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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung Jan 2019

Evaluating Methods Of Obtaining Male Pheromone From Hymenochirus Sp. Using Analytical Chemistry, Vincent Wing-Kun Leung

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Male Hymenochirus sp. frogs are known to release pheromone that attracts females of the same species. Four methods for collecting secretions containing pheromone in Hymenochirus sp. were tested: norepinephrine injection, gonadotropin-releasing hormone injection, homogenization of gland tissue, and electrostimulation of the skin over the breeding gland area. The samples collected were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrometry. The HPLC chromatograph for the male norepinephrine sample contained a peak at 6.4 min that was not in the female norepinephrine sample HPLC chromatograph. The male norepinephrine sample mass spectrum had a peak of m/z 292.0 not ...


Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade Jan 2019

Development Of A Biomarker Panel For Identifying Stressed Marine Mammals, Laura Pujade

University of the Pacific Theses and Dissertations

Increasing anthropogenic disturbance in marine ecosystems such as fishing, oil-drilling, and noise pollution can have detrimental effects on the reproduction and survival of apex predators such as marine mammals. Stress activates the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in increased circulating glucocorticoid (GCs) hormones, which alter expression of target genes encoding metabolic enzymes and other mediators of stress. Prolonged HPA axis stimulation may increase catabolism of nutrient stores and suppress immune and reproductive functions, impacting the fitness of marine mammals. GCs measurements are used to identify wild animals experiencing stress. However, these measurements may not be sensitive enough to distinguish between an ...


On The Molecular Biology And Evolution Of Plant Parasitism By Nematodes, Jason Brett Noon Jan 2016

On The Molecular Biology And Evolution Of Plant Parasitism By Nematodes, Jason Brett Noon

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are among the most devastating plant pathogens. However, our understanding of how nematodes adapted to plant parasitism, and the molecular mechanisms that PPN use during infection is limited. Among the most important genomic changes that occurred in the free-living nematode ancestors of PPN were multiple horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from bacteria. Though it is clear that HGT helped shape the genomes of many PPN, how this process occurred is unknown. Also, it is evident that successful parasitism occurs from the delivery of proteinaceous effectors into plant roots to hijack and modify host cellular processes.

The research ...


Ex Vivo Dna Cloning, Adam B. Fisher Jan 2015

Ex Vivo Dna Cloning, Adam B. Fisher

Theses and Dissertations

Genetic engineering of microbes has developed rapidly along with our ability to synthesize DNA de novo. Yet, even with decreasing DNA synthesis costs there remains a need for inexpensive, rapid and reliable methods for assembling synthetic DNA into larger constructs or combinatorial libraries. While technological advances have resulted in powerful techniques for in vitro and in vivo assembly of DNA, each suffers inherent disadvantages. Here, an ex vivo DNA cloning suite using crude cellular lysates derived from E. coli is demonstrated to amplify and assemble DNA containing small sequence homologies. Further, the advantages of an ex vivo approach are leveraged ...


Biochemistry Of 1, 2-Dehydro-N-Acetyldopamine Derivatives, Adal T. Abebe Jun 2013

Biochemistry Of 1, 2-Dehydro-N-Acetyldopamine Derivatives, Adal T. Abebe

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

Dehydrodopa/dopamine derivatives form an important group of biomolecules participating in sclerotization of all arthropod cuticles, gluing and cementing mussels and related organisms to solid surfaces, and defense reactions of countless marine and invertebrate organisms. Yet very little information is available on the biochemistry of these highly reactive and unstable molecules. To understand their physiological role, I conducted a thorough biochemical study on three representative compounds that cover the entire plethora of dehydrodopa/dopamine derivatives. Employing diode array UV-visible spectroscopy, HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry, I investigated the oxidation chemistry of 1,2-dehydro-N-acetyldopamine (dehydro NADA ...


