study 1979–2012” (Albrektsen et al., 2017) [1]. Data quantify the gender differences in the risk of myocardial infarction (MI) in terms of incidence rate ratios (IRR), in subgroups defined by serum lipids, blood pressure and smoking among persons aged 35–54 years, 55–74 years and 75–94 years, respectively. Data also describe the age- and gender-specific linear associations with the coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors. IRRs for combined ...


Epidemiology Of Hip Fracture And The Development Of Frax In Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, John Kanis, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, M. O. Korzh, S. S. Strafun, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, R. R. Vlasenko, V. S. Forosenko Jan 2017

Epidemiology Of Hip Fracture And The Development Of Frax In Ukraine, V. V. Povoroznyuk, N. V. Grygorieva, John Kanis, Eugene Mccloskey, Helena Johansson, Nicholas C. Harvey, M. O. Korzh, S. S. Strafun, V. M. Vaida, F. V. Klymovytsky, R. R. Vlasenko, V. S. Forosenko

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Summary A country-specific FRAX model has been developed for the Ukraine to replace the Austrian model hitherto used. Comparison of the Austrian and Ukrainian models indicated that the former markedly overestimated fracture probability whilst correctly stratifying risk. Introduction FRAX has been used to estimate osteoporotic fracture risk since 2009. Rather than using a surrogate model, the Austrian version of FRAX was adopted for clinical practice. Since then, data have become available on hip fracture incidence in the Ukraine. Methods The incidence of hip fracture was computed from three regional estimates and used to construct a country-specific FRAX model for the ...


Sclerostin Antibodies In Osteoporosis: Latest Evidence And Therapeutic Potential, Michael Mcclung Jan 2017

Sclerostin Antibodies In Osteoporosis: Latest Evidence And Therapeutic Potential, Michael Mcclung

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived glycoprotein that inhibits Wnt/β-catenin signaling and activation of osteoblast function, thereby inhibiting bone formation. It plays a vital role in the regulation of skeletal growth. In adults, sclerostin secretion is modulated by skeletal loading (increased secretion with immobilization; less with weight bearing) and by hormonal/cytokine actions on the osteocyte. Sclerostin deficiency syndromes in humans and animals are characterized by high bone mass of normal quality. In animal models of osteoporosis, inhibition of sclerostin by monoclonal antibodies induces osteoblast activity and new bone formation, normalizing bone mass and improving bone architecture and strength. In recently ...


Longitudinal In Vivo Mri In A Huntington's Disease Mouse Model: Global Atrophy In The Absence Of White Matter Microstructural Damage, Jessica J. Steventon, Rebecca C. Trueman, Da Ma, Emma Yhnell, Zubeyde Bayram-Weston, Marc Modat, Jorge Cardoso, Sebastian Ourselin, Mark Lythgoe, Andrew Stewart, Anne E. Rosser, Derek Kenton Jones Jan 2016

Longitudinal In Vivo Mri In A Huntington's Disease Mouse Model: Global Atrophy In The Absence Of White Matter Microstructural Damage, Jessica J. Steventon, Rebecca C. Trueman, Da Ma, Emma Yhnell, Zubeyde Bayram-Weston, Marc Modat, Jorge Cardoso, Sebastian Ourselin, Mark Lythgoe, Andrew Stewart, Anne E. Rosser, Derek Kenton Jones

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Huntington’s disease ( HD ) is a genetically-determined neurodegenerative disease. Characterising neuropathology in mouse models of HD is commonly restricted to cross-sectional ex vivo analyses, beset by tissue fixation issues. In vivolongitudinal magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ) allows for disease progression to be probed non-invasively. In the HdhQ150 mouse model of HD, in vivo MRI was employed at two time points, before and after the onset of motor signs, to assess brain macrostructure and white matter microstructure. Ex vivoMRI, immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy and behavioural testing were also conducted. Global brain atrophy was found in HdhQ150 mice at both time points, with ...


T1 Relaxometry Of Crossing Fibres In The Human Brain, Silvia De Santis, Yaniv Assaf, Ben Jeurissen, Derek Kenton Jones, Alard Roebroeck Jan 2016

T1 Relaxometry Of Crossing Fibres In The Human Brain, Silvia De Santis, Yaniv Assaf, Ben Jeurissen, Derek Kenton Jones, Alard Roebroeck

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

A comprehensive tract-based characterisation of white matter should include the ability to quantify myelin and axonal attributes irrespective of the complexity of fibre organisation within the voxel. Recently, a new experimental framework that combines inversion recovery and diffusion MRI, called inversion recovery diffusion tensor imaging( IR-DTI ), was introduced and applied in an animal study. IR-DTI provides the ability to assign to each unique fibre population within a voxel a specific value of the longitudinal relaxation time, T1, which is a proxy for myelin content. Here, we apply the IR-DTI approach to the human brain in vivo on 7 healthy subjects ...


Relationship Between Cortical Gyrification, White Matter Connectivity, And Autism Spectrum Disorder, C. Ecker, D. Andrews, F. Dell'acqua, E. Daly, C. Murphy, M. Catani, M. Thiebaut De Schotten, S. Baron-Cohen, M. C. Lai, M. V. Lombardo, E. T. Bullmore, J. Suckling, S. C. Williams, D. K. Jones, A. Chiocchetti, D. G. Murphy Jan 2016

Relationship Between Cortical Gyrification, White Matter Connectivity, And Autism Spectrum Disorder, C. Ecker, D. Andrews, F. Dell'acqua, E. Daly, C. Murphy, M. Catani, M. Thiebaut De Schotten, S. Baron-Cohen, M. C. Lai, M. V. Lombardo, E. T. Bullmore, J. Suckling, S. C. Williams, D. K. Jones, A. Chiocchetti, D. G. Murphy

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complex neurodevelopmental condition, which is accompanied by differences in gray matter neuroanatomy and white matter connectivity. However, it is unknown whether these differences are linked or reflect independent aetiologies. Using a multimodal neuroimaging approach, we therefore examined 51 male adults with ASD and 48 neurotypical controls to investigate the relationship between gray matter local gyrification (lGI) and white matter diffusivity in associated fiber tracts. First, ASD individuals had a significant increase in gyrification around the left pre- and post-central gyrus. Second, white matter fiber tracts originating and/or terminating in the cluster of increased ...


