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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Fish Sound Production In The Presence Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Carrie C. Wall, Chad Lembke, Chuanmin Hu, David A. Mann Dec 2014

Fish Sound Production In The Presence Of Harmful Algal Blooms In The Eastern Gulf Of Mexico, Carrie C. Wall, Chad Lembke, Chuanmin Hu, David A. Mann

Marine Science Faculty Publications

This paper presents the first known research to examine sound production by fishes during harmful algal blooms (HABs). Most fish sound production is species-specific and repetitive, enabling passive acoustic monitoring to identify the distribution and behavior of soniferous species. Autonomous gliders that collect passive acoustic data and environmental data concurrently can be used to establish the oceanographic conditions surrounding sound-producing organisms. Three passive acoustic glider missions were conducted off west-central Florida in October 2011, and September and October 2012. The deployment period for two missions was dictated by the presence of red tide events with the glider path specifically set ...


The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher Dec 2014

The Impact Of Changing Surface Ocean Conditions On The Dissolution Of Aerosol Iron, Matthew Fishwick, Peter Sedwick, Maeve Lohan, Pau Worsfold, Kristen N. Buck, Thomas Church, Simon Ussher

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The proportion of aerosol iron (Fe) that dissolves in seawater varies greatly and is dependent on aerosol composition and the physicochemical conditions of seawater, which may change depending on location or be altered by global environmental change. Aerosol and surface seawater samples were collected in the Sargasso Sea and used to investigate the impact of these changing conditions on aerosol Fe dissolution in seawater. Our data show that seawater temperature, pH, and oxygen concentration, within the range of current and projected future values, had no significant effect on the dissolution of aerosol Fe. However, the source and composition of aerosols ...


Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds Nov 2014

Reef-Scale Thermal Stress Monitoring Of Coral Ecosystems: New 5-Km Global Products From Noaa Coral Reef Watch, Gang Liu, Scott F. Heron, C. Mark Eakin, Frank E. Muller-Karger, María Vega-Rodriguez, Liane S. Guild, Jacqueline L. De La Cour, Erick F. Geiger, William J. Skirving, Timothy F. R. Burgess, Alan E. Strong, Andy Harris, Eileen Maturi, Alexander Ignatov, John Sapper, Jianke Li, Susan Lynds

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Coral Reef Watch (CRW) program has developed a daily global 5-km product suite based on satellite observations to monitor thermal stress on coral reefs. These products fulfill requests from coral reef managers and researchers for higher resolution products by taking advantage of new satellites, sensors and algorithms. Improvements of the 5-km products over CRW’s heritage global 50-km products are derived from: (1) the higher resolution and greater data density of NOAA’s next-generation operational daily global 5-km geo-polar blended sea surface temperature (SST) analysis; and (2) implementation of a new ...


Stable Isotopes In Fish Eye Lenses As Potential Recorders Of Trophic And Geographic History, Amy A. Wallace, David J. Hollander, Ernst B. Peebles Oct 2014

Stable Isotopes In Fish Eye Lenses As Potential Recorders Of Trophic And Geographic History, Amy A. Wallace, David J. Hollander, Ernst B. Peebles

Marine Science Faculty Publications

We evaluated eye lenses as potential recorders of stable isotope histories in fish because they consist of metabolically inert optical proteins that are deposited in successive, concentric circles (laminae) much like otolith circuli and tree rings. We conducted four different tests on lenses from red snapper, red grouper, gag, and white grunt. The first test was a low-resolution screening of multiple individuals (4–5 radial groups of laminae per lens, all species except white grunt). Along the radial axis, all individuals exhibited substantial isotopic variability. Red snapper individuals separated into two groups based on δ15N and gag separated ...


Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana Sep 2014

Assessing Climate Variability Effects On Dengue Incidence In San Juan, Puerto Rico, Pablo Méndez-Lázaro, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Daniel Otis, Matthew J Mccarthy, Marisol Peña-Orellana

Marine Science Faculty Publications

We test the hypothesis that climate and environmental conditions are becoming favorable for dengue transmission in San Juan, Puerto Rico. Sea Level Pressure (SLP), Mean Sea Level (MSL), Wind, Sea Surface Temperature (SST), Air Surface Temperature (AST), Rainfall, and confirmed dengue cases were analyzed. We evaluated the dengue incidence and environmental data with Principal Component Analysis, Pearson correlation coefficient, Mann-Kendall trend test and logistic regressions. Results indicated that dry days are increasing and wet days are decreasing. MSL is increasing, posing higher risk of dengue as the perimeter of the San Juan Bay estuary expands and shorelines move inland. Warming ...