In Vitro Assessment Of The Toxicity Of Cocaine And Its Metabolites In The Human Umbilical Artery, Tessa L. Long Aug 1998

In Vitro Assessment Of The Toxicity Of Cocaine And Its Metabolites In The Human Umbilical Artery, Tessa L. Long

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

An in vitro model was used to assess the effect of cocaine and its metabolites on the umbilical artery. Objectives were to pharmacologically confirm the presence of adrenergic innervation using tyramine, evaluate the ability of cocaine, benzoylecgonine, norcocaine and cocaethylene to potentiate vasoconstriction by serotonin and norepinephrine, examine the ability of ketanserin to block the enhanced vasoconstriction produced by cocaine, and determine displacement of 3 H-ketanserin by serotonin, norepinephrine, tyramine and mianserin. The vasoconstrictive effect of tyramine (100 μM) was enhanced in the presence of cocaine by 257%. Vasoconstrictive effects of serotonin and norepinephrine were significantly enhanced by cocaine by ...


The Influence Of A Human Repetitive Dna On Genome Stability, Eugenia L. Posey May 1998

The Influence Of A Human Repetitive Dna On Genome Stability, Eugenia L. Posey

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A uniquely human interspersed repetitive DNA sequence family, the L2Hs, are highly polymorphic in human genomes. Several features of interspersed repeated DNA may contribute to the instability observed. Certain motifs (direct repeats, palindromes, and inverted repeats) comprising L2Hs elements may adopt unusual secondary structures such as cruciforms or hairpins. These motifs have been associated with features of genome instability in recombination, insertions and deletions. The L2Hs elements also are AT-rich (76%) compared to the bulk of human DNA (52%). That their dynamic nature (i.e. polymorphisms) may arise from recombination, insertions and deletions has led to the hypothesis that the ...


Epigenetic Effects Of Matrix Attachment Regions On Transgene Expression In A Maize Callus Line , Cory Ray Brouwer Jan 1998

Epigenetic Effects Of Matrix Attachment Regions On Transgene Expression In A Maize Callus Line , Cory Ray Brouwer

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Matrix attachment regions (MARs) are DNA sequences that bind non-histone proteins in the chromatin scaffold and define discrete loops of DNA containing expressed genes in vivo. I have been studying the effects of flanking transgenes with MARs on transgene expression levels in BMS maize callus. Three MAR elements, two from maize (Adhl 5' MAR and Mhal 5' MAR) and one from yeast (ARS1), have very different effects on transgene expression that bear no relation to their affinity for the nuclear matrix in vitro. The main effect of MARs is to prevent silencing of some (but not all) transgenes, at least ...


Endogenous Alkylglycerol Functions As A Mediator Of Protein Kinase C Activity And Cell Proliferation, Fritz G. Buchanan May 1997

Endogenous Alkylglycerol Functions As A Mediator Of Protein Kinase C Activity And Cell Proliferation, Fritz G. Buchanan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

To explore the possibility that 1-O-alkyl-sn-glycerol (alkylglycerol) may serve a regulatory role in the control of cell proliferation or PKC activity, we examined the ability of alkylglycerol to influence PKC activity and subcellular distribution as well as the ability of alkylglycerol to effect cell proliferation. MDCK cells grown to confluence show a loss of PKC activity associated with the membrane, as reported in fibroblasts. Preconfluent cultures of MDCK cells have a high level of PKC activity associated with the membrane. However, treatment of preconfluent cultures with alkylglycerol causes a reduction of PKC activity. A similar inhibition was observed with alkylglycerol ...


Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill May 1995

Moraxella (Branhamella) Catarrhalis: A Molecular Epidemiology Study, Lyndell R. Gill

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis is the third-most-frequently isolated microorganism associated with acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis in patients during their stay at the Mountain Home VA Medical Center (MHVAMC). In order to develop a practical, epidemiologically-meaningful typing method for M. (B.) catarrhalis, we tested two methods based on analysis of chromosomal DNA for typeability, reproducibility, and ability to differentiate between unrelated strains (discriminatory power, D). M. (B.) catarrhalis isolants from MHVAMC from 7/1/87-6/30/88 were grown overnight in broth and embedded in agarose. DNA was isolated by standard methods. The DNA was subjected to: (1) restriction endonuclease digestion ...


