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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Effects Of Ocular Dominance On Visual Processing In College Students, William Alexander Holland Feb 2019

The Effects Of Ocular Dominance On Visual Processing In College Students, William Alexander Holland

James Madison Undergraduate Research Journal (JMURJ)

The role of ocular dominance in processing visual memory and analytic tasks is unknown. Research has variably showed both significant effects and no effect of ocular dominance on visual perception, motor control, and sports performance. The goal of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between ocular dominance and visual processing under a variety of computer gaming tasks. This was accomplished by first determining subjects’ ocular dominance through the Miles test, and then examining the subjects’ visual performance on four different Lumosity games under three conditions: left eye, right eye, and both eyes. Results suggest a relationship ...


Oral Saline Consumption And The Exercise Pressor Reflex, John J. Del Vecchio, Evan L. Matthews Dr., Peter A. Hosick Dr. Jan 2019

Oral Saline Consumption And The Exercise Pressor Reflex, John J. Del Vecchio, Evan L. Matthews Dr., Peter A. Hosick Dr.

Research Data

The Volume Pilot Study data represents information from participants' health history questionnaire and measurements of changes in blood pressure, heart rate, hemoglobin, hematocrit, serum sodium, and plasma volume during blood draws taken every 30 minutes for 3 hours.

The HG and CPT information was taken in the second part of the study. This data includes participant demographics and various cardiovascular measurements taken during baseline (5min), handgrip exercise (2min), post-exercise ischemia (2min), and recovery (2min). It also includes cardiovascular measurements taken during the cold pressor test which includes baseline (2min), cold pressor test (2min), and recovery (2min)


Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher Jan 2019

Concussion Competencies: A Training Model For School-Based Concussion Management, Arthur C. Maerlender, Jonathan D. Lichtenstein, Jennifer Parent-Nichols, Kate Higgins, Peggy Reisher

Center for Brain, Biology and Behavior: Papers & Publications

This study reports on the use of ten knowledge competencies related to the behavioral management of concussion in schools. Trainings using these competencies as learning objectives were delivered to school personnel. This aims of the use of competencies in this way are to streamline the education of key stakeholders, to establish clear roles and responsibilities for constituents and equip individuals working with students following a concussion with the relevant knowledge to optimize outcomes. The majority of participants, primarily speech language pathologists working as related service providers in the schoolswhere the trainings occurred, judged the use of the competencies to be ...


Hla-Do Modulates The Diversity Of The Mhc-Ii Self-Peptidome, Padma P. Nanaware, Mollie M. Jurewicz, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Lawrence J. Stern Dec 2018

Hla-Do Modulates The Diversity Of The Mhc-Ii Self-Peptidome, Padma P. Nanaware, Mollie M. Jurewicz, John D. Leszyk, Scott A. Shaffer, Lawrence J. Stern

Open Access Articles

Presentation of antigenic peptides on MHC-II molecules is essential for tolerance to self and for initiation of immune responses against foreign antigens. DO (HLA-DO in humans, H2-O in mice) is a non-classical MHC-II protein that has been implicated in control of autoimmunity and regulation of neutralizing antibody responses to viruses. These effects likely are related to a role of DO in selecting MHC-II epitopes, but previous studies examining the effect of DO on presentation of selected CD4 T cell epitopes have been contradictory. To understand how DO modulates MHC-II antigen presentation, we characterized the full spectrum of peptides presented by ...


Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman Dec 2018

Protective Versus Pathologic Pre-Exposure Cytokine Profiles In Dengue Virus Infection, Heather Friberg, Coreen M. Beaumier, Sangshin Park, Pamela P. Pazoles, Timothy P. Endy, Anuja Mathew, Jeffrey R. Currier, Richard G. Jarman, Kathryn B. Anderson, Steven Hatch, Stephen J. Thomas, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Hyperendemic circulation of all four types of dengue virus (DENV-1-4) has expanded globally, fueling concern for increased incidence of severe dengue. While the majority of DENV infections are subclinical, epidemiologic studies suggest that type-cross-reactive immunity can influence disease outcome in subsequent infections. The mechanisms controlling these differential clinical outcomes remain poorly defined.

METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Blood samples were collected from a cohort of school-aged Thai children who subsequently experienced a subclinical DENV infection or developed dengue illness. PBMC collected prior to infection were stimulated in vitro with DENV and the secretion of 30 cytokines was measured using a multiplexed ...


Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse Dec 2018

Cpla2alpha-/- Sympathetic Neurons Exhibit Increased Membrane Excitability And Loss Of N-Type Ca2+ Current Inhibition By M1 Muscarinic Receptor Signaling, Liwang Liu, Joseph V. Bonventre, Ann R. Rittenhouse

Open Access Articles

Group IVa cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2alpha) mediates GPCR-stimulated arachidonic acid (AA) release from phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) located in plasma membranes. We previously found in superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons that PLA2 activity is required for voltage-independent N-type Ca2+ (N-) current inhibition by M1 muscarinic receptors (M1Rs). These findings are at odds with an alternative model, previously observed for M-current inhibition, where PIP2 dissociation from channels and subsequent metabolism by phospholipase C suffices for current inhibition. To resolve cPLA2alpha's importance, we have investigated its role in mediating voltage-independent N-current inhibition (~40%) that follows application of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine-M ...


Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban Dec 2018

Intron-Containing Rna From The Hiv-1 Provirus Activates Type I Interferon And Inflammatory Cytokines, Sean M. Mccauley, Kyusik Kim, Anetta Nowosielska, Ann Dauphin, Leonid Yurkovetskiy, William E. Diehl, Jeremy Luban

Open Access Articles

HIV-1-infected people who take drugs that suppress viremia to undetectable levels are protected from developing AIDS. Nonetheless, HIV-1 establishes proviruses in long-lived CD4(+) memory T cells, and perhaps other cell types, that preclude elimination of the virus even after years of continuous antiviral therapy. Here we show that the HIV-1 provirus activates innate immune signaling in isolated dendritic cells, macrophages, and CD4(+) T cells. Immune activation requires transcription from the HIV-1 provirus and expression of CRM1-dependent, Rev-dependent, RRE-containing, unspliced HIV-1 RNA. If rev is provided in trans, all HIV-1 coding sequences are dispensable for activation except those cis-acting sequences required ...


Correction To: Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction Induced Injury, Andrew N. Billin, Samuel E. Honeycutt, Alan V. Mcdougal, Jaclyn P. Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M. Freudenberg, Deepak K. Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S. Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V. Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C. Hinken, Alan J. Russell Dec 2018

Correction To: Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction Induced Injury, Andrew N. Billin, Samuel E. Honeycutt, Alan V. Mcdougal, Jaclyn P. Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M. Freudenberg, Deepak K. Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S. Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V. Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C. Hinken, Alan J. Russell

ECU Publications Post 2013

Following publication of the original article [1], the authors flagged that there is a discrepancy with the Availability of data and materials statement on page 12 of the article.


Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence Dec 2018

Trisomy Silencing By Xist Normalizes Down Syndrome Cell Pathogenesis Demonstrated For Hematopoietic Defects In Vitro, Jen-Chieh Chiang, Jun Jiang, Peter E. Newburger, Jeanne B. Lawrence

Open Access Articles

We previously demonstrated that an integrated XIST transgene can broadly repress one chromosome 21 in Down syndrome (DS) pluripotent cells. Here we address whether trisomy-silencing can normalize cell function and development sufficiently to correct cell pathogenesis, tested in an in vitro model of human fetal hematopoiesis, for which DS cellular phenotypes are best known. XIST induction in four transgenic clones reproducibly corrected over-production of megakaryocytes and erythrocytes, key to DS myeloproliferative disorder and leukemia. A contrasting increase in neural stem and iPS cells shows cell-type specificity, supporting this approach successfully rebalances the hematopoietic developmental program. Given this, we next used ...


