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Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl: Annual Report 2021, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder Mar 2022

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl: Annual Report 2021, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the Wachapreague lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for short-term research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment for educators to use in their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a ...


Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Mar 2022

Estimating Relative Abundance Of Young-Of-Year American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Virginia Tributaries Of Chesapeake Bay (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC) adopted the Interstate Fishery Management Plan (FMP) for the American Eel in November 1999. The FMP calls for efforts to collect American Eel data through both fishery‐dependent and fishery‐independent studies in coastal states. Consequently, member jurisdictions agreed to implement an annual survey for young‐of‐year (YOY or glass) American Eels. The survey is intended to “…characterize trends in annual recruitment of the YOY eels over time [to produce a] qualitative appraisal of the annual recruitment of American Eel to the U.S. Atlantic Coast” (ASMFC 2000). The development of these ...


The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2021, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann Feb 2022

The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2021, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) monitors recruitment of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), annually from late spring through early fall, by deploying spatfall1 (settlement and recruitment of larval oysters to the post metamorphic form termed spat) collectors (shellstrings) at various sites in three Virginia western Chesapeake Bay tributaries. The survey provides an estimate of a particular area’s potential for receiving a "strike" or settlement (set) of oysters on the bottom and helps describe the timing of recruitment events in a given year. Information obtained from this monitoring effort provides an overview of long-term recruitment trends ...


Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia: Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 2021 Progress Report - 1 December 2020 - 30 November 2021, Robert J. Latour, Christopher F. Bonzek, James Gartland Jan 2022

Evaluation Of Striped Bass Stocks In Virginia: Monitoring And Tagging Studies, 2021 Progress Report - 1 December 2020 - 30 November 2021, Robert J. Latour, Christopher F. Bonzek, James Gartland

Reports

This report presents the results of striped bass (Morone saxatilis) tagging and monitoring activities in Virginia during the period 1 December 2020 through 30 November 2021. It includes an assessment of the biological characteristics of striped bass taken from the 2021 spring spawning run and estimates of annual survival and fishing mortality based on annual spring tagging. The information contained in this report is required by the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission and is used to implement a coordinated management plan for striped bass in Virginia, and along the eastern seaboard.


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2021 - 2022, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey Jan 2022

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2021 - 2022, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey

Reports

The 2021 juvenile Striped Bass abundance index was 6.30 and was not significantly different than the reference mean of 7.77 for the period 1980 to 2009. Abundance indices were average in the York and Rappahannock rivers and below average in the James River in 2021 compared with the river‐specific reference means (1980‐2009). Relatively low catches of young‐of‐the‐year Striped Bass from sites upriver and downriver of core nursery areas suggest juvenile Striped Bass largely remained within core nursery areas in 2021.

Juvenile abundance indices for Alewife, American Shad, Atlantic Croaker, Atlantic Silverside, and Spot ...


Center For Coastal Resources Management Annual Report 2021, Center For Coastal Resources Management Jan 2022

Center For Coastal Resources Management Annual Report 2021, Center For Coastal Resources Management

Reports

No abstract provided.


Estimated Consumer Sensory Shell Life Of Fresh Blue Catfish Filets Stored In Ice (Ictalurus Furcatus), Robert A. Fisher Oct 2021

Estimated Consumer Sensory Shell Life Of Fresh Blue Catfish Filets Stored In Ice (Ictalurus Furcatus), Robert A. Fisher

Reports

Blue Catfish (Ictalurus furcatus) is the largest species of catfish in North America where it is native to the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio river drainages. It was introduced in fresh water Virginia tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay to enhance recreational fisheries in the 1970’s, from which significant recreational and commercial wild caught catfish fisheries developed. Since introduction, Blue catfish populations have expanded from upriver freshwater habitat to brackish-water sub-estuaries with reports of blue catfish in the Chesapeake Bay proper. Blue catfish are voracious, opportunistic predators feeding on a variety of natural prey items, including native fish and shellfish species ...