Molecular Mechanisms Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Adherence To Swine Respiratory Epithelial Cells, Qijing Zhang Jan 1994

Molecular Mechanisms Of Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae Adherence To Swine Respiratory Epithelial Cells, Qijing Zhang

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

A microtiter plate adherence assay for Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae was established by using purified swine tracheal cilia which are the natural targets for the mycoplasma. M. hyopneumoniae bound specifically to solubilized cilia immobilized onto microtiter plates. Dextran sulfate, heparin, chondroitin sulfate, laminin, mucin, and fucoidan significantly inhibited binding of the mycoplasmas to cilia. Heparin, mucin, fucoidan, and chondroitin sulfate interacted with the adhesins on the surface of mycoplasmas, whereas laminin blocked the receptors in cilia. Treatment of cilia with neuraminidase appeared to promote adherence of the mycoplasmas; whereas, treatment of cilia with sodium metaperiodate decreased the binding. In the second study ...


Unusual Structure Of A Human Middle Repetitive Dna, Duminda D. Ratnasinghe Dec 1993

Unusual Structure Of A Human Middle Repetitive Dna, Duminda D. Ratnasinghe

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The L2Hs sequences are a polymorphic, interspersed, middle repetitive DNA family unique to human genomes. Genomic fingerprinting indicates that these DNAs vary from one individual to another and between tissues of the same individual. Sequence analysis reveals that they are AT-rich (76%) and contain many unusual sequence arrangements (palindromes, inverted and direct repeats). These sequence properties confer on the L2Hs elements the potential to fold into non-B-form structures, a characteristic of recombination hot spots. To test this hypothesis carbodiimide, osmium tetroxide and S$\sb1$ nuclease were used as single-strand specific probes to study a recombinant plasmid, pN6.4.39, containing ...


A Molecular Basis For Erythromycin Sensitivity And Resistance In Escherichia Coli, Harold S. Chittum Dec 1993

A Molecular Basis For Erythromycin Sensitivity And Resistance In Escherichia Coli, Harold S. Chittum

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The effect of erythromycin on the 50S ribosomal subunit during cell growth has been extensively investigated. Sucrose density gradient analysis of ribosomes formed in the presence and absence of the drug revealed a 50S specific assembly defect is partially responsible for erythromycin's inhibitory effects on wild type cells. Examination of two erythromycin-resistant mutants of E. coli (N281 and N282) revealed that mutant N281 (L22 mutant) but not N282 (L4 mutant) was assembly defective in the presence of the drug, although only at much higher drug concentrations (300 ug/ml vs. 75 ug/ml for wild type cells). The altered ...


Cloning, Sequencing, And Expression Of Brucella Abortus Heat Shock 70 Gene , Emily C. L. Chin Jan 1993

Cloning, Sequencing, And Expression Of Brucella Abortus Heat Shock 70 Gene , Emily C. L. Chin

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Brucella abortus is a gram negative bacteria that can infect and cause serious disease in many mammals including humans. Any organism, including Brucella, that can survive as an intracellular parasite must be able to survive the stress of a foreign and often hostile environment of the host. Stress usually results in a dramatic change in gene expression including an elevated synthesis of heat shock proteins;We have subcloned, sequenced and expressed the Brucella HSP70 and the upstream sequences. The gene was put under the control of the strong "tac" promoter. However, when expressed, we saw a high accumulation of a ...


Characterization Of Two Temperature-Sensitive Mutants Of Escherichia Coli Exhibiting An Altered L22 Ribosomal Protein, Bonnie A. Burnette-Vick Aug 1991

Characterization Of Two Temperature-Sensitive Mutants Of Escherichia Coli Exhibiting An Altered L22 Ribosomal Protein, Bonnie A. Burnette-Vick

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Analysis of E. coli strains SK1047 and SK1048 have shown them to be temperature-sensitive, protein-synthesis deficient. An alteration in ribosomal protein L22 was detected in both strains using two dimensional gel electrophoresis. Protein L22 was purified from both strains by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography and from two dimensional electrophoretic gels. Purified ribosomal protein L22 was labeled by reductive methylation and used in 23S RNA binding assays with and without ribosomal protein L4. At the permissive temperature, protein L22 from SK1047 bound less efficiently than the control while protein L22 from SK1048 bound as efficiently as the control. At ...