Two Contrasting Classes Of Nucleolus-Associated Domains In Mouse Fibroblast Heterochromatin, Anastassiia Vertii, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Aimin Yan, Hervé Pagès, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman Dec 2018

Two Contrasting Classes Of Nucleolus-Associated Domains In Mouse Fibroblast Heterochromatin, Anastassiia Vertii, Jianhong Ou, Jun Yu, Aimin Yan, Hervé Pagès, Haibo Liu, Lihua Julie Zhu, Paul D. Kaufman

University of Massachusetts Medical School Faculty Publications

In interphase eukaryotic cells, almost all heterochromatin is located adjacent to the nucleolus or to the nuclear lamina, thus defining Nucleolus Associated Domains (NADs) and Lamina Associated Domains (LADs), respectively. Here, we determined the first genome-scale map of murine NADs in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) via deep sequencing of chromatin associated with purified nucleoli. We developed a Bioconductor package called NADfinder and demonstrated that it identifies NADs more accurately than other peak-calling tools, due to its critical feature of chromosome-level local baseline correction. We detected two distinct classes of NADs. Type I NADs associate frequently with both the nucleolar periphery ...


Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis Dec 2018

Molecular Mechanisms Directing Spine Outgrowth And Synaptic Partner Selection In Caenorhabditis Elegans, Devyn Oliver, Kellianne Alexander, Michael M. Francis

Open Access Articles

The development of the nervous system requires precise outgrowth, extension, and wiring of both axons and dendrites to generate properly functioning neural circuits. The molecular mechanisms that shape neurite development, in particular dendritic development, remain incompletely understood. Dendrites are often highly branched and coated with actin-filled, thorny protrusions, called dendritic spines, that allow for increased numbers of synaptic contacts with neighboring neurons. Disruptions in dendritic spine development have been implicated in many neurological disorders such as autism, schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. Although the development of dendritic spines is vital for cognitive function, understanding the mechanisms driving their outgrowth and ...


Anatomy 204l: Laboratory Manual (Second Edition), Ethan Snow Dec 2018

Anatomy 204l: Laboratory Manual (Second Edition), Ethan Snow

Open Educational Resources

This laboratory manual is designed for undergraduate anatomy labs. It includes self-assessment resources and examination set up guides.


The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


The Relationship Between Feeding Type And Temporomandibular Joint Morphology In Superfamily Musteloidea, Travis L. Garvin Dec 2018

The Relationship Between Feeding Type And Temporomandibular Joint Morphology In Superfamily Musteloidea, Travis L. Garvin

Masters Theses

Many studies have focused on the soft tissue analysis of carnivores and have demonstrated a relationship between feeding biomechanics and feeding types. Herbivores and omnivores rely heavily on anteroposterior and helical movement of the mandible and teeth for the breakdown of fibrous foods resulting in a flat mandibular fossa while the function of the carnivore TMJ is different, as they need a much stable joint for ripping and tearing of the flesh. I aim to look at whether the bony morphology of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) can be directly related to feeding type, specifically in the superfamily Musteloidea. I sampled ...


Tibiotalar Arthrodesis: Development Of A Novel Jig And Alignment Guide, Adam Mathew Ropchan Nov 2018

Tibiotalar Arthrodesis: Development Of A Novel Jig And Alignment Guide, Adam Mathew Ropchan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Tibiotalar arthrodesis is a surgical procedure, used for the treatment of end-stage ankle arthrosis and instability. There are dozens of described procedures in the literature, all with varying rates of success. Two of the most common reasons for reoperation in tibiotalar arthrodesis are nonunion and infection; few studies have established any associations between patient/surgical factors and reoperation for nonunion and infection.

The first part of this thesis focuses on determining the rate of reoperation to the ipsilateral lower limb and if any patient/surgical factors are associated with reoperation for nonunion and infection. The second part of this thesis ...