Virginia Seafood Sustainability, Samantha E. Askin, Robert A. Fisher Oct 2021

Virginia Seafood Sustainability, Samantha E. Askin, Robert A. Fisher

Reports

Virginia’s commercial fisheries operate sustainability under a suite of management tools based upon information received from marine scientists and fishery managers who regularly conduct biological sampling of fish while tracking commercial landings and other gathering of required information. Analyses of fishing effort and overall stock conditions, as well as formulas designed to calculate threshold limits for maintaining sustainable stocks are regularly performed. Restrictions on seasons, size, days at sea, and gear are imposed as needed to achieve management supporting long-term biological sustainability.


Results For The 2021 Vims Industry Cooperative Surveys Of The Mid-Atlantic, Nantucket Lightship, Closed Area I, And Closed Area Ii Resource Areas, Sally Roman, David Rudders Sep 2021

Results For The 2021 Vims Industry Cooperative Surveys Of The Mid-Atlantic, Nantucket Lightship, Closed Area I, And Closed Area Ii Resource Areas, Sally Roman, David Rudders

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) conducted high resolution sea scallop dredge surveys of the Mid-Atlantic (MAB), the Nantucket Lightship (NLCA), Closed Area I (CAI), and Closed Area II (CAII) during May - July 2021 (Figure 1). These surveys were funded by the Sea Scallop Research Set-Aside Program (RSA). Exploitable biomass for each survey is shown in Table 1 for each SAMS Area (Scallop Area Management Simulator). SAMS Areas represent management relevant spatial subunits of the resource and explicitly account for differences in recruitment, vital rates, and fishing effort in the forward projection of survey information. This information is used ...


The Effect Of Density On Growth, Yield, And Reproduction Of The Sea Scallop, Placopecten Magellanicus: Final Report, Sally Roman, David Rudders, Roger L. Mann, Kaitlyn R. Clark Jul 2021

The Effect Of Density On Growth, Yield, And Reproduction Of The Sea Scallop, Placopecten Magellanicus: Final Report, Sally Roman, David Rudders, Roger L. Mann, Kaitlyn R. Clark

Reports

Results from this project indicate that density in combination with settlement at depth in potentially marginal habitat contribute to reductions in growth, yield, and reproductive effort. In general, Study Area was not a contributing factor to the reductions in the three areas of scallop biological processes we measured. Scallops that settle in dense aggregations at varying depths may respond differentially to environmental conditions, food availability, habitat, and removals. (...)

Results from this study will enhance our knowledge of the scallop population with respect to conditions that diverge from expected biological processes. Results will also allow for better management and assessment of ...


Annual Report - 2020 Data Collection And Analysis In Support Of Single And Multispecies Stock Assessments In Chesapeake Bay: The Chesapeake Bay Multispecies Monitoring And Assessment Program, Christopher F. Bonzek, James Gartland, Debra J. Gauthier, Robert J. Latour May 2021

Annual Report - 2020 Data Collection And Analysis In Support Of Single And Multispecies Stock Assessments In Chesapeake Bay: The Chesapeake Bay Multispecies Monitoring And Assessment Program, Christopher F. Bonzek, James Gartland, Debra J. Gauthier, Robert J. Latour

Reports

Historically, fisheries management has been based on the results of single-species stock assessment models that focus on the interplay between exploitation level and sustainability. There currently exists a suite of standard and accepted analytical frameworks (e.g., virtual population analysis (VPA), biomass dynamic production modeling, delay difference models, etc.) for assessing the stocks, projecting future stock size, evaluating recovery schedules and rebuilding strategies for overfished stocks, setting allowable catches, and estimating fishing mortality or exploitation rates. A variety of methods also exist to integrate the biological system and the fisheries resource system, thereby enabling the evaluation of alternative management strategies ...


Fisheries Landings For The Eastern Shore Of Virginia (Esva) 2021, Richard A. Snyder Apr 2021

Fisheries Landings For The Eastern Shore Of Virginia (Esva) 2021, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

Virginia (VA) landings data were requested from VMRC (Table 1) and analyzed by Richard Snyder at VIMS ESL. Landings data reflect where seafood entered market systems, and so may have different origins that will blur categorizing economic activity ascribed to the act of harvest and the act of processing for market. For example, almost all menhaden are landed in Deltaville, VA, some of the conch/welks and dogfish recorded for Accomack may have originated elsewhere to be processed in Wachapreague, and visiting Maryland crabbers early in the season contribute to blue crab landings. Shellfish data (oysters and clams) are separated ...


Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder Apr 2021

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl : Annual Report 2020, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the Wachapreague lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for short-term research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment to educators for their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a long-term status ...


The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2020, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann Feb 2021

The Status Of Virginia’S Public Oyster Resource 2020, Melissa Southworth, Roger L. Mann

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) monitors recruitment of the Eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica (Gmelin, 1791), annually from late spring through early fall, by deploying spatfall[1] (settlement and recruitment of larval oysters to the post metamorphic form termed spat) collectors (shellstrings) at various sites in three Virginia western Chesapeake Bay tributaries. The survey provides an estimate of a particular area’s potential for receiving a "strike" or settlement (set) of oysters on the bottom and helps describe the timing of recruitment events in a given year. Information obtained from this monitoring effort provides an overview of long-term recruitment ...


Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee Jan 2021

Monitoring The Abundance Of American Shad And River Herring In Virginia’S Rivers 2020 Annual Report, Eric J. Hilton, Patrick E. Mcgrath, Brian Watkins, Ashleigh Magee

Reports

This report describes the results of the twenty-third year of a continuing study to estimate the relative abundance and assess the status of American shad (Alosa sapidissima) stocks in Virginia by monitoring the spawning runs in the James, York and Rappahannock rivers in spring 2020, evaluating hatchery programs, and contributing to coast-wide assessments (ASMFC 2007, ASMFC 2020).

We also report on two fisheryindependent monitoring programs using anchor gillnets in the Rappahannock River (year 3) and the Chickahominy River (year 6; a major tributary of the James River), to determine relative abundance and stock structure for the adult spawning run of ...


Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2020-2021, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey Jan 2021

Estimation Of Juvenile Striped Bass Relative Abundance In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay Annual Progress Report: 2020-2021, Jack R. Buchanan, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey

Reports

No abstract provided.


Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2020, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 2021

Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program 2020, Virginia Fishery Resource Grant Program, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

No abstract provided.


Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Research Experiences For Undergraduates Program : Final Research Papers 2019, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 2021

Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Research Experiences For Undergraduates Program : Final Research Papers 2019, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

  • Sediment Modeling – iRUSLE via Bayesian Melding / Kayla Rutherford
  • Bottom Boundary Layer Dynamics Modelling in the Gulf of Mexico “Dead Zone”/ Jacob Wacht
  • Interactions between Vibrio Bacteria and Phytoplankton Species / Coral O’Brien
  • Red Disease and Antibiotic Resistance of American Eels / Thalia Wallace
  • Understanding the feeding ecology of the Atlantic deep-sea scallop Placopecten magellanicus using DNA barcoding / Brittany Baker
  • Using macroinvertebrate assemblages to assess nursery habitat quality for juvenile black sea bass and summer flounder/ Nicholas Coleman
  • Characterizing York River estuary Benthic Metabolism/ Mary McGuinness
  • Effects of pH and temperature on the growth, development, and metabolic rate of the pediveliger larvae ...


Vims Shark Longline Annual Report - 2021, Multispecies Research Group, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science Jan 2021

Vims Shark Longline Annual Report - 2021, Multispecies Research Group, Virginia Institute Of Marine Science

Reports

Report indicates the number of species caught, retained, released and tagged in the longline surveys.


Monitoring Living Marine Resources In The Mid‐Atlantic Bight, Northeast Area Monitoring & Assessment Program (Neamap), Virginia Shark Monitoring & Assessment Program (Vasmap), Robert J. Latour, James Gartland, Christopher F. Bonzek Jan 2021

Monitoring Living Marine Resources In The Mid‐Atlantic Bight, Northeast Area Monitoring & Assessment Program (Neamap), Virginia Shark Monitoring & Assessment Program (Vasmap), Robert J. Latour, James Gartland, Christopher F. Bonzek

Reports

The NEAMAP Mid‐Atlantic/Southern New England (M‐A/SNE) Near Shore Bottom Trawl Survey is a fishery‐independent monitoring program designed to collect information on the late juvenile and adult stages of the majority of the finfish species and several exploited invertebrates inhabiting the coastal ocean of the Mid‐Atlantic Bight Ecological Production Unit (Figure 1). This survey yields indices of relative abundance, expressed in terms of both number and biomass, spatiotemporal distribution, and length‐frequency data for all species collected by the sampling gear.

