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Full-Text Articles in Medicine and Health Sciences

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni Dec 2018

The Study Of Alcoholic Liver Diseases, Seun Emmanuel Owoseni

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Excessive alcohol consumption is the primary contributing factor in the development of alcoholic liver diseases (ALD). Nicotine contained in tobacco is a major addictive alkaloid, which enhances the effects of ALDs. The major enzyme involved in nicotine metabolism is cytochrome P450 2A5 (CYP2A5) which is produced in the liver. Alcohol can stimulate the CYP2A5 enzyme. We utilized cyp2a5-/- knockout mice in this research to examine the effects of CYP2A5.

The cyp2a5-/- mice and wild-type (WT) mice were fed liquid ethanol diet with or without nicotine to induce ALD. Nicotine enhancing effects on ALD were observed in WT mice but not ...


Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph Nov 2018

Writing Ourselves Into Existence: Healing Through Collaborative Curriculum Development, Bianca Ivette Laureano, Sara C. Flowers Drph

Journal of Critical Thought and Praxis

Here we offer an open exchange / evaluation of our experience as facilitator and editor (Bianca) and writer and collaborator (Sara) during the inaugural Women of Color Sexual Health Network Curriculum Lab which took place November 2017 in New Orleans, LA. In two months, 7 women and femmes of color who are sexuality educators wrote a robust curriculum for our communities that centers pleasure, social emotional learning competencies as early Freedom Schools implemented, sex and pleasure positive, using an intersectional framework and praxis, disability justice framework, inclusive of LGBTQ communities, and does not assume HIV negative status. This is one of ...


Identification Of New Genes In Congenital Heart Defects, Naomi Siddiquee Nov 2018

Identification Of New Genes In Congenital Heart Defects, Naomi Siddiquee

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease, occurring in 1 in 3000 live births. TOF is a combination of four heart defects that affect normal blood flow. Shone’s Syndrome is another rare congenital heart disease consisting of left-sided obstructive heart lesions. Although the diagnosis of both diseases is confirmed by clinical evaluation and physical examination, their pathogenesis is unknown. This research aimed to identify and characterize new genetic variants in hereditary cardiac diseases, specifically Tetralogy of Fallot and Shone’s Syndrome. Exome sequencing identified 20 nucleotide variants in different genes among TOF ...


21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix Nov 2018

21 - Cigarette Smoke Exposure Upregulation Of Pge₂ Expression In The Bladder, Jessica Nix

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

CIGARETTE SMOKE EXPOSURE UPREGULATION OF PGE₂ EXPRESSION IN THE BLADDER

Jessica Nix, Jane McHowat, Shannon Kispert

Cigarette smoking remains the leading cause of preventable death and disease in the United States. Despite known risks, 42.1 million Americans continue to smoke, making research into tobacco-related pathologies relevant and necessary. We previously discovered that cigarette smoke exposure leads to tumor progression in the breast via platelet activating factor (PAF) and other phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂) metabolic pathways. These results led us to examine the PLA2 metabolite, prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂). We observed the expression of PGE₂ in mouse bladder and human heart ...


25 - Identification Of Scn1a, Scn2a, And Scn8a In Mammalian Sexual Structures, Garis A. Grant, Rhea A. Thoma, Stacey Bb Dutton Nov 2018

25 - Identification Of Scn1a, Scn2a, And Scn8a In Mammalian Sexual Structures, Garis A. Grant, Rhea A. Thoma, Stacey Bb Dutton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Ion channels are important membrane bound proteins that are responsible for the the activation and initiation of action potentials in excitable cells. Alterations in function of these channels by mutations have been identified as a cause of several neurological conditions such as epilepsy, ataxia, migraines, and spasms. These conditions are known as channelopathies. Of particular interest is the role that these proteins play in sexual arousal and orgasms. 40-53 percent of American women report sexual dysfunction experienced as loss of libido, lack of arousal, anorgasmia, and sexual pain. In addition, sexual dysfunction is often reported by women with epilepsy and ...