A Record Of Anthropogenic Effects On Sedimentation In The Manatee River, Florida, Patrick Schwing, Ashanti Johnson Aug 2014

A Record Of Anthropogenic Effects On Sedimentation In The Manatee River, Florida, Patrick Schwing, Ashanti Johnson

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Increased sedimentation rates have been attributed to increased anthropogenic activity in watersheds throughout Florida and many parts of the world. The Manatee River, located on the west coast of Florida (USA), like many other coastal watersheds, has experienced depletion in natural resources, increased nutrient loading, and increased pollution. LARs (linear accumulation rates) from watersheds throughout Florida suggest that anthropogenic activity increased bulk sedimentation by as much as 4-fold. The objective of this study was to construct a record of sedimentation and improve upon previous studies by determining individual sedimentary constituent MARs (mass accumulation rates) based on short lived radioisotopes (210Pb ...


Silica Cycling In The Ultra-Oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea, M. D. Krom, N. Kress, Kent A. Fanning Ph.D. Aug 2014

Silica Cycling In The Ultra-Oligotrophic Eastern Mediterranean Sea, M. D. Krom, N. Kress, Kent A. Fanning Ph.D.

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Although silica is a key plant nutrient, there have been few studies aimed at understanding the Si cycle in the eastern Mediterranean Sea (EMS). Here we use a combination of new measurements and literature values to explain the silicic acid distribution across the basin and to calculate a silica budget to identify the key controlling processes. The surface water concentration of ∼1 μM, which is unchanging seasonally across the basin, was due to the inflow of western Mediterranean Sea (WMS) water at the Straits of Sicily. It does not change seasonally because there is only a sparse population of diatoms ...


Real‐Time Oceanographic Data: From Safety To Science, Steven D. Meyers, Jeffrey Scudder, Mark E. Luther Aug 2014

Real‐Time Oceanographic Data: From Safety To Science, Steven D. Meyers, Jeffrey Scudder, Mark E. Luther

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Coastal areas such as bays and estuaries host 30%–50% of the global human population and shipping ports that handle 80% of world trade. These areas are increasingly vulnerable to chemical and biological contamination and to storm surge in the short term and to sea level rise in the long term.


Evaluation Of Foraminiferal Trace Element Cleaning Protocols On The Mg/Ca Of Marine Ostracod Genus Krithe, William Gray, Jonathan Holmes, Amelia E. Shevenell Aug 2014

Evaluation Of Foraminiferal Trace Element Cleaning Protocols On The Mg/Ca Of Marine Ostracod Genus Krithe, William Gray, Jonathan Holmes, Amelia E. Shevenell

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The Mg/Ca of calcite from the marine ostracod genus Krithe may be an important tool for reconstructing past changes in oceanic bottom water temperature (150–4000 m water depth). Rigorous cleaning procedures, routinely used to remove clays, organic matter and Fe–Mn oxyhydroxide coatings in trace element studies of foraminifera, are not regularly applied to marine ostracods despite the potential for Mg contamination. Here we apply standard oxidative and reductive foraminiferal cleaning procedures to core top Krithe pernoides valves from boxcore OCE205-50BC (26.23°N, 77.7°W, 817 m water depth) to evaluate the effects of contamination on ...


Problems Associated With A Lipofuscin Extraction Method Used To Age Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus Cultured In Florida, Usa, Claire E. Crowley, Ryan L. Gandy, Kendra L. Daly, Edward S. Van Vleet Jul 2014

Problems Associated With A Lipofuscin Extraction Method Used To Age Blue Crabs Callinectes Sapidus Cultured In Florida, Usa, Claire E. Crowley, Ryan L. Gandy, Kendra L. Daly, Edward S. Van Vleet

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The blue crab Callinectes sapidus is an ecologically and economically important component of marine and estuarine ecosystems of the western Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Current stock assessments lack a clear understanding of the age structure of blue crab populations in Florida (USA). Blue crabs and other crustaceans are especially difficult to age because of the complex nature of their discrete, rather than continuous, growth patterns. Chesapeake Bay researchers developed a method of aging blue crabs by assaying the aging pigment lipofuscin extracted from eyestalk nerve tissue. Here we investigated the usefulness of that method in determining the age of ...