VASMAP is a research program that focuses on advancing the scientific enterprise associated with ...


Center For Coastal Resources Management Annual Report 2020, Center For Coastal Resources Management Jan 2021

Center For Coastal Resources Management Annual Report 2020, Center For Coastal Resources Management

Reports

No abstract provided.


2021 Annual Report Estimating Relative Juvenile Abundance Of Ecologically Important Finfish In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay (1 July 2020 – 30 June 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2021

2021 Annual Report Estimating Relative Juvenile Abundance Of Ecologically Important Finfish In The Virginia Portion Of Chesapeake Bay (1 July 2020 – 30 June 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

The Trawl Survey provides crucial data to state, regional, and national fisheries management agencies, including the Virginia Marine Resources Commission (VMRC), the Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commission (ASMFC), the Mid‐Atlantic Fisheries Management Council (MAFMC), and the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS). The MAFMC recognizes the juvenile trawl survey as one of the key predictors of Summer Flounder recruitment. Annual indices of juvenile abundance have been generated from trawl survey data for species of key recreational and ecological importance in the Virginia portion of Chesapeake Bay. These include Spot, Atlantic Croaker, Weakfish, Summer Flounder, Black Sea Bass, Scup, Striped Bass ...


Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Jan 2021

Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2021), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a valuable commercial species along the Atlantic coast of North America from New Brunswick to Florida. Landings from Chesapeake Bay typically represent 60% of the annual United States commercial harvest (ASMFC 2012). American Eel is also important to the recreational fishery as it is often used live as bait for Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) and Cobia (Rachycentron canadum). In 2020, Chesapeake Bay commercial landings of American Eel (218,005 lbs) were 80% of the U.S. landings (personal communication from the National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division). Since the 1980s, harvest along the U ...


Influence Of Gonadal Stage And Ploidy On Human-Pathogenic Vibrio Levels In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica - Final Report, Corinne Audemard, Ryan Carnegie, Kimberly S. Reece Jan 2021

Influence Of Gonadal Stage And Ploidy On Human-Pathogenic Vibrio Levels In The Oyster Crassostrea Virginica - Final Report, Corinne Audemard, Ryan Carnegie, Kimberly S. Reece

Reports

To determine whether oyster reproductive status and particularly ploidy influences levels of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. in oyster tissues was the overall aim of this project

Our project objectives were three-fold:

1) To determine the relationship between oyster gonadal stage and levels of humanpathogenic Vibrio spp. in two separate pairs of genetically related diploid and triploid oysters through analyses of individual oysters conducted during peak Vibrio season in the York River, Virginia;

2) To determine the relationship between oyster ploidy and levels of humanpathogenic Vibrio spp. in those same oysters; and

3) To determine the degree to which farm-level marine aquaculture ...


Seasonal And Annual Variation In The Extent Of Suitable Habitats For Forage Fishes In Chesapeake Bay, 2000-2016, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Aaron J. Bever, Michael L. Macwilliams Nov 2020

Seasonal And Annual Variation In The Extent Of Suitable Habitats For Forage Fishes In Chesapeake Bay, 2000-2016, Mary C. Fabrizio, Troy D. Tuckey, Aaron J. Bever, Michael L. Macwilliams

Reports

The sustained production of sufficient forage is critical to advancing ecosystem-based management in Chesapeake Bay. Yet factors that affect local abundances and habitat conditions necessary to support forage production remain largely unexplored. Here, we quantified suitable habitat in the Chesapeake Bay region for four key forage fishes: bay anchovy Anchoa mitchilli, juvenile spot Leiostomus xanthurus, juvenile weakfish Cynoscion regalis, and juvenile spotted hake Urophycis regia. We coupled information from 17 years of monthly fisheries surveys with hindcasts from a numerical model of dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions and a 3-D hydrodynamic model of the Bay that provided estimates of habitat conditions ...


