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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King Feb 2018

Functional And Structural Mimicry Of A-Kinase Anchoring Proteins By Human Adenovirus E1a, Cason R. King

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

As an obligate intracellular parasite, human adenovirus (HAdV) must utilize host factors for survival and replication. Early during infection, its multifunctional E1A protein interacts with an impressive range of cellular target proteins to exert control over the cellular environment. Through these virus-host interactions, E1A massively reprograms both viral and cellular transcription to activate the other HAdV genes, downregulate the host’s immune response, and induce the cell cycle. Consequently, E1A converts the infected cell into a compliant state more amenable for HAdV replication, resulting from its numerous protein-protein interactions. I sought to examine E1A’s interaction with cellular protein kinase ...


Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque Aug 2017

Amelioration Of Prenatal Alcohol Effects By Environmental Enrichment In A Mouse Model Of Fasd, Aniruddho Chokroborty-Hoque

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy results in a spectrum of behavioural and cognitive deficits collectively known as Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASD). Currently, little is know about if and how the external environment may modulate these deficits. I have used C57BL/6 mice to study this interaction between prenatal alcohol exposure and the postnatal environment. Alcohol exposure during synaptogenesis produces high levels of anxiety-like traits and decreased memory performance. Alcohol-exposed mice (and matched unexposed controls) were put in 'environmentally-enriched' conditions of voluntary exercise, physical activities and cognitive stimulation to ascertain the effects of a positive postnatal environment. The results show ...


The Cdk-Resistant Prb-E2f1 Complex Recruits Chromatin-Organizing Proteins To Repetitive Dna Sequences, Charles A. Ishak Apr 2017

The Cdk-Resistant Prb-E2f1 Complex Recruits Chromatin-Organizing Proteins To Repetitive Dna Sequences, Charles A. Ishak

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

This thesis investigates mechanistic links between genome integrity and the recruitment of chromatin organizing proteins to repetitive DNA sequences mediated by the retinoblastoma tumor suppressor protein (pRB). I demonstrate that a CDK-resistant interaction between the pRB C-terminus and the E2F1 coiled-coil marked box domain establishes a scaffold that facilitates recruitment of multiple chromatin-organizing proteins to repetitive sequences across the genome throughout the cell cycle. Specifically, pRB recruits the enhancer-of-zeste-homologue 2 (EZH2) histone methyltransferase to establish repressive facultative heterochromatin at repetitive sequences, and the Condensin II complex to ensure proper DNA replication and mitotic progression. To disrupt the CDK-resistant pRB-E2F1 interaction ...


Investigating E2f Independent Cell Cycle Control And Tumor Suppression By Prb, Michael J. Thwaites Apr 2017

Investigating E2f Independent Cell Cycle Control And Tumor Suppression By Prb, Michael J. Thwaites

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Cellular division is primarily controlled at the G1 to S-phase transition of the cell cycle by the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor protein (pRB). The ability of pRB to restrict S-phase entry is primarily attributed to the repression of E2F transcription factors required to upregulate cell cycle target genes necessary for cellular division. Interestingly, while pRB is disrupted in the vast majority of human cancers, mutations typically target upstream regulators of pRB leading to inactivation through hyperphosphorylation. The rarity of direct pRB mutations suggests that the regulation of the cell cycle by pRB may involve additional mechanisms outside of E2F repression, as this ...


The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan Feb 2017

The Effects Of Acetylenic Tricyclic Bis-(Cyano Enone) On Cell Migration, Eddie Chan

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Although cancer survival rates have significantly improved over the past few decades, the improvements are primarily due to early diagnosis and inhibiting cancer growth. Limited progress has been made in the treatment of cancer metastasis, which contributes to 90% of cancer related deaths, and therapeutic agents targeting the various aspects of metastasis are lacking. One potential approach is to utilize small pharmacological compounds to inhibit tumour cell motility, as a strategy against tumour cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. The acetylenic tricyclic bis-(cyano enone), TBE-31, has been shown to be a promising chemopreventative compound. However, its effects on cell migration ...


Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad Aug 2016

Cal And Magi Pdz Protein Regulation Of Crfr1 And 5-Ht2ar Trafficking And Signaling, Maha Mahmoud Hammad

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

PDZ (PSD95/Disc Large/Zona Occludens) domain-containing proteins are scaffolding proteins that play important roles in regulating the activity of G protein-coupled receptors. Corticotropin Releasing Factor Receptor 1 (CRFR1) and Serotonin 2A Receptor (5-HT2AR) are two GPCRs that are commonly associated with mental disorders. Both receptors also contain a class I PDZ-binding motif at the carboxyl terminal tail. In the first chapter, we investigate the effects of CAL (CFTR-associated ligand) on regulating the trafficking and signaling of CRFR1. We demonstrate a role for CAL in inhibiting CRFR1 endocytosis, cell surface expression, and CRF-mediated ERK1/2 signaling via the ...


Regulation Of Phosphatase And Tensin Homolog Expression And Activity By Transforming Growth-Factor Beta In The Trabecular Meshwork Cells: Implications For Primary Open Angle Glaucoma, Nikoleta Tellios Jun 2016

Regulation Of Phosphatase And Tensin Homolog Expression And Activity By Transforming Growth-Factor Beta In The Trabecular Meshwork Cells: Implications For Primary Open Angle Glaucoma, Nikoleta Tellios

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Glaucoma is a multifactorial condition caused, in part, by fibrosis of the sieve-like trabecular meshwork (TM) tissue, which impedes drainage of aqueous humor (AH), leading to increased intraocular pressure and associated optic nerve damage and blindness. Fibrosis of the TM is mainly caused by the increased levels of active transforming growth factor-β 2 (TGFβ2) in the AH of glaucoma patients.

Previous reports have shown that TGFβ decreases the expression of Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) gene and that PTEN is a major regulator of ECM deposition. In this study we investigate the regulation of PTEN protein expression and activity by ...


A Unified Framework For The Prioritization Of Variants Of Uncertain Significance In Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer Patients, Natasha G. Caminsky Sep 2015

A Unified Framework For The Prioritization Of Variants Of Uncertain Significance In Hereditary Breast And Ovarian Cancer Patients, Natasha G. Caminsky

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

A significant proportion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (HBOC) patients receive uninformative genetic testing results, an issue exacerbated by the overwhelming quantity of variants of uncertain significance identified. This thesis describes a framework where, aside from protein coding changes, information theory (IT)-based sequence analysis identifies and prioritizes pathogenic variants occurring within sequence elements predicted to be recognized by proteins involved in mRNA splicing, transcription, and untranslated region binding and structure. To support the utilization of IT analysis, we established IT-based variant interpretation accuracy by performing a comprehensive review of mutations altering mRNA splicing in rare and common diseases ...


Analyzing A-Series Gangliosides In Neurons Following Exposure To Glutamate, Dae Hee Park Aug 2015

Analyzing A-Series Gangliosides In Neurons Following Exposure To Glutamate, Dae Hee Park

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Neurons within different brain regions have varying levels of vulnerability to external stress and therefore respond differently to injury. A potential reason to explain this may lie within a key lipid class of the cell’s plasma membrane called gangliosides. These glycosphingolipid species have been shown to play various roles in the maintenance of neuronal viability. The purpose of this study is to use electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) technique and immunohistochemistry to evaluate the temporal changes in the expression profiles of various ganglioside species during the course of neurodegeneration in rat primary cortical neurons exposed to glutamate toxicity. Primary ...


Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim Dec 2013

Characterizing The Human Vaginal Microbiome Using High-Throughput Sequencing, Jean Megan E. Macklaim

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The human vaginal microbiome undoubtedly has a significant role in reproductive health and for protection from infectious organisms. Recent efforts to characterize the bacterial species of the vagina using molecular techniques have uncovered an unexpected diversity. Using high-throughput sequencing I sought to describe the structure and function of the vaginal microbiome under different physiological states including healthy, bacterial vaginosis (BV), post-menopausal vaginal atrophy, and acute vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC).

Partial 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that healthy, asymptomatic women most often have vaginal biotas dominated by Lactobacillus iners or L. crispatus. In contrast, BV is a heterogeneous, highly diversified condition with ...


Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes Dec 2013

Exploring The Structure And Biochemistry Of Oxidation-Mediated Inhibitation Of The Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase Pin1, Brendan T. Innes

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Pin1 is a phosphorylation-dependent peptidyl-prolyl isomerase that has been shown to be neuroprotective in aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, it is not active in AD brain, and a recent proteomic screen of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) brain samples revealed that Pin1 is oxidized in the brains of these pre-AD patients. This suggests that this oxidation may be the cause of the loss of the neuroprotective Pin1 function in AD. The Pin1 active site contains a functionally critical cysteine residue (Cys113) with a low predicted pKa, making it highly susceptible to oxidation. We hypothesize that Pin1 ...


Human Adenovirus E1a Binds And Retasks Cellular Hbre1, Blocking Interferon Signalling And Activating Virus Early Gene Transcription, Gregory J. Fonseca Jun 2013

Human Adenovirus E1a Binds And Retasks Cellular Hbre1, Blocking Interferon Signalling And Activating Virus Early Gene Transcription, Gregory J. Fonseca

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Upon infection, human adenovirus (HAdV) must block interferon signaling and activate the expression of its early genes to reprogram the cellular environment to support virus replication. During the initial phase of infection, these processes are orchestrated by the first HAdV gene expressed during infection, early region 1A (E1A). E1A binds and appropriates components of the cellular transcriptional machinery to modulate cellular gene transcription and activate viral early genes transcription. We have identified hBre1/RNF20 as a novel target of E1A. hBre1 is an E3 ubiquitin ligase which acts with the Ube2b E2 conjugase and accessory factors RNF40 and WAC1 to ...


Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic Jun 2013

Regulation Of Lipid Homeostasis, Inflammatory Signalling And Atherosclerosis By The Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta, Lazar A. Bojic

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) δ is a ligand-dependent transcription factor that has been implicated in metabolic and inflammatory regulation. The molecular and physiological mechanisms by which PPARδ activation regulates lipid metabolism, inflammatory signaling and protection from atherosclerosis in states of metabolic disturbance such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, were investigated in a series of in vitro and in vivo studies. In vitro experiments demonstrated that PPARδ activation inhibits atherogenic lipoprotein-induced lipid accumulation and the associated proinflammatory responses. The primary mechanisms for these effects were increased fatty acid β-oxidation, decreased lipoprotein lipase (LPL) activity, reduced MAPK signaling and improved insulin ...


Involvement Of Interleukin-33/St2 In Myocardial Dysfunction In Murine Model Of Sepsis, Yoonmi Choe Dec 2012

Involvement Of Interleukin-33/St2 In Myocardial Dysfunction In Murine Model Of Sepsis, Yoonmi Choe

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

The disruption of myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM) has been implicated in myocardial dysfunction during sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism(s) are not clear. Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a cytokine which regulates collagen synthesis in various cardiac pathologies. The purpose of the present study is to test whether IL-33 contributes to sepsis-induced myocardial dysfunction through regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). The in vivo, feces-induced peritonitis (FIP) in mice and in vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatments to isolated cardiomyocytes were used. In FIP mice, myocardial IL-33 and MMP-9 expression were increased and myocardial contractility was decreased. Myocardial function in FIP mice was improved when ...


Characterization Of Cardiomyopathy In A Mouse Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Using Echocardiography, Dce-Ct, And Pet-Fdg, Seyed Hamed Moazami Nov 2012

Characterization Of Cardiomyopathy In A Mouse Model Of Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (Dmd) Using Echocardiography, Dce-Ct, And Pet-Fdg, Seyed Hamed Moazami

Electronic Thesis and Dissertation Repository

Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an X-linked recessive neuromuscular disease that is the result of a loss of functional dystrophin, which causes cardiomyocyte fibrosis and death, leading to cardiomyopathy. In this thesis, I have utilized dynamic contrast-enhanced computed tomography (DCE-CT), positron emission tomography-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG), echocardiography, and traditional histology to longitudinally assess disease progression and degree of cardiomyopathy in a murine model of DMD (mdx:utrn-/-). No significant changes were observed in the blood flow, blood volume, or cardiac volume measured via DCE-CT, nor in standard uptake value (SUV) of glucose as measured by PET-FDG in the left myocardium between and ...