Including Diffusion Time Dependence In The Extra-Axonal Space Improves In Vivo Estimates Of Axonal Diameter And Density In Human White Matter, Silvia De Santis, Derek Kenton Jones, Alard Roebroeck Jan 2016

Including Diffusion Time Dependence In The Extra-Axonal Space Improves In Vivo Estimates Of Axonal Diameter And Density In Human White Matter, Silvia De Santis, Derek Kenton Jones, Alard Roebroeck

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Axonal density and diameter are two fundamental properties of brain white matter. Recently, advanced diffusion MRI techniques have made these two parameters accessible in vivo. However, the techniques available to estimate such parameters are still under development. For example, current methods to map axonal diameters capture relative trends over different structures, but consistently over-estimate absolute diameters. Axonal density estimates are more accessible experimentally, but different modeling approaches exist and the impact of the experimental parameters has not been thoroughly quantified, potentially leading to incompatibility of results obtained in different studies using different techniques. Here, we characterise the impact of diffusion ...


Global Efficiency Of Structural Networks Mediates Cognitive Control In Mild Cognitive Impairment, Rok Berlot, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, M. Arfan Ikram, Derek Kenton Jones, Michael J. O'Sullivan Jan 2016

Global Efficiency Of Structural Networks Mediates Cognitive Control In Mild Cognitive Impairment, Rok Berlot, Claudia Metzler-Baddeley, M. Arfan Ikram, Derek Kenton Jones, Michael J. O'Sullivan

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Background: Cognitive control has been linked to both the microstructure of individual tracts and the structure of whole-brain networks, but their relative contributions in health and disease remain unclear. Objective: To determine the contribution of both localized white matter tract damage and disruption of global network architecture to cognitive control, in older age and Mild Cognitive Impairment ( MCI ). Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients with MCI and 20 age, sex, and intelligence-matched healthy volunteers were investigated with 3 Tesla structural magnetic resonance imaging ( MRI ). Cognitive control and episodic memory were evaluated with established tests. Structural network graphs were constructed from diffusion ...


Myelination Of The Right Parahippocampal Cingulum Is Associated With Physical Activity In Young Healthy Adults, Tobias Bracht, Derek K. Jones, Sonya Bells, Sebastian Walther, Mark Drakesmith, David Linden Jan 2016

Myelination Of The Right Parahippocampal Cingulum Is Associated With Physical Activity In Young Healthy Adults, Tobias Bracht, Derek K. Jones, Sonya Bells, Sebastian Walther, Mark Drakesmith, David Linden

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

Recent evidence suggests that individual differences in physical activity (PA) may be associated with individual differences in white matter microstructure and with grey matter volume of the hippocampus. Therefore, this study investigated the association between PA and white matter microstructure of pathways connecting to the hippocampus. A total of 33 young, healthy adults underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). High angular resolution diffusion-weighted imaging and multi-component relaxometry MRI scans (multi-component driven equilibrium pulse observation of T1 and T2) were acquired for each participant. Activity levels (AL) of participants were calculated from 72-h actigraphy recordings. Tractography using the damped Richardson Lucy algorithm ...


Frontal Networks In Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Marco Catani, Flavio Dell'acqua, Sanja Budisavljevic, Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Seán Froudist-Walsh, Lucio D'Anna, Abigail Thompson, Stefano Sandrone, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V. Lombardo, Sally J. Wheelwright, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Meng-Chuan Lai, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Alexander Leemans, Christine Ecker, Michael C. Craig, Declan G. M. Murphy, Anthony J. Bailey, Patrick F. Bolton, Sarah Carrington, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, Steven C. Williams Jan 2016

Frontal Networks In Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorder, Marco Catani, Flavio Dell'acqua, Sanja Budisavljevic, Henrietta Howells, Michel Thiebaut De Schotten, Seán Froudist-Walsh, Lucio D'Anna, Abigail Thompson, Stefano Sandrone, Edward T. Bullmore, John Suckling, Simon Baron-Cohen, Michael V. Lombardo, Sally J. Wheelwright, Bhismadev Chakrabarti, Meng-Chuan Lai, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Alexander Leemans, Christine Ecker, Michael C. Craig, Declan G. M. Murphy, Anthony J. Bailey, Patrick F. Bolton, Sarah Carrington, Eileen M. Daly, Sean C. L. Deoni, Francesca Happé, Julian Henty, Peter Jezzard, Patrick Johnston, Derek Kenton Jones, Anya Madden, Diane Mullins, Clodagh M. Murphy, Declan Murphy, Greg Pasco, Amber N. V. Ruigrok, Susan A. Sadek, Debbie Spain, Rose Stewart, Steven C. Williams

Faculty of Health Sciences Publications

It has been postulated that autism spectrum disorder is underpinned by an ‘atypical connectivity’ involving higher-order association brain regions. To test this hypothesis in a large cohort of adults with autism spectrum disorder we compared the white matter networks of 61 adult males with autism spectrum disorder and 61 neurotypical controls, using two complementary approaches to diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging. First, we applied tract-based spatial statistics, a ‘whole brain’ non-hypothesis driven method, to identify differences in white matter networks in adults with autism spectrum disorder. Following this we used a tractspecific analysis, based on tractography, to carry out a ...