The Nf-Kappab Factor Relish Regulates Atg1 Expression And Controls Autophagy, Anubhab Nandy, Lin Lin, Panagiotis D. Velentzas, Louisa P. Wu, Eric H. Baehrecke, Neal S. Silverman Nov 2018

The Nf-Kappab Factor Relish Regulates Atg1 Expression And Controls Autophagy, Anubhab Nandy, Lin Lin, Panagiotis D. Velentzas, Louisa P. Wu, Eric H. Baehrecke, Neal S. Silverman

Open Access Articles

Macroautophagy and cell death both contribute to innate immunity, but little is known about how these processes integrate. Drosophila larval salivary glands require autophagy for developmentally programmed cell death, and innate immune signaling factors increase in these dying cells. Here, we show that the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) factor Relish, a component of the immune deficiency (Imd) pathway, is required for salivary gland degradation. Surprisingly, of the classic Imd pathway components, only Relish and the PGRP receptors were involved in salivary gland degradation. Significantly, Relish controls salivary gland degradation by regulating autophagy but not caspases. In addition, expression of either ...


Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, Rajendra Upadhya, Lorina G. Baker, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge Nov 2018

Cryptococcus Neoformans Cda1 And Its Chitin Deacetylase Activity Are Required For Fungal Pathogenesis, Rajendra Upadhya, Lorina G. Baker, Woei C. Lam, Charles A. Specht, Maureen J. Donlin, Jennifer K. Lodge

Open Access Articles

Chitin is an essential component of the cell wall of Cryptococcus neoformans conferring structural rigidity and integrity under diverse environmental conditions. Chitin deacetylase genes encode the enyzmes (chitin deacetylases [Cdas]) that deacetylate chitin, converting it to chitosan. The functional role of chitosan in the fungal cell wall is not well defined, but it is an important virulence determinant of C. neoformans Mutant strains deficient in chitosan are completely avirulent in a mouse pulmonary infection model. C. neoformans carries genes that encode three Cdas (Cda1, Cda2, and Cda3) that appear to be functionally redundant in cells grown under vegetative conditions. Here ...


The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen Nov 2018

The Use Of Current Steering During Subthalamic Deep Brain Stimulation To Alleviate Upper Limb Symptoms Of Parkinson's Disease, Shabna Iftikar Mohideen

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Subthalamic (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established treatment to alleviate the appendicular motor symptoms of Parkinson's Disease (PD). Current steering during DBS allows the unequal fractionation of current between two electrodes on the lead, resulting in a non-spherical electrical field. It is hypothesized that the way the electrical field is shaped will affect a patient’s upper limb symptom alleviation. Seven PD patients who underwent bilateral STN-DBS were tested over four weeks post-operation. 16 current fractionation settings were tested each week at an amplitude that increased weekly. Optimal setting was defined as the setting that provided the ...


Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction-Induced Injury, Andrew N Billin, Samuel E Honeycutt, Alan V Mcdougal, Jaclyn P Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M Freudenberg, Deepak K Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C Hinken, Alan J Russell Nov 2018

Hif Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibition Protects Skeletal Muscle From Eccentric Contraction-Induced Injury, Andrew N Billin, Samuel E Honeycutt, Alan V Mcdougal, Jaclyn P Kerr, Zhe Chen, Johannes M Freudenberg, Deepak K Rajpal, Guizhen Luo, Henning Fritz Kramer, Robert S Geske, Frank Fang, Bert Yao, Richard V Clark, John Lepore, Alex Cobitz, Ram Miller, Kazunori Nosaka, Aaron C Hinken, Alan J Russell

ECU Publications Post 2013

BACKGROUND: In muscular dystrophy and old age, skeletal muscle repair is compromised leading to fibrosis and fatty tissue accumulation. Therefore, therapies that protect skeletal muscle or enhance repair would be valuable medical treatments. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) regulate gene transcription under conditions of low oxygen, and HIF target genes EPO and VEGF have been associated with muscle protection and repair. We tested the importance of HIF activation following skeletal muscle injury, in both a murine model and human volunteers, using prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors that stabilize and activate HIF.

METHODS: Using a mouse eccentric limb injury model, we characterized the protective effects ...