30 - Identifying The Presence Of ​Scn4a, Scn5a, ​ And​ Scn9a ​ In The Mammalian Clitoris, Rhea Thomas, Garis Grant, Stacey Bb Dutton Nov 2018

30 - Identifying The Presence Of ​Scn4a, Scn5a, ​ And​ Scn9a ​ In The Mammalian Clitoris, Rhea Thomas, Garis Grant, Stacey Bb Dutton

Georgia Undergraduate Research Conference (GURC)

Between 40 and 50% of women report experiences of sexual dysfunction (SD). This includes an inability to achieve sexual arousal, experience sexual pleasure and/or achieve an orgasm. Though there is no evidence of SD interfering with the ability to conceive, the conditions impacts affected individuals quality of life. Of particular interest are the mechanisms involved in the process of female sexual arousal. SD is often viewed as a psychological condition and limited information is known about the biological underpinnings of this condition. The goal of our laboratory is to identify the role of voltage gated ion channels in the ...


Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder Nov 2018

Activation Of The Apoptotic Pathway During Prolonged Prometaphase Blocks Daughter Cell Proliferation, Yumi Uetake, Greenfield Sluder

Radiology Publications and Presentations

When untransformed human cells spend >1.5 hr. in prometaphase under standard culture conditions, all daughters arrest in G1 despite normal division of their mothers. We investigate what happens during prolonged prometaphase that leads to daughter cell arrest in the absence of DNA damage. We find that progressive loss of anti-apoptotic MCL-1 activity and oxidative stress act in concert to partially activate the apoptosis pathway resulting in the delayed death of some daughters and senescence for the rest. At physiological oxygen levels, longer prometaphase durations are needed for all daughters to arrest. Partial activation of apoptosis during prolonged prometaphase leads ...


Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19 Nov 2018

Cell Specific Control Of The Pallidostriatal Pathway, Shubha Verma '19

Student Publications & Research

Parkinson’s Disease is a neurodegenerative disorder of the basal ganglia. The main cause for Parkinson’s Disease is the depletion of dopamine, a neurotransmitter. The basal ganglia contains four major nuclei: the substantia nigra, the subthalamic nucleus, the external globus pallidus, and the striatum. These nuclei communicate with each other by the use of neurons.


Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay Oct 2018

Proteomic Profiling Of Serum Derived Exosomes From Prostate Cancer Patients, David Turay

David Turay, MD

Touted among the major achievements in the diagnosis and management of Prostate cancer (PCa) in the past few decades has been, the dramatic decline of men with advanced/metastatic PCa at diagnosis coupled with a significant improvement ( >90%) in the five and ten year survival rates of the disease. Non-palpable PCa (potentially clinically treatable disease) now accounts for 70-80% of all newly diagnosed cases of PCa. Preceding these changes by about a decade was the introduction of Prostatic Specific Antigen (PSA) into clinical practice; first as biomarker for monitoring response to therapy and subsequently as a complementary screening tool. It ...


Tip55, A Splice Isoform Of The Kat5 Acetyltransferase, Is Essential For Developmental Gene Regulation And Organogenesis, Diwash Acharya, Bernadette Nera, Zachary J. Milstone, Lauren Bourke, Yeonsoo Yoon, Jaime A. Rivera-Pérez, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Thomas G. Fazzio Oct 2018

Tip55, A Splice Isoform Of The Kat5 Acetyltransferase, Is Essential For Developmental Gene Regulation And Organogenesis, Diwash Acharya, Bernadette Nera, Zachary J. Milstone, Lauren Bourke, Yeonsoo Yoon, Jaime A. Rivera-Pérez, Chinmay M. Trivedi, Thomas G. Fazzio

Open Access Articles

Regulation of chromatin structure is critical for cell type-specific gene expression. Many chromatin regulatory complexes exist in several different forms, due to alternative splicing and differential incorporation of accessory subunits. However, in vivo studies often utilize mutations that eliminate multiple forms of complexes, preventing assessment of the specific roles of each. Here we examined the developmental roles of the TIP55 isoform of the KAT5 histone acetyltransferase. In contrast to the pre-implantation lethal phenotype of mice lacking all four Kat5 transcripts, mice specifically deficient for Tip55 die around embryonic day 11.5 (E11.5). Prior to developmental arrest, defects in heart ...


Extracellular Vesicles In Oral Squamous Carcinoma Carry Oncogenic Mirna Profile And Reprogram Monocytes Via Nf-Kappab Pathway, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala Oct 2018

Extracellular Vesicles In Oral Squamous Carcinoma Carry Oncogenic Mirna Profile And Reprogram Monocytes Via Nf-Kappab Pathway, Fatemeh Momen-Heravi, Shashi Bala

Open Access Articles

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are carriers of different biomacromolecules that participate in cellular signaling and disease pathogenesis. Although it has been shown that EVs can play an active role in cellular communication and different stages of cancer progression, the role of EVs in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cancer pathogenesis, especially in the crosstalk of cancer cells with immune cells is unknown. Here, we present a detailed analysis of findings regarding the profile of EVs in OSCC and the role of EVs and associated miRNAs in the crosstalk of malignant cells with monocytes. We demonstrate that EVs are detectable in significantly ...


Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee Oct 2018

Nanoparticle Microarray For High-Throughput Microbiome Metabolomics Using Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry, Rebecca L. Hansen, Maria Emilia Duenas, Torey Looft, Young Jin Lee

Chemistry Publications

A high-throughput matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI)-MS-based metabolomics platform was developed using a pre-fabricated microarray of nanoparticles and organic matrices. Selected organic matrices, inorganic nanoparticle (NP) suspensions, and sputter coated metal NPs, as well as various additives, were tested for metabolomics analysis of the turkey gut microbiome. Four NPs and one organic matrix were selected as the optimal matrix set: α-cyano-4-hydroycinnamic acid, Fe3O4 and Au NPs in positive ion mode with 10 mM sodium acetate, and Cu and Ag NPs in negative ion mode with no additive. Using this set of five matrices, over two thousand unique ...


Disrupted Asymmetry Of Inter- And Intra-Hemispheric Functional Connectivity In Patients With Drug-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia And Their Unaffected Siblings, Furong Zhu, Feng Liu, Wenbin Guo, Jindong Chen, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Huabing Li, Xiaoduo Fan, Jingping Zhao Oct 2018

Disrupted Asymmetry Of Inter- And Intra-Hemispheric Functional Connectivity In Patients With Drug-Naive, First-Episode Schizophrenia And Their Unaffected Siblings, Furong Zhu, Feng Liu, Wenbin Guo, Jindong Chen, Qinji Su, Zhikun Zhang, Huabing Li, Xiaoduo Fan, Jingping Zhao

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Lack of normal asymmetry in the brain has been reported in patients with schizophrenia. However, it remains unclear whether disrupted asymmetry originates from inter-hemispheric functional connectivity (FC) and/or intra-hemispheric FC in this patient population.

METHODS: Forty-four patients with drug-naive, first-episode schizophrenia, 42 unaffected siblings, and 44 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scan. The parameter of asymmetry (PAS) and support vector machine (SVM) were used to analyze the data. Patients were treated with olanzapine for 8 weeks.

FINDINGS: Compared with healthy controls, patients showed lower PAS scores in the left middle temporal gyrus (MTG)/inferior ...


Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman Oct 2018

Use Of Structural Equation Models To Predict Dengue Illness Phenotype, Sangshin Park, Anon Srikiatkhachorn, Siripen Kalayanarooj, Louis Macareo, Sharone Green, Jennifer F. Friedman, Alan L. Rothman

Open Access Articles

BACKGROUND: Early recognition of dengue, particularly patients at risk for plasma leakage, is important to clinical management. The objective of this study was to build predictive models for dengue, dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) using structural equation modelling (SEM), a statistical method that evaluates mechanistic pathways.

METHODS/FINDINGS: We performed SEM using data from 257 Thai children enrolled within 72 h of febrile illness onset, 156 with dengue and 101 with non-dengue febrile illnesses. Models for dengue, DHF, and DSS were developed based on data obtained three and one day(s) prior to fever resolution (fever ...


Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 (Irak4) Plays A Dual Role In Myddosome Formation And Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, Dominic De Nardo, Katherine R. Balka, Yamel Cardona Gloria, Vikram R. Rao, Eicke Latz, Seth L. Masters Sep 2018

Interleukin-1 Receptor-Associated Kinase 4 (Irak4) Plays A Dual Role In Myddosome Formation And Toll-Like Receptor Signaling, Dominic De Nardo, Katherine R. Balka, Yamel Cardona Gloria, Vikram R. Rao, Eicke Latz, Seth L. Masters

Open Access Articles

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) form part of the host innate immune system, in which they act as sensors of microbial and endogenous danger signals. Upon TLR activation, the intracellular Toll/interleukin-1 receptor domains of TLR dimers initiate oligomerization of a multiprotein signaling platform comprising myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and members of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family. Formation of this myddosome complex initiates signal transduction pathways, leading to the activation of transcription factors and the production of inflammatory cytokines. To date, little is known about the assembly and disassembly of the myddosome and about the mechanisms by which these ...


