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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Suitability Of Native Milkweed (Asclepias) Species Versus Cultivars For Supporting Monarch Butterflies And Bees In Urban Gardens, Daniel A. Potter Oct 2020

Suitability Of Native Milkweed (Asclepias) Species Versus Cultivars For Supporting Monarch Butterflies And Bees In Urban Gardens, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Research Data

Public interest in ecological landscaping and gardening is fueling a robust market for native plants. Most plants available to consumers through the horticulture trade are cultivated forms that have been selected for modified flowers or foliage, compactness, or other ornamental characteristics. Depending on their traits, some native plant cultivars seem to support pollinators, specialist insect folivores, and insect-based vertebrate food webs as effectively as native plant species, whereas others do not. There is particular need for information on whether native cultivars can be as effective as true or “wild-type” native species for supporting specialist native insects of conservation concern. Herein ...


Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft Oct 2020

Spatial And Temporal Dynamics Of Human–Wildlife Conflicts In The Kenya Greater Tsavo Ecosystem, Joseph M. Mukeka, Joseph O. Ogutu, Erustus Kanga, Eivin Røskaft

Human–Wildlife Interactions

Biodiversity conservation in developing countries is faced with many and mounting challenges, including increasing human–wildlife conflicts (HWCs). In Africa and other developing countries, increasing HWCs, particularly those adjacent to protected areas, can adversely affect local stakeholder perceptions and support for conservation. We analyzed HWC reports for multiple wildlife species compiled >23 years (1995–2017) from the Greater Tsavo Ecosystem (GTE) in Kenya to determine HWC trends. The GTE is the largest protected area in Kenya, covering 22,681 km2. Overall, 39,022 HWC incidents were reported in 6 GTE regions (i.e., Taveta, Mutomo, Kibwezi, Rombo, Galana, Bachuma ...


Suitability Of Native Milkweed (Asclepias) Species Versus Cultivars For Supporting Monarch Butterflies And Bees In Urban Gardens, Adam M. Baker, Carl T. Redmond, Stephen B. Malcolm, Daniel A. Potter Sep 2020

Suitability Of Native Milkweed (Asclepias) Species Versus Cultivars For Supporting Monarch Butterflies And Bees In Urban Gardens, Adam M. Baker, Carl T. Redmond, Stephen B. Malcolm, Daniel A. Potter

Entomology Faculty Publications

Public interest in ecological landscaping and gardening is fueling a robust market for native plants. Most plants available to consumers through the horticulture trade are cultivated forms that have been selected for modified flowers or foliage, compactness, or other ornamental characteristics. Depending on their traits, some native plant cultivars seem to support pollinators, specialist insect folivores, and insect-based vertebrate food webs as effectively as native plant species, whereas others do not. There is particular need for information on whether native cultivars can be as effective as true or “wild-type” native species for supporting specialist native insects of conservation concern. Herein ...


Seasonal Movements And Habitat Use Of Juvenile Smooth Hammerhead Sharks In The Western North Atlantic Ocean And Significance For Management, Ryan K. Logan, Jeremy Vaudo, Lara L. Sousa, Mark Sampson, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Mahmood S. Shivji Sep 2020

Seasonal Movements And Habitat Use Of Juvenile Smooth Hammerhead Sharks In The Western North Atlantic Ocean And Significance For Management, Ryan K. Logan, Jeremy Vaudo, Lara L. Sousa, Mark Sampson, Bradley M. Wetherbee, Mahmood S. Shivji

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Upper trophic level predators dramatically impacted by fisheries include the large-bodied hammerhead sharks, which have become species of conservation concern worldwide. Implementing spatial management for conservation of hammerhead populations requires knowledge of temporal distribution patterns and habitat use, identification of essential habitat for protection, and quantification of interactions with human activities. There is little such information for the smooth hammerhead shark, Sphyrna zygaena. We used fin-mounted satellite tags to examine the movements and habitat use of juvenile smooth hammerheads, a demographic segment particularly threatened by exploitation. Six sharks were tagged off the US mid-Atlantic and tracked for 49–441 days ...