Consistency Of The Current Global Ocean Observing Systems From An Argo Perspective, K. Von Schuckmann, J.-B. Sallée, D. Chambers, P.-Y. Le Traon, C. Cabanes, F. Gaillard, S. Speich, M. Hamon Jun 2014

Consistency Of The Current Global Ocean Observing Systems From An Argo Perspective, K. Von Schuckmann, J.-B. Sallée, D. Chambers, P.-Y. Le Traon, C. Cabanes, F. Gaillard, S. Speich, M. Hamon

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Variations in the world's ocean heat storage and its associated volume changes are a key factor to gauge global warming and to assess the earth's energy and sea level budget. Estimating global ocean heat content (GOHC) and global steric sea level (GSSL) with temperature/salinity data from the Argo network reveals a positive change of 0.5 ± 0.1 W m−2 (applied to the surface area of the ocean) and 0.5 ± 0.1 mm year−1 during the years 2005 to 2012, averaged between 60° S and 60° N and the 10–1500 m depth layer ...


The Gut Of Geographically Disparate Ciona Intestinalis Harbors A Core Microbiota, Larry J. Dishaw, Jaime Flores-Torres, Simon Lax, Kristina Gemayel, Brittany Leigh, Daniela Melillo, M. Gail Mueller, Lenina Natale, Ivana Zucchetti, Rosaria De Santis, Maria Rosaria Pinto, Gary W. Litman, Jack W. Gilbert Apr 2014

The Gut Of Geographically Disparate Ciona Intestinalis Harbors A Core Microbiota, Larry J. Dishaw, Jaime Flores-Torres, Simon Lax, Kristina Gemayel, Brittany Leigh, Daniela Melillo, M. Gail Mueller, Lenina Natale, Ivana Zucchetti, Rosaria De Santis, Maria Rosaria Pinto, Gary W. Litman, Jack W. Gilbert

Marine Science Faculty Publications

It is now widely understood that all animals engage in complex interactions with bacteria (or microbes) throughout their various life stages. This ancient exchange can involve cooperation and has resulted in a wide range of evolved host-microbial interdependencies, including those observed in the gut. Ciona intestinalis, a filter-feeding basal chordate and classic developmental model that can be experimentally manipulated, is being employed to help define these relationships. Ciona larvae are first exposed internally to microbes upon the initiation of feeding in metamorphosed individuals; however, whether or not these microbes subsequently colonize the gut and whether or not Ciona forms relationships ...


Diversity Of Environmental Single-Stranded Dna Phages Revealed By Pcr Amplification Of The Partial Major Capsid Protein, Max S. Hopkins, Shweta Kailasan, Allison Cohen, Simon Roux, Amelia E. Shevenell, Mavis Agbandje-Mckenna, Mya Breitbart Apr 2014

Diversity Of Environmental Single-Stranded Dna Phages Revealed By Pcr Amplification Of The Partial Major Capsid Protein, Max S. Hopkins, Shweta Kailasan, Allison Cohen, Simon Roux, Amelia E. Shevenell, Mavis Agbandje-Mckenna, Mya Breitbart

Marine Science Faculty Publications

The small single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) bacteriophages of the subfamily Gokushovirinae were traditionally perceived as narrowly targeted, niche-specific viruses infecting obligate parasitic bacteria, such as Chlamydia. The advent of metagenomics revealed gokushoviruses to be widespread in global environmental samples. This study expands knowledge of gokushovirus diversity in the environment by developing a degenerate PCR assay to amplify a portion of the major capsid protein (MCP) gene of gokushoviruses. Over 500 amplicons were sequenced from 10 environmental samples (sediments, sewage, seawater and freshwater), revealing the ubiquity and high diversity of this understudied phage group. Residue-level conservation data generated from multiple alignments was ...