Angiomotins Stimulate Lats Kinase Autophosphorylation And Act As Scaffolds That Promote Hippo Signaling, Sebastian Mana-Capelli, Dannel Mccollum Sep 2018

Angiomotins Stimulate Lats Kinase Autophosphorylation And Act As Scaffolds That Promote Hippo Signaling, Sebastian Mana-Capelli, Dannel Mccollum

Open Access Articles

The Hippo pathway controls cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival by regulating the YAP transcriptional coactivator in response to various stimuli, including the mechanical environment. The major YAP regulators are the LATS1/2 kinases, which phosphorylate and inhibit YAP. LATS1/2 are activated by phosphorylation on a hydrophobic motif (HM) outside the kinase domain by MST1/2 and other kinases. Phosphorylation of the HM motif then triggers autophosphorylation of the kinase in the activation loop (AL) to fully activate the kinase, a process facilitated by MOB1. The angiomotin family of proteins (AMOT, AMOTL1, and AMOTL2) bind LATS1/2 and promote its ...


Modulation Of Cav1.3b L-Type Calcium Channels By M1 Muscarinic Receptors Varies With Cavbeta Subunit Expression, Mandy L. Roberts-Crowley, Ann R. Rittenhouse Sep 2018

Modulation Of Cav1.3b L-Type Calcium Channels By M1 Muscarinic Receptors Varies With Cavbeta Subunit Expression, Mandy L. Roberts-Crowley, Ann R. Rittenhouse

Open Access Articles

OBJECTIVES: We examined whether two G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), muscarinic M1 receptors (M1Rs) and dopaminergic D2 receptors (D2Rs), utilize endogenously released fatty acid to inhibit L-type Ca(2+) channels, CaV1.3. HEK-293 cells, stably transfected with M1Rs, were used to transiently transfect D2Rs and CaV1.3b with different CaVbeta-subunits, allowing for whole-cell current measurement from a pure channel population.

RESULTS: M1R activation with Oxotremorine-M inhibited currents from CaV1.3b coexpressed with alpha2delta-1 and a beta1b, beta2a, beta3, or beta4-subunit. Surprisingly, the magnitude of inhibition was less with beta2a than with other CaVbeta-subunits. Normalizing currents revealed kinetic changes after modulation with ...


Co-Dependent Assembly Of Drosophila Pirna Precursor Complexes And Pirna Cluster Heterochromatin, Gen Zhang, Shikui Tu, Tianxiong Yu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Swapnil S. Parhad, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf Sep 2018

Co-Dependent Assembly Of Drosophila Pirna Precursor Complexes And Pirna Cluster Heterochromatin, Gen Zhang, Shikui Tu, Tianxiong Yu, Xiao-Ou Zhang, Swapnil S. Parhad, Zhiping Weng, William E. Theurkauf

Open Access Articles

In Drosophila, the piRNAs that guide germline transposon silencing are produced from heterochromatic clusters marked by the HP1 homolog Rhino. We show that Rhino promotes cluster transcript association with UAP56 and the THO complex, forming RNA-protein assemblies that are unique to piRNA precursors. UAP56 and THO are ubiquitous RNA-processing factors, and null alleles of uap56 and the THO subunit gene tho2 are lethal. However, uap56(sz15) and mutations in the THO subunit genes thoc5 and thoc7 are viable but sterile and disrupt piRNA biogenesis. The uap56(sz15) allele reduces UAP56 binding to THO, and the thoc5 and thoc7 mutations disrupt ...


The Chapman Bone Algorithm: A Diagnostic Alternative For The Evaluation Of Osteoporosis, Elise Levesque, Anton Ketterer, Wajiha Memon, Cameron James, Noah Barrett, Cyril Rakovski, Frank Frisch Sep 2018

The Chapman Bone Algorithm: A Diagnostic Alternative For The Evaluation Of Osteoporosis, Elise Levesque, Anton Ketterer, Wajiha Memon, Cameron James, Noah Barrett, Cyril Rakovski, Frank Frisch

Mathematics, Physics, and Computer Science Faculty Articles and Research

Osteoporosis is the most common metabolic bone disease and goes largely undiagnosed throughout the world, due to the inaccessibility of DXA machines. Multivariate analyses of serum bone turnover markers were evaluated in 226 Orange County, California, residents with the intent to determine if serum osteocalcin and serum pyridinoline cross-links could be used to detect the onset of osteoporosis as effectively as a DXA scan. Descriptive analyses of the demographic and lab characteristics of the participants were performed through frequency, means and standard deviation estimations. We implemented logistic regression modeling to find the best classification algorithm for osteoporosis. All calculations and ...


