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Full-Text Articles in Molecular Biology

Emergence Of New Metabolic Pathways In Escherichia Coli, Michael Kristofich Jan 2018

Emergence Of New Metabolic Pathways In Escherichia Coli, Michael Kristofich

Undergraduate Honors Theses

Catalytic promiscuity provides a starting point for the evolution of new enzymes. Taking this concept further, a series of promiscuous enzymes may assemble to form the basis of a new metabolic pathway (termed “serendipitous pathway”) that may emerge and become more efficient in adapting bacterial cells that require it to grow. The Copley lab at the University of Colorado at Boulder has been observing genetic changes that improve growth of Escherichia coli cells that lack the essential gene pdxB. These genetic changes are believed to improve the flux of metabolites through one or more serendipitous pathways that make up for ...


Histone Deacetylase 3 And The Epigenomic Regulation Of Brown Adipose Physiology, Matthew Joseph Emmett Jan 2017

Histone Deacetylase 3 And The Epigenomic Regulation Of Brown Adipose Physiology, Matthew Joseph Emmett

Publicly Accessible Penn Dissertations

Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a thermogenic organ, which helps to protect body temperature against cold and can counteract metabolic disease. Numerous pathways modulate the activity of BAT in a highly regulated and coordinated manner to exert tight control over its immense calorie burning capacity. However, less is known regarding the transcriptional and epigenomic mechanisms controlling the thermogenic gene program of brown adipocytes. Here, we show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required for the activation of BAT enhancers to ensure thermogenic aptitude, thus enabling survival of dangerously cold environmental temperature. Loss of HDAC3 leads to deficient expression of uncoupling ...


The Effect Of Transformed Escherichia Coli On The Mouse Intestine Microbiome: The Microbial Metabolic Enhancement Hypothesis, Bryar P. Kader May 2016

The Effect Of Transformed Escherichia Coli On The Mouse Intestine Microbiome: The Microbial Metabolic Enhancement Hypothesis, Bryar P. Kader

Senior Honors Theses

Metabolic disorders affect around thirty-four percent of the population in the United States. Among these disorders is lactose intolerance, which results from diminished production of the human lactase enzyme. This disorder and others like it are genetically determined and cannot be cured. However, the use of transformed bacteria implanted in the colon may provide a means by which the faulty pathway can be bypassed. To test whether transformed bacteria have the capability to aid in the digestion of normally indigestible compounds, a transformed strain of Escherichia coli overexpressing the beta-galactosidase enzyme encoded by the lacZ gene was colonized in the ...


The Role Of Crebh In Hepatic Energy Regulation Under Metabolic Stress, Roberto Mendez Jan 2015

The Role Of Crebh In Hepatic Energy Regulation Under Metabolic Stress, Roberto Mendez

Wayne State University Dissertations

Lipid metabolism is tightly regulated by nuclear receptors, transcription factors, and cellular enzymes in response to nutritional, hormonal, and stress signals. Hepatocyte specific, cyclic AMP responsive element-binding protein (CREBH) is a transcription factor that is preferentially expressed in the liver and localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane. CREBH is known to be activated by ER stress, inflammatory stimuli, and metabolic signals to regulate hepatic acute-phase response, lipid metabolism, and glucose metabolism. In my thesis research, I have characterized the roles and mechanisms of CREBH in these functions, as well as the overall phenotype of CrebH-null mice. I demonstrated that ...


Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd Nov 2010

Excision Dynamics Of Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 From Vibrio Cholerae: Role Of A Recombination Directionality Factor Vefa, Salvador Almagro-Moreno, Michael G. Napolitano, E. Fidelma Boyd

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

Vibrio Pathogenicity Island-2 (VPI-2) is a 57 kb region present in choleragenic V. cholerae isolates that is required for growth on sialic acid as a sole carbon source. V. cholerae non-O1/O139 pathogenic strains also contain VPI-2, which in addition to sialic acid catabolism genes also encodes a type 3 secretion system in these strains. VPI-2 integrates into chromosome 1 at a tRNA-serine site and encodes an integrase intV2 (VC1758) that belongs to the tyrosine recombinase family. ntV2 is required for VPI-2 excision from chromosome 1, which occurs at very low levels, and formation of a non-replicative circular intermediate.


The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss Apr 2004

The C. Elegans Heterochronic Gene Lin-46 Affects Developmental Timing At Two Larval Stages And Encodes A Relative Of The Scaffolding Protein Gephyrin, A. S.-R. Pepper, Jill E. Mccane, Kevin Kemper, Dennis Au Yeung, Rosalind C. Lee, Victor Ambros, Eric G. Moss

Open Dartmouth: Faculty Open Access Articles

The succession of developmental events in the C. elegans larva is governed by the heterochronic genes. When mutated, these genes cause either precocious or retarded developmental phenotypes, in which stage-specific patterns of cell division and differentiation are either skipped or reiterated, respectively. We identified a new heterochronic gene, lin-46, from mutations that suppress the precocious phenotypes caused by mutations in the heterochronic genes lin-14 and lin-28. lin-46 mutants on their own display retarded phenotypes in which cell division patterns are reiterated and differentiation is prevented in certain cell lineages. Our analysis indicates that lin-46 acts at a step immediately downstream ...