Results For The 2020 Vims Industry Cooperative Surveys Of The Mid-Atlantic, Nantucket Lightship, Great South Channel, Closed Area I, And Closed Area Ii Resource Areas, Sally Roman, David B. Rudders Oct 2020

Results For The 2020 Vims Industry Cooperative Surveys Of The Mid-Atlantic, Nantucket Lightship, Great South Channel, Closed Area I, And Closed Area Ii Resource Areas, Sally Roman, David B. Rudders

Reports

The Virginia Institute of Marine Science (VIMS) conducted high resolution sea scallop dredge surveys of the entire Mid-Atlantic (MAB), the Nantucket Lightship (NLCA), Great South Channel (GSC), Closed Area I (CAI), and Closed Area II (CAII) during July–September 2020. These surveys were funded by the Sea Scallop Research Set-Aside Program (RSA). Exploitable biomass for each survey is shown in Table 1 for each spatially explicit SAMS Area (Scallop Area Management Simulator). SAMS Areas represent management relevant spatial subunits of the resource and explicitly account for differences in recruitment, vital rates, and fishing effort in the forward projection of survey ...


Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2020), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio Sep 2020

Evaluating Recruitment Of American Eel, Anguilla Rostrata, In The Potomac River (Spring 2020), Troy D. Tuckey, Mary C. Fabrizio

Reports

American Eel (Anguilla rostrata) is a valuable commercial species along the Atlantic coast of North America from New Brunswick to Florida. Landings from Chesapeake Bay typically represent 60% of the annual United States commercial harvest (ASMFC 2012). American Eel is also important to the recreational fishery as it is often used live as bait for Striped Bass (Morone saxatilis) and Cobia (Rachycentron canadum). In 2016, Chesapeake Bay commercial landings of American Eel (728,717 lbs) were 78% of the U.S. landings (personal communication from the National Marine Fisheries Service, Fisheries Statistics Division). Since the 1980s, harvest along the U ...


Virginia Wild-Caught Blue Catfish: Nutrition And Contaminant Analysis, Robert A. Fisher Sep 2020

Virginia Wild-Caught Blue Catfish: Nutrition And Contaminant Analysis, Robert A. Fisher

Reports

The blue catfish, Ictalurus furcatus, is an introduced freshwater species in Virginia’s tributaries to the Chesapeake Bay. Since its introduction in the 1970’s, significant recreational and commercial fisheries have developed within upriver, largely freshwater environments. Blue catfish are voracious, opportunistic predators, feeding on a variety of natural prey items, including native fish and shellfish species. Their varied diets result in a more nutrient-rich fish compared to farmraised catfish (USDA Food and Nutrient Database https://fdc.nal.usda.gov/fdc-app. html#/?query=catfish) on the market, which are typically fed a plant-based diet.

In recent years, blue catfish populations ...


An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In The Nantucket Lightship Closed Area And Surrounds - Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally A. Roman, Erin Mohr Jun 2020

An Assessment Of Sea Scallop Abundance And Distribution In The Nantucket Lightship Closed Area And Surrounds - Final Report, David B. Rudders, Sally A. Roman, Erin Mohr

Reports

For the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus, the concepts of space and time have emerged as the basis of an effective management tool. The strategy of closing or limiting activities in certain areas for specific lengths of time has gained support as a method to conserve and enhance the scallop resource. In the last decade, rotational area management has provided a mechanism to protect juvenile scallops from fishing mortality by closing areas based upon scallop abundance and observed age distribution. Approximately half of the sea scallop industry’s current annual landings are attributed to from areas under this rotational harvest strategy ...


Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl - Annual Report 2018-2019, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder Jun 2020

Ecological Monitoring Program At Vims Esl - Annual Report 2018-2019, Paige G. Ross, Richard A. Snyder

Reports

An Ecological Monitoring Program (EMP) has been established at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science Eastern Shore Laboratory (VIMS ESL) for the coastal environment near the lab. The goals of the initiative are to 1) provide status and trends information to scientists who study and regulators who manage Virginia’s marine resources, 2) provide a scientific context for scientists’ research and grant proposals 3) provide pedagogical enrichment to educators for their classes, and 4) build capacity in staff expertise and training of interns and students at VIMS ESL.

The program formalizes and standardizes data collection for a long-term status and ...