Defective Cortex Glia Plasma Membrane Structure Underlies Light-Induced Epilepsy In Cpes Mutants, Govind Kunduri, Daniel Turner-Evans, Yutaka Konya, Yoshihiro Izumi, Kunio Nagashima, Stephen Lockett, Joost Holthuis, Takeshi Bamba, Usha Acharya, Jairaj K. Acharya Sep 2018

Defective Cortex Glia Plasma Membrane Structure Underlies Light-Induced Epilepsy In Cpes Mutants, Govind Kunduri, Daniel Turner-Evans, Yutaka Konya, Yoshihiro Izumi, Kunio Nagashima, Stephen Lockett, Joost Holthuis, Takeshi Bamba, Usha Acharya, Jairaj K. Acharya

Open Access Articles

Seizures induced by visual stimulation (photosensitive epilepsy; PSE) represent a common type of epilepsy in humans, but the molecular mechanisms and genetic drivers underlying PSE remain unknown, and no good genetic animal models have been identified as yet. Here, we show an animal model of PSE, in Drosophila, owing to defective cortex glia. The cortex glial membranes are severely compromised in ceramide phosphoethanolamine synthase (cpes)-null mutants and fail to encapsulate the neuronal cell bodies in the Drosophila neuronal cortex. Expression of human sphingomyelin synthase 1, which synthesizes the closely related ceramide phosphocholine (sphingomyelin), rescues the cortex glial abnormalities and ...


Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walther Sep 2018

Experimental Evaluation Of The Importance Of Colonization History In Early-Life Gut Microbiota Assembly, Inés Martínez, Maria X. Maldonado-Gomez, João Carlos Gomes-Neto, Hatem Kittana, Hua Ding, Robert J. Schmaltz, Payal Joglekar, Roberto Jiménez Cardona, Nathan L Marsteller, Steven W. Kembel, Andrew K. Benson, Daniel A. Peterson, Amanda Ramer-Tait, Jens C. Walther

Faculty Publications in Food Science and Technology

The factors that govern assembly of the gut microbiota are insufficiently understood. Here, we test the hypothesis that inter-individual microbiota variation can arise solely from differences in the order and timing by which the gut is colonized early in life. Experiments in which mice were inoculated in sequence either with two complex seed communities or a cocktail of four bacterial strains and a seed community revealed that colonization order influenced both the outcome of community assembly and the ecological success of individual colonizers. Historical contingency and priority effects also occurred in Rag1-/- mice, suggesting that the adaptive immune system is ...


Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Grace Lauren Holloway, Gloria D. Sclar, Reuben Levy-Myers, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai, Oliver Kerscher Sep 2018

Sumo-Targeted Ubiquitin Ligases (Stubls) Reduce The Toxicity And Abnormal Transcriptional Activity Associated With A Mutant, Aggregation-Prone Fragment Of Huntingtin, Kentaro Ohkuni, Nagesh Pasupala, Jennifer Peek, Grace Lauren Holloway, Gloria D. Sclar, Reuben Levy-Myers, Richard E. Baker, Munira A. Basrai, Oliver Kerscher

Open Access Articles

Cell viability and gene expression profiles are altered in cellular models of neurodegenerative disorders such as Huntington's Disease (HD). Using the yeast model system, we show that the SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase (STUbL) Slx5 reduces the toxicity and abnormal transcriptional activity associated with a mutant, aggregation-prone fragment of huntingtin (Htt), the causative agent of HD. We demonstrate that expression of an aggregation-prone Htt construct with 103 glutamine residues (103Q), but not the non-expanded form (25Q), results in severe growth defects in slx5Delta and slx8Delta cells. Since Slx5 is a nuclear protein and because Htt expression affects gene transcription, we assessed ...