A Shark Conservationists Toolbox: Current Dna Methods And Techniques Aiding In The Conservation Of Sharks, Arianna N. Nixon Aug 2020

A Shark Conservationists Toolbox: Current Dna Methods And Techniques Aiding In The Conservation Of Sharks, Arianna N. Nixon

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Elasmobranchs are important members of their community. Many sharks are important apex predators that help maintain the health of their ecosystem. However, shark populations are globally declining. This is partially due to the fact that sharks are highly targeted for their fins, meat, liver oil, teeth, and skin. However, they are also killed from anthropogenic effects such as habitat destruction and pollution. Most shark species have life history characteristics that also make them more vulnerable to overfishing. Sharks are also difficult to study due to their elusive nature and identification issues. That is why molecular tools are increasingly becoming important ...


To Feed Or Not To Feed: Examining The Effects Of Provisioning Tourism On Nurse Sharks In Caye Caulker, Belize, Carlee Jackson Aug 2020

To Feed Or Not To Feed: Examining The Effects Of Provisioning Tourism On Nurse Sharks In Caye Caulker, Belize, Carlee Jackson

All HCAS Student Capstones, Theses, and Dissertations

Wildlife tourism is increasing in popularity around the world, creating the need to understand alterations in animal behavior and spatial distributions that may occur due to associated anthropogenic disturbances. Nurse sharks (Ginglymostoma cirratum, Bonnaterre 1788) are commonly used for wildlife tourism within the Caye Caulker Marine Reserve in Belize. Shark and Ray Village (SRV) is a site within the reserve where nurse sharks are consistently fed by tour/snorkel boats to create an interactive experience with tourists, termed provisioning tourism. Prior to this experiment, no studies had been conducted in SRV to evaluate the impact of provisioning tourism (tourism that ...


Mammals Of Cedar Breaks National Monument, S. Nicole Frey, Natalie D'Souza, Ethan Hammer, Bryan Larsen, Jake Nielson Aug 2020

Mammals Of Cedar Breaks National Monument, S. Nicole Frey, Natalie D'Souza, Ethan Hammer, Bryan Larsen, Jake Nielson

All Current Publications

This document is the result of a study of the terrestrial mammals found at Cedar Breaks National Monument from 2017-2019. During this time, we conducted a survey of mammals using a series of trail cameras. We used survey results to provide an index of terrestrial mammals (excluding bats) within the park. Our goal is to provide a beginner’s guide to the mammals at Cedar Breaks National Monument. We include information regarding appearance, diet, habitat, and population status according to the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). The guide represents the species a visitor to Cedar Breaks National ...


Population Status, Threats, And Conservation Of Preuss's Red Colobus (Piliocolobus Preussi) And Other Diurnal Primates In The Ndokbou Forest, Littoral Region, Cameroon, Ruth Bowers-Sword Aug 2020

Population Status, Threats, And Conservation Of Preuss's Red Colobus (Piliocolobus Preussi) And Other Diurnal Primates In The Ndokbou Forest, Littoral Region, Cameroon, Ruth Bowers-Sword

Masters Theses, 2020-current

The Ebo-Makombe-Ndokbou forest block in southwest Cameroon lies within the Gulf of Guinea biodiversity hotspot, characterized by extremely high levels of species richness and endemism, including those of primates. These forests may contain one of the last populations of the Critically Endangered Preuss’s red colobus monkey (Piliocolobus preussi; PRC), which is found only in southeastern Nigeria and western Cameroon. Gun hunting for bushmeat and habitat loss and degradation from logging and agriculture are the main threats to PRC. The conservation status of PRC and other primates in the Ndokbou forest are largely unknown, with most regional research efforts occurring ...