On The Consistency Of Modis Chlorophyll $A$ Products In The Northern South China Sea, S. L. Shang, Q. Dong, Chuanmin M. Hu, G. Lin, Y. H. Li, S. P. Shang Jan 2014

On The Consistency Of Modis Chlorophyll $A$ Products In The Northern South China Sea, S. L. Shang, Q. Dong, Chuanmin M. Hu, G. Lin, Y. H. Li, S. P. Shang

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Chlorophyll a (Chl) concentrations derived from satellite measurements have been used in oceanographic research, for example to interpret eco-responses to environmental changes on global and regional scales. However, it is unclear how existing Chl products compare with each other in terms of accuracy and consistency in revealing temporal and spatial patterns, especially in the optically complex marginal seas. In this study, we examined three MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) Chl data products that have been made available to the community by the US National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) using community-accepted algorithms and default parameterization. These included the products derived ...


Rna Viral Metagenome Of Whiteflies Leads To The Discovery And Characterization Of A Whitefly-Transmitted Carlavirus In North America, Karyna Rosario, Heather Capobianco, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Mya Breitbart, Jane E. Polston Jan 2014

Rna Viral Metagenome Of Whiteflies Leads To The Discovery And Characterization Of A Whitefly-Transmitted Carlavirus In North America, Karyna Rosario, Heather Capobianco, Terry Fei Fan Ng, Mya Breitbart, Jane E. Polston

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Whiteflies from the Bemisia tabaci species complex have the ability to transmit a large number of plant viruses and are some of the most detrimental pests in agriculture. Although whiteflies are known to transmit both DNA and RNA viruses, most of the diversity has been recorded for the former, specifically for the Begomovirus genus. This study investigated the total diversity of DNA and RNA viruses found in whiteflies collected from a single site in Florida to evaluate if there are additional, previously undetected viral types within the B. tabaci vector. Metagenomic analysis of viral DNA extracted from the whiteflies only ...


Characterizing The Impact And Response Of Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera To The Deepwater Horizon Event In The Northeastern Gulf Of Mexico, Patrick Schwing, Isabel C. Romero, Gregg Brooks, David W. Hastings, Rebekka Larson, L. M. Reilly, David J. Hollander, Jeff P. Chanton Jan 2014

Characterizing The Impact And Response Of Deep Sea Benthic Foraminifera To The Deepwater Horizon Event In The Northeastern Gulf Of Mexico, Patrick Schwing, Isabel C. Romero, Gregg Brooks, David W. Hastings, Rebekka Larson, L. M. Reilly, David J. Hollander, Jeff P. Chanton

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Sediment cores were collected from the Gulf of Mexico to assess the benthic foraminifera (BF) community structure changes in response to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) event. Short-lived radioisotope geochronologies (210Pb and 234Th), organic geochemical toxicity assessments, and redox metal concentrations were determined to relate changes in sedimentation rate, toxicity levels, and redox conditions with BF abundance. Records from December 2010 document a community-wide decrease in abundance in the upper 10 mm relative to the down-core mean. There is also depletion in the δ13C and Δ14C records of BF calcite (relative to down-core values) that is synchronous with the timing of ...


Rapid Changes In The Seasonal Sea Level Cycle Along The Us Gulf Coast From The Late 20th Century, Thomas Wahl, Francisco M. Calafat, Mark E. Luther Jan 2014

Rapid Changes In The Seasonal Sea Level Cycle Along The Us Gulf Coast From The Late 20th Century, Thomas Wahl, Francisco M. Calafat, Mark E. Luther

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Temporal variations of the seasonal sea level harmonics throughout the 20th and early 21st century along the United States Gulf coast are investigated. A significant amplification of the annual sea level cycle from the 1990s onward is found, with both lower winter and higher summer sea levels in the eastern Gulf. Ancillary data are used to build a set of multiple regression models to explore the mechanisms driving the decadal variability and recent increase in the annual cycle. The results suggest that changes in the air surface temperature toward warmer summers and colder winters and changes in mean sea level ...