Opposing Roles Of Fancj And Hltf Protect Forks And Restrain Replication During Stress, Min Peng, Ke Cong, Nicholas J. Panzarino, Sumeet Nayak, Jennifer Calvo, Bin Deng, Lihua Julie Zhu, Monika Morocz, Lili Hegedus, Lajos Haracska, Sharon B. Cantor Sep 2018

Opposing Roles Of Fancj And Hltf Protect Forks And Restrain Replication During Stress, Min Peng, Ke Cong, Nicholas J. Panzarino, Sumeet Nayak, Jennifer Calvo, Bin Deng, Lihua Julie Zhu, Monika Morocz, Lili Hegedus, Lajos Haracska, Sharon B. Cantor

Open Access Articles

The DNA helicase FANCJ is mutated in hereditary breast and ovarian cancer and Fanconi anemia (FA). Nevertheless, how loss of FANCJ translates to disease pathogenesis remains unclear. We addressed this question by analyzing proteins associated with replication forks in cells with or without FANCJ. We demonstrate that FANCJ-knockout (FANCJ-KO) cells have alterations in the replisome that are consistent with enhanced replication stress, including an aberrant accumulation of the fork remodeling factor helicase-like transcription factor (HLTF). Correspondingly, HLTF contributes to fork degradation in FANCJ-KO cells. Unexpectedly, the unrestrained DNA synthesis that characterizes HLTF-deficient cells is FANCJ dependent and correlates with S1 ...


Treatment Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells With The Canady Cold Plasma Conversion System: Preliminary Results, Xiaoqian Cheng, Warren Rowe, Lawan Ly, Alexey Shashurin, Taisen Zhuang, Shruti Wigh, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady Sep 2018

Treatment Of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Cells With The Canady Cold Plasma Conversion System: Preliminary Results, Xiaoqian Cheng, Warren Rowe, Lawan Ly, Alexey Shashurin, Taisen Zhuang, Shruti Wigh, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady

Open Access Articles

Triple-negative breast cancer is a phenotype of breast cancer where the expression level of estrogen, progesterone and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) receptors are low or absent. It is more frequently diagnosed in younger and premenopausal women, among which African and Hispanic have a higher rate. Cold atmospheric plasma has revealed its promising ant-cancer capacity over the past two decades. In this study, we report the first cold plasma jet delivered by the Canady Cold Plasma Conversion Unit and characterization of its electric and thermal parameters. The unit effectively reduced the viability of triple-negative breast cancer up to ...


The Canady Helios Cold Plasma Scalpel Significantly Decreases Viability In Malignant Solid Tumor Cells In A Dose-Dependent Manner, Warren Rowe, Xiaoqian Cheng, Lawan Ly, Taisen Zhuang, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady Sep 2018

The Canady Helios Cold Plasma Scalpel Significantly Decreases Viability In Malignant Solid Tumor Cells In A Dose-Dependent Manner, Warren Rowe, Xiaoqian Cheng, Lawan Ly, Taisen Zhuang, Giacomo Basadonna, Barry Trink, Michael Keidar, Jerome Canady

Open Access Articles

To determine appropriate treatment doses of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP), the Canady Helios Cold Plasma Scalpel was tested across numerous cancer cell types including renal adenocarcinoma, colorectal carcinoma, pancreatic adenocarcinoma, ovarian adenocarcinoma, and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Various CAP doses were tested consisting of both high (3 L/min) and low (1 L/min) helium flow rates, several power settings, and a range of treatment times up to 5 min. The impact of cold plasma on the reduction of viability was consistently dose-dependent; however, the anti-cancer capability varied significantly between cell lines. While the lowest effective dose varied from cell line to ...


The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri Sep 2018

The Effects Of Tracheal Occlusion On Wnt Signaling In A Rabbit Model Of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia, Martina M. Mudri

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Purpose: Tracheal occlusion (TO) reverses pulmonary hypoplasia (PH) in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), but its effect on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in lung development remains poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to a) confirm the CDH rabbit model produced PH which was reversed by TO and b) determine the effects of CDH +/- TO on EMT pathways.

Methods: CDH was created at 23 days, TO at 28 days and lung collection at 31 days gestation in fetal rabbits. Lung body weight ratio (LBWR), mean terminal bronchiole density (MTBD), and expression of mRNA and micro-RNA was determined.

Results: Fifteen CDH, 15 ...