Impacts Of Tourism On The Ecophysiology Of The Endangered Northern Bahamian Rock Iguana (Cyclura Cychlura), Alison C. Webb Aug 2020

Impacts Of Tourism On The Ecophysiology Of The Endangered Northern Bahamian Rock Iguana (Cyclura Cychlura), Alison C. Webb

All Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Increased interest in ecotourism over recent years has led to more direct human-animal interactions and a striking concomitant increase in the provisioning of non-natural food, that may have unintended consequences for the wildlife involved. The critically endangered Northern Bahamian Rock Iguana provides a valuable model to address the potential impact of food provisioning on health as there are populations that represent a graded variation in human presence, with sites experiencing high, low, or no tourism. To assess the potential impacts of tourism on iguana physiology I first reviewed the relevant literature on iguana physiology and then performed three investigations focusing ...


The Role Of Plasticity In Bumble Bee Responses To Environmental Variability, Matthew Austin Jul 2020

The Role Of Plasticity In Bumble Bee Responses To Environmental Variability, Matthew Austin

Dissertations

An aim of contemporary biology is elucidating the causes and consequences of phenotypic plasticity. Here, I approach this aim by exploring the eco-evolutionary dynamics of phenotypic plasticity and environmental variability in bumble bees (Apidae: Bombus), a congeneric clade of eusocial pollinating insects. Throughout their evolution, bumble bees have encountered spatiotemporal variability imposed by dynamic floral environments. Today, bumble bees additionally encounter spatiotemporal variability imposed by anthropogenic environmental change. In this dissertation, I explore how phenotypic plasticity affects how successfully bumble bees respond to environmental variability imposed by anthropogenic global change (Chapters 1 and 2) and their floral resources (Chapters 3 ...


Western Bumble Bee: Declines In The Continental United States And Range-Wide Information Gaps, Tabitha A. Graves, William M. Janousek, Sarah M. Gaulke, Amy C. Nicholas, Douglas A. Keinath, Christine M. Bell, Syd Cannings, Richard G. Hatfield, Jennifer M. Heron, Jonathan B. Koch, Helen L. Loffland, Leif L. Richardson, Ashley T. Rohde, Jessica Rykken, James P. Strange, Et Al. Jun 2020

Western Bumble Bee: Declines In The Continental United States And Range-Wide Information Gaps, Tabitha A. Graves, William M. Janousek, Sarah M. Gaulke, Amy C. Nicholas, Douglas A. Keinath, Christine M. Bell, Syd Cannings, Richard G. Hatfield, Jennifer M. Heron, Jonathan B. Koch, Helen L. Loffland, Leif L. Richardson, Ashley T. Rohde, Jessica Rykken, James P. Strange, Et Al.

Wildland Resources Student Research

In recent decades, many bumble bee species have declined due to changes in habitat, climate, and pressures from pathogens, pesticides, and introduced species. The western bumble bee (Bombus occidentalis), once common throughout western North America, is a species of concern and will be considered for listing by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). We attempt to improve alignment of data collection and research with USFWS needs to consider redundancy, resiliency, and representation in the upcoming species status assessment. We reviewed existing data and literature on B. occidentalis, highlighting information gaps and priority ...


Potential Effects Of Climate Change On The Geographic Distribution Of The Endangered Plant Species Manihot Walkerae, Gisel Garza, Armida Rivera, Crystian Sadel Venegas Barrera, Jose Guadalupe Martinez-Avalos, Jon Dale, Teresa Patricia Feria-Arroyo Jun 2020

Potential Effects Of Climate Change On The Geographic Distribution Of The Endangered Plant Species Manihot Walkerae, Gisel Garza, Armida Rivera, Crystian Sadel Venegas Barrera, Jose Guadalupe Martinez-Avalos, Jon Dale, Teresa Patricia Feria-Arroyo

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

Walker’s Manihot, Manihot walkerae, is an endangered plant that is endemic to the Tamaulipan thornscrub ecoregion of extreme southern Texas and northeastern Mexico. M. walkerae populations are highly fragmented and are found on both protected public lands and private property. Habitat loss and competition by invasive species are the most detrimental threats for M. walkerae; however, the effect of climate change on M. walkerae’s geographic distribution remains unexplored and could result in further range restrictions. Our objectives are to evaluate the potential effects of climate change on the distribution of M. walkerae and assess the usefulness of natural ...


