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Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

2003

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Articles 1 - 30 of 106

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Fresh Cow Health Issues, Jerry D. Olson Jan 2003

Fresh Cow Health Issues, Jerry D. Olson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The post-calving period is a critical time in a cow's life. The first few weeks post-calving pose the highest risk period for a number of diseases including milk fever, mastitis, metritis, pneumonia, retained fetal membranes, ketosis, and displaced abomasum. Post-calving diseases adversely affect dry matter intake, peak milk production, and reproductive performance, in addition to increasing the risk of involuntary culling and death. Consequences of disease can be costly. The ideal strategy is to minimize losses associated with disease by preventing their occurrence. However, even with the best management practices in place, it is impossible to prevent all post-calving ...


Cow Comfort Through The Transition Period, John F. Smith, Joseph P. Harner, Michael J. Brouk Jan 2003

Cow Comfort Through The Transition Period, John F. Smith, Joseph P. Harner, Michael J. Brouk

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Managing transition cows is a significant problem on dairy farms. The issues include nutritional considerations, stocking rates, metabolic disorders, heat stress, and access to feed and water. Often management of transition cows is limited to nutritional considerations. Facilities, grouping strategies, stocking rates, heat stress, and access to feed and water also have a dramatic impact on milk production, herd health, culling rates, and reproductive efficiency. Often nutritional benefits can be negated by not managing cow comfort issues. Producers can improve profitability by managing those variables.; Dairy Day, 2003, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2003;


Transition Cow Nutrition And Management, John E. Shirley Jan 2003

Transition Cow Nutrition And Management, John E. Shirley

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Dairy cows are generally provided with a 60-day dry period. The first part of the dry period is called the "far-off dry period" beginning at dry off and continuing until 21 days before projected calving date. The second part of the dry period is called the "close-up dry period" beginning at 21 days before projected calving date and ending at parturition. Diets formulated for far-off dry cows are generally high in forage and are designed to support body maintenance and fetal growth. Rumen function and microbial populations adjust to these diets by the end of the far-off period and require ...


Comparison Of Three Fresh Cow Feeding Programs, W.F. Miller, Evan C. Titgemeyer, A.F. Park, M.V. Burgos Jan 2003

Comparison Of Three Fresh Cow Feeding Programs, W.F. Miller, Evan C. Titgemeyer, A.F. Park, M.V. Burgos

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

We evaluated the impact on performance of top dressing a based total mixed ration (TMR) with long-stem alfalfa hay with or without additional dry-rolled corn to the lactating cow diet during the first 5 days postpartum. The three dietary treatments and numbers of cows assigned to each diet were: 1) total mixed ration (TMR; n = 19); 2) TMR + long-stem alfalfa hay (TMR + A; n= 20); and 3) TMR + long-stemmed alfalfa hay + dry-rolled corn (TMR + A + C; n = 20). Top dressing the lactating TMR with long-stem alfalfa hay with or without dry-rolled corn did not reduce the incidence of metabolic disorders ...


Field Day 2003, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station And Cooperative Extension Service Jan 2003

Field Day 2003, Kansas State University. Agricultural Experiment Station And Cooperative Extension Service

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Each Field Day report consists of individual research reports on topics specific to the region, including cultural methods for most of the major crops grown in Kansas, mitigating the effects of weeds, insects, and disease associated with those crops, and irrigation. Research is conducted and reports written by staff of the K-State Research and Extension Southwest Research Extension Center.


Mechanical Probes Used On Uncooked Steaks Can Predict Cooked Beef Longissimus Tenderness, J. W. Stephens, J. A. Unruh, Michael E. Dikeman, M. C. Hunt, T. E. Lawrence, T. M. Loughin Jan 2003

Mechanical Probes Used On Uncooked Steaks Can Predict Cooked Beef Longissimus Tenderness, J. W. Stephens, J. A. Unruh, Michael E. Dikeman, M. C. Hunt, T. E. Lawrence, T. M. Loughin

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

We investigated five mechanical probes, used on uncooked strip loin steaks at 2 days postmortem, to predict trained sensory panel (TSP) tenderness and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of steaks aged 14 days. Twenty-nine USDA Select strip loins were evaluated with sharp needle, blunt needle, sharp blade, and blunt blade probes in parallel and perpendicular orientations to the length of the strip loin. A steak from each loin was also measured with a plumb bob probe in a parallel orientation and with a Miniscan for instrumental color. None of the perpendicular orientation measurements were correlated (P>0.05) to TSP tenderness ...


Ruminal Ammonia Load Does Not Affect Histidine Utilization In Growing Steers, K.C. Candler, M.S. Awawdeh, D.P. Gnad, Evan C. Titgemeyer Jan 2003

Ruminal Ammonia Load Does Not Affect Histidine Utilization In Growing Steers, K.C. Candler, M.S. Awawdeh, D.P. Gnad, Evan C. Titgemeyer

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Fermentation of dietary protein in the rumen leads to ammonia absorption, which could impair amino acid utilization in cattle. Our study was conducted to determine the effects of rumen ammonia load on histidine utilization. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (318 lb) housed in metabolism crates were used in a 6 x 6 Latin square design. Treatments were arranged as a 3 x 2 factorial and included: 0, 1.5, or 3 grams/day L-histidine infused abomasally; and 0 or 80 grams/day urea infused ruminally to supply a metabolic ammonia load. As expected, urea infusions increased rumen ammonia and plasma ...