Mouse Mast Cell Proteases: Induction, Molecular Cloning, And Characterization, Wei Chu May 1991

Mouse Mast Cell Proteases: Induction, Molecular Cloning, And Characterization, Wei Chu

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Tryptase, a mast cell-specific serine protease with trypsin-like specificity, has been identified in a mouse mast cell line (ABFTL-6) based on it's enzymatic activity, inhibition properties, and cross-reactivity to a human mast cell tryptase antibody. The effects of fibroblast-conditioned medium and sodium butyrate on ABFTL-6 mast cell differentiation and tryptase expression have been examined. ABFTL-6 mouse mast cells undergo phenotypic changes upon culturing in media supplemented with fibroblast-conditioned media at 50% or 1 mM sodium butyrate. The induced cells increased in size, had larger and more metachromatic cytoplasmic granules, and increased their total cellular protein about four-fold. Tryptase activity ...


A Temperature-Sensitive Mutant Of Escherichia Coli Affected In The Alpha Subunit Of Rna Polymerase, Majid Mehrpouyan Dec 1990

A Temperature-Sensitive Mutant Of Escherichia Coli Affected In The Alpha Subunit Of Rna Polymerase, Majid Mehrpouyan

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

A temperature-sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli affected in the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase has been investigated. Gene mapping and complementation experiments placed the mutation to temperature-sensitivity within the alpha operon at 72 min on the bacterial chromosome. The rate of RNA synthesis in vivo and the accumulation of ribosomal RNA were significantly reduced in the mutant at 44$\sp\circ$C. The thermostability at 44$\sp\circ$C of the purified holoenzyme from mutant cells was about 20% of that of the normal enzyme. Assays with T7 DNA as a template showed that the fraction of active enzyme competent ...


Molecular Characterization Of The Yeast Gene Hsp60 , Donald Stevenson Reading Jan 1990

Molecular Characterization Of The Yeast Gene Hsp60 , Donald Stevenson Reading

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

In all organisms studied, heat shock or other stressful stimuli lead to profound changes in gene expression. During heat shock, a small group of evolutionarily conserved proteins, termed heat shock proteins (hsps), are synthesized in abunDance; Several hsps are known to have vital cellular function even at normal temperature. These hsps have the capacity to bind polypeptide chains and have a probable role in the folding, translocation, and assembly pathways of many proteins. One such protein, hsp60, is located within mitochondria, is highly conserved in evolution, and based on immunological and physical characterization, is a member of a family of ...


Isolation And Characterization Of Temperature-Sensitive Protein Synthesis Mutants Of Escherichia Coli By Directed Mutagenesis Of The Defective Bacteriophage Lambda Fus2, Kenton L. Lohman Dec 1985

Isolation And Characterization Of Temperature-Sensitive Protein Synthesis Mutants Of Escherichia Coli By Directed Mutagenesis Of The Defective Bacteriophage Lambda Fus2, Kenton L. Lohman

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Mutagenesis of the defective transducing bacteriophage lambda fus2 was used to isolate a collection of temperature-sensitive mutants of E. coli in the major ribosomal protein gene cluster. Four mutants were examined in detail. Two of the mutants were resistant to the ribosomal antibiotics neamine and spectinomycin. Another mutant was defective in 50S ribosomal subunit assembly at 42(DEGREES)C. The 30S subunit proteins S17 and S19 were changed in two different mutants. Each protein migrated as a more basic species in two-dimensional gels of ribosomal proteins. Ribosomes from each of the four mutants examined showed a temperature-dependent reduction in translational ...


Characterization Of Kpni Interspersed, Repetitive Dna Sequence Families And Their Association With The Nuclear Matrix, Joseph A. Chimera Dec 1984

Characterization Of Kpni Interspersed, Repetitive Dna Sequence Families And Their Association With The Nuclear Matrix, Joseph A. Chimera

Electronic Theses and Dissertations

The KpnI, 1.2 and 1.5 kb families of interspersed repetitive DNAs from the African green monkey genome were isolated and characterized. Each family contains three populations of segments based on their sequence lengths and susceptibility to cleavage by the restriction enzymes KpnI and RsaI. The first population contains the smallest segments which are susceptible to both KpnI and RsaI cleavage and have fragment lengths of 1.2 kb (1.2 kb family) and 1.5 kb (1.5 kb family) respectively. The members in this population are referred to as KpnI-sensitive segments. The second population contains longer segments ...