Earthworm Cover Crop Habitat Preference, Paige Baisley May 2020

Earthworm Cover Crop Habitat Preference, Paige Baisley

Student Honors Theses By Year

Forage radish (Raphanus sativus var. Longipinnatus), a member of the brassicacea family, is becoming increasingly popular in conservation tillage practices. Brassica cover crops have been observed to have allelopathic effects on soil organisms due to the glucosinolates in their tissues. A pilot study examining the effects of different tillage methods on earthworm populations found a significant lack of earthworms in forage radish roll-down tillage when sampling with mustard solution compared to roll-down tillage without forage radish. This study seeks to explain these results by exploring two alternative hypotheses. The first hypothesis is that the lack of earthworms observed in the ...


Characterization Of Microbial Communities Across Disease States And Environmental Conditions In Kemp’S Ridley (Lepidochelys Kempii) And Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia Mydas), Kerry L. Mcnally May 2020

Characterization Of Microbial Communities Across Disease States And Environmental Conditions In Kemp’S Ridley (Lepidochelys Kempii) And Green Sea Turtles (Chelonia Mydas), Kerry L. Mcnally

Graduate Doctoral Dissertations

All species of sea turtles are threatened or endangered, with various diseases and conditions affecting populations around the world. Understanding healthy populations as well as populations beset by disease conditions, such as fibropapillomatosis and cold-stunning, could lead to helpful tools in the conservation management and medical treatment needed to protect these species. Microbial communities, or the microbiome, at different body sites of sea turtles likely play important roles in the health of these animals, from aiding in digestion to immune system regulation. Disruption of these communities, either through disease and/or environmental factors, may play a role in disease processes ...


The Australian Pastures Genebank, Steve Hughes Apr 2020

The Australian Pastures Genebank, Steve Hughes

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Australian grazing enterprises, including all food and fibre productions, as well as crop rotation, are worth $42 billion per annum to the Australian economy, employing around 693,000 Australian workers. Australia has been a major beneficiary from the introduction and utilization of genetic resources in pasture and forages. Assured access to plant genetic diversity underpins Australia’s ability to maintain agricultural productivity in the face of environmental and economic challenges.

Australia is custodian of potentially the world’s largest and globally significant collection of pasture and forage genetic resources. Much of this is unique and held in state-based collections and ...


The Effects Of Phosphate On Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov, Dennis Ferraro Apr 2020

The Effects Of Phosphate On Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov, Dennis Ferraro

UCARE Research Products

This study seeks examine the effects of elevated phosphate levels on the larval stage of the Western Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium). Hypothesis: Additional phosphate in the water will cause the larval salamanders to have a slower metamorphosis rate than the control group with no additional phosphates. This hypothesis is based off of research that showed that additional nitrogen in the water caused a slower growth rate in the Western Barred Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma mavortium) (Griffis-Kyle, 2007).

The hypothesis was rejected. The dates the larvae morphed alternated between treatment and control. The treatment metamorphosis was not slowed. Temperature was found ...


Amritmahal: Need For Conserving The Living Pastoral Heritage Of Karnataka, Jahnavi G. Pai, Manohar Patel, Vinay K. Sreeniva Apr 2020

Amritmahal: Need For Conserving The Living Pastoral Heritage Of Karnataka, Jahnavi G. Pai, Manohar Patel, Vinay K. Sreeniva

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Karnataka is home to the biodiversity-rich Western Ghats with its range of habitats spanning from scrub forest in the lower elevations to the wet evergreen forests in the higher elevations. In stark visual contrast, the Deccan Plateau is blanketed by arid plains dominated by scrub jungles and dry grasslands. These plains are a melting pot of rich biodiversity, culture and associated traditional knowledge. They have also been important centres for breeding livestock and have supported local livelihoods. In spite of this cultural and ecological importance, these arid plains, especially grasslands with sparse woody vegetation, are increasingly being termed as wastelands ...