The Dynamic Roles Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Colon Cancer, Shan Wang, Zhiguo Miao, Qiyuan Yang, Yimin Wang, Jinzhou Zhang Nov 2018

The Dynamic Roles Of Mesenchymal Stem Cells In Colon Cancer, Shan Wang, Zhiguo Miao, Qiyuan Yang, Yimin Wang, Jinzhou Zhang

Open Access Articles

Colon cancer is still one of the most common causes of cancer in human and is characterized by lymphocyte infiltrates and originates from the epithelial cells found in the lining of colon or rectum of the gastrointestinal tract. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are composed of the multipotent stem cell group of stroma and can be differentiated as various cell lineages, such as fibroblasts, osteoblasts, and adipocytes. MSCs provide mechanical and structural support and have potential functions during tumor growth and metastasis. The efficacy of MSC-based therapies is partly dependent on the migration and homing of MSCs to tumors and metastatic ...


Signaling Pathways Induced By Leptin During Epithelial(-)Mesenchymal Transition In Breast Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Juan Carlos Juarez-Cruz, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito Nov 2018

Signaling Pathways Induced By Leptin During Epithelial(-)Mesenchymal Transition In Breast Cancer, Monserrat Olea-Flores, Juan Carlos Juarez-Cruz, Miguel A. Mendoza-Catalan, Teresita Padilla-Benavides, Napoleon Navarro-Tito

Open Access Articles

Leptin is an adipokine that is overexpressed in obese and overweight people. Interestingly, women with breast cancer present high levels of leptin and of its receptor ObR. Leptin plays an important role in breast cancer progression due to the biological processes it participates in, such as epithelial(-)mesenchymal transition (EMT). EMT consists of a series of orchestrated events in which cell(-)cell and cell(-)extracellular matrix interactions are altered and lead to the release of epithelial cells from the surrounding tissue. The cytoskeleton is also re-arranged, allowing the three-dimensional movement of epithelial cells into the extracellular matrix. This transition provides ...


Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph Nov 2018

Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

Here we offer an open exchange / evaluation of our experience as facilitator and editor (Bianca) and writer and collaborator (Sara) during the inaugural Women of Color Sexual Health Network Curriculum Lab which took place November 2017 in New Orleans, LA. In two months, 7 women and femmes of color who are sexuality educators wrote a robust curriculum for our communities that centers pleasure, social emotional learning competencies as early Freedom Schools implemented, sex and pleasure positive, using an intersectional framework and praxis, disability justice framework, inclusive of LGBTQ communities, and does not assume HIV negative status. This is one of ...


Identification Of New Genes In Congenital Heart Defects, Naomi Siddiquee Nov 2018

Identification Of New Genes In Congenital Heart Defects, Naomi Siddiquee

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, occurring in 1 in 3000 live births. TOF is a combination of four heart defects that affect normal blood flow. Shone’s Syndrome is another rare congenital heart disease consisting of left-sided obstructive heart lesions. Although the diagnosis of both diseases is confirmed by clinical evaluation and physical examination, their pathogenesis is unknown. This research aimed to identify and characterize new genetic variants in hereditary cardiac diseases, specifically Tetralogy of Fallot and Shone’s Syndrome. Exome sequencing identified 20 nucleotide variants in different genes among TOF ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix Nov 2018

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


25 - Identification Of Scn1a, Scn2a, And Scn8a In Mammalian Sexual Structures, Garis A. Grant, Rhea A. Thoma, Stacey Bb Dutton Nov 2018

25 - Identification Of Scn1a, Scn2a, And Scn8a In Mammalian Sexual Structures, Garis A. Grant, Rhea A. Thoma, Stacey Bb Dutton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Ion channels are important membrane bound proteins that are responsible for the the activation and initiation of action potentials in excitable cells. Alterations in function of these channels by mutations have been identified as a cause of several neurological conditions such as epilepsy, ataxia, migraines, and spasms. These conditions are known as channelopathies. Of particular interest is the role that these proteins play in sexual arousal and orgasms. 40-53 percent of American women report sexual dysfunction experienced as loss of libido, lack of arousal, anorgasmia, and sexual pain. In addition, sexual dysfunction is often reported by women with epilepsy and ...