A Time-Series View Of Changing Surface Ocean Chemistry Due To Ocean Uptake Of Anthropogenic Co2 And Ocean Acidification, Nicholas R. Bates, Yrene M. Astor, Matthew J. Church, Kim Currie, John E. Dore, Melchor González-Dávila, Laura Lorenzoni, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Jon Olafsson, J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano Jan 2014

A Time-Series View Of Changing Surface Ocean Chemistry Due To Ocean Uptake Of Anthropogenic Co2 And Ocean Acidification, Nicholas R. Bates, Yrene M. Astor, Matthew J. Church, Kim Currie, John E. Dore, Melchor González-Dávila, Laura Lorenzoni, Frank E. Muller-Karger, Jon Olafsson, J. Magdalena Santana-Casiano

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Sustained observations provide critically needed data and understanding not only about ocean warming and water cycle reorganization (e.g., salinity changes), ocean eutrophication, and ocean deoxygenation, but also about changes in ocean chemistry. As an example of changes in the global ocean carbon cycle, consistent changes in surface seawater CO2-carbonate chemistry are documented by seven independent CO2 time series that provide sustained ocean observations collected for periods from 15 to 30 years: (1) Iceland Sea, (2) Irminger Sea, (3) Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS), (4) European Station for Time series in the Ocean at the Canary Islands (ESTOC), (5) CArbon ...


A Framework For A Marine Biodiversity Observing Network Within Changing Continental Shelf Seascapes, Frank Muller-Karger, Maria Kavanaugh, Enrique Montes, William Balch, Mya Breitbart Jan 2014

A Framework For A Marine Biodiversity Observing Network Within Changing Continental Shelf Seascapes, Frank Muller-Karger, Maria Kavanaugh, Enrique Montes, William Balch, Mya Breitbart

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Continental shelves and the waters overlying them support numerous industries as diverse as tourism and recreation, energy extraction, fisheries, transportation, and applications of marine bio-molecules (e.g., agribusiness, food processing, pharmaceuticals). Although these shelf ecosystems exhibit impacts of climate change and increased human use of resources (Halpern et al., 2012; IPCC, 2013, 2014; Melillo et al., 2014), there are currently no standardized metrics for assessing changes in ecological function in the coastal ocean. Here, we argue that it is possible to monitor vital signs of ecosystem function by focusing on the lowest levels of the ocean food web. Establishment of ...


Densovirus Associated With Sea-Star Wasting Disease And Mass Mortality, Ian Hewson, Jason Button, Brent Gudenkauf, Benjamin Miner, Alisa Newton, Mya Breitbart, Elizabeth Fahsbender, Kevin Lafferty Jan 2014

Densovirus Associated With Sea-Star Wasting Disease And Mass Mortality, Ian Hewson, Jason Button, Brent Gudenkauf, Benjamin Miner, Alisa Newton, Mya Breitbart, Elizabeth Fahsbender, Kevin Lafferty

Marine Science Faculty Publications

Sea stars inhabiting the Northeast Pacific Coast have recently experienced an extensive outbreak of wasting disease, leading to their degradation and disappearance from many coastal areas. In this paper, we present evidence that the cause of the disease is transmissible from disease-affected animals to apparently healthy individuals, that the disease-causing agent is a virus-sized microorganism, and that the best candidate viral taxon, the sea star-associated densovirus (SSaDV), is in greater abundance in diseased than in healthy sea stars.


Amazon River Water In The Northeastern Caribbean Sea And Its Effect On Larval Reef Fish Assemblages During April 2009, E. M. Johns, B. A. Muhling, R. C. Perez, Frank E. Muller-Karger, N. Melo, R. H. Smith, J. T. Lamkin, T. L. Gerard, E. Malca Jan 2014

Amazon River Water In The Northeastern Caribbean Sea And Its Effect On Larval Reef Fish Assemblages During April 2009, E. M. Johns, B. A. Muhling, R. C. Perez, Frank E. Muller-Karger, N. Melo, R. H. Smith, J. T. Lamkin, T. L. Gerard, E. Malca

Marine Science Faculty Publications

During April to June 2009, a large bolus of Amazon River water impacted the northeastern Caribbean Sea. Shipboard observations collected near Saba Bank, the U.S. and British Virgin Islands, and the Anegada Passage showed low surface salinity (35.76 ± 0.05 Practical Salinity Unit (PSU)), elevated surface temperature (26.77 ± 0.14°C), high chlorophyll-a (1.26 ± 0.21 mg m-3) and high dissolved oxygen (4.90 ± 0.06 mL L-1) in a 20- to 30-m thick surface layer in the riverine plume. The water was ~1°C warmer, 1 PSU fresher, 0.3 mL L-1 higher in oxygen ...