The Trichoptera Of Panama Xiv. New Species Of Microcaddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) From Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park, Brian J. Armitage, Steven C. Harris Apr 2020

The Trichoptera Of Panama Xiv. New Species Of Microcaddisflies (Trichoptera: Hydroptilidae) From Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park, Brian J. Armitage, Steven C. Harris

Insecta Mundi

Abstract. In 2017, a new project was begun to assess the biodiversity of national parks and forest reserves in the Republic of Panama. Designated “Proyecto Sistema de Producción Sostenible Conservación de la Biodiversidad (PSPSCB)”, this project is managed by Panama’s Ministerio de Ambiente. The first park sampled in 2017 was Omar Torrijos Herrera National Park (OTHNP). Trichoptera (Insecta) were collected at four locations using both Malaise traps and UV light traps. The rugged terrain and lack of access in this remote park limited the sampled area. Sampling included streams in both the Caribbean and Pacific drainages. Seven new species ...


Using Expert Knowledge To Develop Management Actions For Tasmanian Lowland Native Grasslands Under Climate Change, Kerry L. Bridle, Louise Gilfedder, Nicholas Macgregor Apr 2020

Using Expert Knowledge To Develop Management Actions For Tasmanian Lowland Native Grasslands Under Climate Change, Kerry L. Bridle, Louise Gilfedder, Nicholas Macgregor

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

Climate change projections for Tasmania suggest that the climate in 2070 will be warmer than present, with increasingly variable seasonal rainfall (Grose et al. 2010). Results from climate change modelling suggest that grassland communities may not exist over their current range in the future (Prober et al. 2012). Lowland temperate natural grasslands have been greatly reduced in areal extent since European settlement in the early 1800s. Two ‘Lowland temperate native grassland’ communities are listed as critically endangered under the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation Act (1999): Themeda triandra grasslands and Poa labillardieri grasslands. Careful landscape planning for current and potential ...


Utah's Own Habitat Guidelines For Sage-Grouse, David K. Dahlgren, Michel Kohl, Eric Thacker, S. Nicole Frey, Terry Messmer Apr 2020

Utah's Own Habitat Guidelines For Sage-Grouse, David K. Dahlgren, Michel Kohl, Eric Thacker, S. Nicole Frey, Terry Messmer

All Current Publications

Those living and working within western North America’s sagebrush landscapes have most likely been exposed to sage-grouse issues for many years now and may have felt anxiety concerning the potential impacts that could result from implementing conservation measures designed to help this iconic species persist. Society’s challenge to seek the delicate balance between the conservation of nature and the growth related to human endeavors exemplifies the need to use the best available science as we move forward. Representative information, especially at the landscape level related to sage-grouse, has been hard to come by. However, due to the vast ...


Ethics And Familiarity With Elephant Population Management, Katelyn Shook Apr 2020

Ethics And Familiarity With Elephant Population Management, Katelyn Shook

Honors Theses

Biologists study population statuses because, while many species are considered healthy, others are overpopulated or vulnerable to extinction. Assessing the extinction risk for various species on earth can be a difficult task. The International Union for Conservation of Nature(IUCN) is the global authority in charge of assessing a species’ status and putting it on the “Red List” (Blanc 2008). This IUCN Red List uses scientific studies such as population assessments and threat assessments to properly label a species as least concern, near threatened, vulnerable, endangered, critically endangered, extinct in the wild, or extinct (NRDC 2016). Within these categories, least ...