30 - Identifying The Presence Of ​Scn4a, Scn5a, ​ And​ Scn9a ​ In The Mammalian Clitoris, Rhea Thomas, Garis Grant, Stacey Bb Dutton Nov 2018

30 - Identifying The Presence Of ​Scn4a, Scn5a, ​ And​ Scn9a ​ In The Mammalian Clitoris, Rhea Thomas, Garis Grant, Stacey Bb Dutton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Between 40 and 50% of women report experiences of sexual dysfunction (SD). This includes an inability to achieve sexual arousal, experience sexual pleasure and/or achieve an orgasm. Though there is no evidence of SD interfering with the ability to conceive, the conditions impacts affected individuals quality of life. Of particular interest are the mechanisms involved in the process of female sexual arousal. SD is often viewed as a psychological condition and limited information is known about the biological underpinnings of this condition. The goal of our laboratory is to identify the role of voltage gated ion channels in the ...


Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, Caroline Ripp, Julia Loth, Iveta Petrova, Karen Linnemannstons, Monique Ulepic, Lee G. Fradkin, Jasprien Noordermeer, Andreas Wodarz Nov 2018

Drosophila Ror Is A Nervous System-Specific Co-Receptor For Wnt Ligands, Caroline Ripp, Julia Loth, Iveta Petrova, Karen Linnemannstons, Monique Ulepic, Lee G. Fradkin, Jasprien Noordermeer, Andreas Wodarz

Open Access Articles

Wnt ligands are secreted glycoproteins that control many developmental processes and are crucial for homeostasis of numerous tissues in the adult organism. Signal transduction of Wnts involves the binding of Wnts to receptor complexes at the surface of target cells. These receptor complexes are commonly formed between a member of the Frizzled family of seven-pass transmembrane proteins and a co-receptor, which is usually a single-pass transmembrane protein. Among these co-receptors are several with structural homology to receptor tyrosine kinases, including Ror, PTK7, Ryk and MUSK. In vertebrates, Ror-2 and PTK7 are important regulators of planar cell polarity (PCP). By contrast ...


Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder Nov 2018

Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder

Radiology Publications and Presentations

When untransformed human cells spend >1.5 hr. in prometaphase under standard culture conditions, all daughters arrest in G1 despite normal division of their mothers. We investigate what happens during prolonged prometaphase that leads to daughter cell arrest in the absence of DNA damage. We find that progressive loss of anti-apoptotic MCL-1 activity and oxidative stress act in concert to partially activate the apoptosis pathway resulting in the delayed death of some daughters and senescence for the rest. At physiological oxygen levels, longer prometaphase durations are needed for all daughters to arrest. Partial activation of apoptosis during prolonged prometaphase leads ...


Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19 Nov 2018

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


Reduced Gut Microbiome Protects From Alcohol-Induced Neuroinflammation And Alters Intestinal And Brain Inflammasome Expression, Patrick P. Lowe, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Yeonhee Cho, Aditya Ambade, Gyongyi Szabo Oct 2018

Reduced Gut Microbiome Protects From Alcohol-Induced Neuroinflammation And Alters Intestinal And Brain Inflammasome Expression, Patrick P. Lowe, Benedek Gyongyosi, Abhishek Satishchandran, Arvin Iracheta-Vellve, Yeonhee Cho, Aditya Ambade, Gyongyi Szabo

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: The end-organ effects of alcohol span throughout the entire body, from the gastrointestinal tract to the central nervous system (CNS). In the intestine, alcohol use changes the microbiome composition and increases gut permeability allowing translocation of microbial components into the circulation. Gut-derived pathogen-associated signals initiate inflammatory responses in the liver and possibly elsewhere in the body. Because previous studies showed that the gut microbiome contributes to alcohol-induced liver disease, we hypothesized that antibiotic administration to reduce the gut microbiome would attenuate alcohol-induced inflammation in the brain and small intestine (SI).

METHODS: Six- to 8-week-old C57BL/6J female mice were ...