Nuclear Localization Of Huntingtin Mrna Is Specific To Cells Of Neuronal Origin, Marie C. Didiot, Chantal M. Ferguson, Socheata Ly, Andrew H. Coles, Abigail O. Smith, Alicia A. Bicknell, Lauren M. Hall, Ellen Sapp, Dimas Echeverria, Athma A. Pai, Marian Difiglia, Melissa J. Moore, Lawrence J. Hayward, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova Sep 2018

Nuclear Localization Of Huntingtin Mrna Is Specific To Cells Of Neuronal Origin, Marie C. Didiot, Chantal M. Ferguson, Socheata Ly, Andrew H. Coles, Abigail O. Smith, Alicia A. Bicknell, Lauren M. Hall, Ellen Sapp, Dimas Echeverria, Athma A. Pai, Marian Difiglia, Melissa J. Moore, Lawrence J. Hayward, Neil Aronin, Anastasia Khvorova

RNA Therapeutics Institute Publications

Huntington's disease (HD) is a monogenic neurodegenerative disorder representing an ideal candidate for gene silencing with oligonucleotide therapeutics (i.e., antisense oligonucleotides [ASOs] and small interfering RNAs [siRNAs]). Using an ultra-sensitive branched fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method, we show that approximately 50% of wild-type HTT mRNA localizes to the nucleus and that its nuclear localization is observed only in neuronal cells. In mouse brain sections, we detect Htt mRNA predominantly in neurons, with a wide range of Htt foci observed per cell. We further show that siRNAs and ASOs efficiently eliminate cytoplasmic HTT mRNA and HTT protein, but ...


Differential Expression Of Zinc Transporters Accompanies The Differentiation Of C2c12 Myoblasts, Amanda L. Paskavitz, Julia Quintana, Daniella Cangussu, Cristina Tavera-Montanez, Yao Xiao, Sonia Ortiz-Mirnada, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides Sep 2018

Differential Expression Of Zinc Transporters Accompanies The Differentiation Of C2c12 Myoblasts, Amanda L. Paskavitz, Julia Quintana, Daniella Cangussu, Cristina Tavera-Montanez, Yao Xiao, Sonia Ortiz-Mirnada, Juan G. Navea, Teresita Padilla-Benavides

Open Access Articles

Zinc transporters facilitate metal mobilization and compartmentalization, playing a key role in cellular development. Little is known about the mechanisms and pathways of Zn movement between Zn transporters and metalloproteins during myoblast differentiation. We analyzed the differential expression of ZIP and ZnT transporters during C2C12 myoblast differentiation. Zn transporters account for a transient decrease of intracellular Zn upon myogenesis induction followed by a gradual increase of Zn in myotubes. Considering the subcellular localization and function of each of the Zn transporters, our findings indicate that a fine regulation is necessary to maintain correct metal concentrations in the cytosol and subcellular ...


Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar Sep 2018

Comparative Analysis Of Body Composition And Reference Values Of Visceral Adipose Tissues In Various American Collegiate Sports, Eshan M. Dandekar

Master's Theses and Project Reports

Background: Currently, body composition (BC) assessment is usually performed to diagnose disease states and accurately estimate certain types of tissues. In athletes, performing BC assessments helps gauge training and nutrition programs to see if they are adequately meeting the athlete’s needs to improve performance. Annual Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA) scans before the start of an athlete’s season can help identify an athlete’s preparedness or health before training begins.

Objective: To assess the preseason BC of four collegiate sports: Men’s basketball, men’s baseball, women’s volleyball, and women’s soccer, for Fat Mass (FM), bone ...


Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Exports Endocannabinoids To Prevent Inflammation And Maintain Homeostasis, Rose L. Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage Foley, Christina S. Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J. Olive, Randall J. Mrsny, Beth A. Mccormick Aug 2018

Intestinal P-Glycoprotein Exports Endocannabinoids To Prevent Inflammation And Maintain Homeostasis, Rose L. Szabady, Christopher Louissaint, Anneke Lubben, Bailu Xie, Shaun Reeksting, Christine Tuohy, Zachary Demma, Sage Foley, Christina S. Faherty, Alejandro Llanos-Chea, Andrew J. Olive, Randall J. Mrsny, Beth A. Mccormick

Open Access Articles

Neutrophil influx into the intestinal lumen is a critical response to infectious agents, but is also associated with severe intestinal damage observed in idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease. The chemoattractant hepoxilin A3, an eicosanoid secreted from intestinal epithelial cells by the apically restricted efflux pump multidrug resistance protein 2 (MRP2), mediates this neutrophil influx. Information about a possible counterbalance pathway that could signal the lack of or resolution of an apical inflammatory signal, however, has yet to be described. We now report a system with such hallmarks. Specifically, we identify endocannabinoids as the first known endogenous substrates of the apically restricted ...