Bird And Mammal Fauna Assemblages In Well-Preserved Natural Grasslands Of Uruguay With Different Livestock Management, Rafael A. Tosi-Germán, Álvaro Laborda, Sebastián Donate, Oscar Blumetto Apr 2020

Bird And Mammal Fauna Assemblages In Well-Preserved Natural Grasslands Of Uruguay With Different Livestock Management, Rafael A. Tosi-Germán, Álvaro Laborda, Sebastián Donate, Oscar Blumetto

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The aim of this study is to assess the composition of mammalian and avian communities in sites under two different cattle management plans: one where sheep are present along bovine cattle and another where pastures are grazed solely by bovines.


Conservation Of Bta-Mir-29b And Its Effect On Human Gene Expression, Anna Barent, Katie Meinders, Daniel Gutzmann, Audrey L. Atkin Apr 2020

Conservation Of Bta-Mir-29b And Its Effect On Human Gene Expression, Anna Barent, Katie Meinders, Daniel Gutzmann, Audrey L. Atkin

UCARE Research Products

The purposeof this work was to examine conservation of miR-29b and its binding sites in target mRNAs as well as co-expression of bta-miR-29b in bovine milk exosomes and its target mRNAs in HEK293 cells

•miRNAs are often highly conserved across species and bind to target mRNAs resulting in decreased gene expression. •Bovine milk exosomes contain miRNAs and most of these miRNAs are identical to human miRNAs. •Because these miRNAs are so conserved, it is hypothesized that bovine miRNAs can regulate gene expression and be linked to disease risk.

•miR-29b is highly conserved. •Identified 17 experimentally validated miR-29b target mRNAs. •The ...


Detection Probability Of The American Marten (Martes Americana) In Michigan’S Lower Peninsula, Taylor Brian Root Apr 2020

Detection Probability Of The American Marten (Martes Americana) In Michigan’S Lower Peninsula, Taylor Brian Root

Masters Theses

To accurately manage for the sustainability of wildlife populations, managers must first determine how to locate individuals of a population with great consistency. Determining the efficiency of detection techniques is a challenge, especially when the study species are scarce or elusive. Such is the case with the American marten (Martes americana), a small mustelid found across the Northern United States and Canada. In the lower peninsula of Michigan, marten are considered a species of concern, and the full extent of their range remains unknown. My goal was to test the efficacy of motiontriggered cameras for detecting the presence of American ...


Conservation Efforts Concerning Native Bee Species Of Michigan, Thomas Hellman Apr 2020

Conservation Efforts Concerning Native Bee Species Of Michigan, Thomas Hellman

Independent Study Project (ISP) Collection

Bee species all over the world are declining at concerning rates. However, it is good to see the public rallying behind the “save the bees!” movement even though most efforts from this movement have been on the conservation of the European honeybees. This is because most people often associate the honeybee, which is only one of 20,000 known bee species in the world, to all other bees. Therefore, conservation efforts should be broadened and aimed towards the many native bee species that can be found locally in North America. In the state of Michigan, there are over 450 species ...


Mesohabitat Associations Of The Devil Tryonia, Tryonia Diaboli (Gastropoda: Truncatelloidea: Cochliopidae), Peter H. Diaz, Dominique Alvear, Kathryn E. Perez Apr 2020

Mesohabitat Associations Of The Devil Tryonia, Tryonia Diaboli (Gastropoda: Truncatelloidea: Cochliopidae), Peter H. Diaz, Dominique Alvear, Kathryn E. Perez

Biology Faculty Publications and Presentations

The Cochliopidae of Texas include both stygobitic species, those that occupy only underground habitats, and epigean species, those living only in aboveground habitats. The devil tryonia, Tryonia diaboli, was described from the Devils River of Texas from river wrack, without additional habitat information. This species has been largely ignored since its description, so details of its habitat and ecology are obscure. In Dolan Springs and Finegan Springs, flowing into the Devils River, we sampled macroinvertebrates at five sites that form a gradient from the aquifer to the mainstem Devils River. We found the highest abundances of T. diaboli in aquifer ...


Integration Of Biodiversity And Agricultural Production Across Australian Temperate Grasslands, Kerry L. Bridle, Jim Crosthwaite, Louise Gilfedder Mar 2020

Integration Of Biodiversity And Agricultural Production Across Australian Temperate Grasslands, Kerry L. Bridle, Jim Crosthwaite, Louise Gilfedder

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

The transformation of Australian agriculture over the 20th Century saw the conversion of native pastures to improved pastures, largely through the application of artificial fertilisers. During this time biodiversity conservation was largely confined to iconic scenic reserves on public land. Today, nationally endangered temperate native grassland communities are largely confined to private land. The development of the Landcare Movement in the 1980s highlighted the role that agricultural land managers and agricultural landscapes play in maintaining biodiversity across the continent. Research into on-farm conservation was soon being funded by governments at state and commonwealth levels, as well as industry bodies. These ...


Biodiversity Mainstreaming In South Africa’S Production Landscapes: Lessons And Achievements, Aimee Ginsburg, Anthea Stephens, Mahlodi Tau, Emily Botts, Stephen Holness Mar 2020

Biodiversity Mainstreaming In South Africa’S Production Landscapes: Lessons And Achievements, Aimee Ginsburg, Anthea Stephens, Mahlodi Tau, Emily Botts, Stephen Holness

International Grassland Congress Proceedings

South Africa’s grasslands are critically threatened and many biodiversity priority areas lie in production landscapes. This is a challenge best addressed by an approach aimed at strengthening the enabling environment, and innovating, piloting and mainstreaming new models for biodiversity management into production sectors, namely agriculture, forestry, urban development and coal mining. The Grassland Programme (a 20-year partnership between government, conservation agencies, non-governmental organisations, and private sector) has implemented this approach to sustain and secure grassland biodiversity and ecosystem services for the benefit of current and future generations. In five years of implementation, notable achievements have been in shaping policies ...


The Effects Of Phosphate On The Metamorphosis Of Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov Mar 2020

The Effects Of Phosphate On The Metamorphosis Of Larval Western Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma Mavortium), Lexy Polivanov

Honors Theses, University of Nebraska-Lincoln

This investigation will collect data to assist in determining if elevated aquatic phosphate levels affects the metamorphosis rate of larval western barred tiger salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium). Monoammonium phosphate fertilizers are being used on crops in Nebraska (NDA, 2017). This area lines up with the area the western barred tiger salamanders are disappearing from (Damme, 2018). Monoammonium phosphate is made up of nitrogen and phosphate. There have been several studies showing how nitrogen is harmful to amphibians such as this salamander (Griffis-Kyle, 2007) (Griffis-Kyle & Richtie, 2007), but there have not been many showing how phosphate affects amphibian’s metamorphosis in the ...


Active Humans, Inactive Carnivores, And Hiking Trails Within A Suburban Preserve, Sonny Bandak, Ronald J. Sarno, Michaela C. Peterson, Daniel Farkas, Melissa M. Grigione Mar 2020

Active Humans, Inactive Carnivores, And Hiking Trails Within A Suburban Preserve, Sonny Bandak, Ronald J. Sarno, Michaela C. Peterson, Daniel Farkas, Melissa M. Grigione

Suburban Sustainability

As urban areas continue to proliferate, so does the demand for outdoor recreation. Hiking trails permeate almost all remaining forest fragments within highly urbanized areas. The effects of hiking trails on carnivores remain unclear, especially in the northeastern United States. Therefore, our objectives were to investigate the spatial and temporal activity patterns of mammalian carnivores in relation to distance from hiking trails. From 2011-2012, 236 camera stations were randomly deployed between trail and off-trail areas that covered an area of 4.8km2. A total of 3880 trap nights yielded 346 coyote (Canis latrans), 371 raccoon (Procyon lotor), 75 bobcat ...