Influence Of Low-Level Supplementation With A High-Protein Feed On Performance Of Beef Cows Grazing Tallgrass-Prairie Range During The Fall, Donald A. Llewellyn, R.C. Cochran, T.T. Martson, David M. Grieger, C.G. Farmer, T.A. Wickersham, D.D. Simms Jan 2003

Influence Of Low-Level Supplementation With A High-Protein Feed On Performance Of Beef Cows Grazing Tallgrass-Prairie Range During The Fall, Donald A. Llewellyn, R.C. Cochran, T.T. Martson, David M. Grieger, C.G. Farmer, T.A. Wickersham, D.D. Simms

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of hand feeding a limited quantity of a high-protein supplement during the fall grazing period on cow and calf performance. The time of initiation of supplementation was also evaluated. One-hundred thirty-six multiparous, pregnant, spring-calving cows grazing native range were assigned to supplementation treatments. Control cows received no fall supplementation. Supplemented cows received 0.14% of body weight per day (1.5 lbs per day) of a high-protein supplement (40% crude protein, as-fed basis) approximately 2 months before and after weaning (Aug 15 to Dec 14; weaning = Oct 15) or only after weaning ...


Changes In Fed Cattle Marketing Methods: Survey Results, C. Ward, J. Lawrence, D. Feuz, Ted C. Schroeder Jan 2003

Changes In Fed Cattle Marketing Methods: Survey Results, C. Ward, J. Lawrence, D. Feuz, Ted C. Schroeder

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Significant changes in fed cattle marketing methods have occurred over time. This report summarizes a survey conducted to determine current and intended marketing practices of cattle feeders. Use of marketing agreements has increased over time. In 1996, 23% of cattle fed by survey respondents were sold under some type of marketing agreement. This increased to 52% in 2001 and was expected to increase to 65% by 2006. Use by cattle feeders of cash live and carcass weight pricing is expected to decline, and grid pricing is expected to increase substantially over time. The percentage of cattle that survey respondents marketed ...


Warner-Bratzler Shear Force Values And Ranges Of Steaks From Cattle Of Known Sires, Michael E. Dikeman, E.J. Pollak, J. Taylor, S. Davis, T. Holm, S. Koontz, C. Gill, Daniel W. Moser, E.A. Dressler Jan 2003

Warner-Bratzler Shear Force Values And Ranges Of Steaks From Cattle Of Known Sires, Michael E. Dikeman, E.J. Pollak, J. Taylor, S. Davis, T. Holm, S. Koontz, C. Gill, Daniel W. Moser, E.A. Dressler

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Carcass data and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data on strip loin steaks were collected from nearly 8,500 cattle in contemporary groups of progeny from the more popular sires in 14 different beef cattle breeds in the Carcass Merit Traits project funded by Beef Checkoff dollars, the breed associations, and MMI Genomics. In addition, trained sensory panel evaluations were conducted on over 2,500 strip loin steaks from contemporary groups of progeny from five sires included in the DNA marker validation component of the project. The correlation between WBSF and tenderness scored by the trained sensory panel was -0.82 ...


Inhibition Of Heterocyclic Amine Formation In Beef Patties With Added Spices And Ingredients, S. Hinojosa Verdin, K.A. Hachmeister, J. Scott Smith Jan 2003

Inhibition Of Heterocyclic Amine Formation In Beef Patties With Added Spices And Ingredients, S. Hinojosa Verdin, K.A. Hachmeister, J. Scott Smith

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are compounds present at part per billion levels in fried, grilled, broiled, barbecued and smoked meats. Most of these compounds are highly mutagenic, as demonstrated by the Ames test using Salmonella typhimurium. They also are carcinogenic in rodents and non-human primates following high dosage and long term oral administration. For decades, researchers have focused on inhibiting the production of these carcinogens. This research investigates the effects of natural antioxidants in spices or other ingredients on the reduction of heterocyclic amines formation when beef patties are cooked. The term "spice" in this paper includes herbs. Ground beef patties ...


Effects Of Dried Plum Mixtures On Total Aerobic Growth In Uncooked Ground Beef, L.K. Thompson, Daniel Y.C. Fung Jan 2003

Effects Of Dried Plum Mixtures On Total Aerobic Growth In Uncooked Ground Beef, L.K. Thompson, Daniel Y.C. Fung

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Spices and plant components are being used more often in food products as natural antimicrobials. Dried plums are effective antimicrobials against foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7. The objective of this experiment was to determine the ability of dried plum mixtures to increase the shelf life of ground beef at refrigeration temperatures. Ground beef (80% lean) was mixed with 6% dried plum mixtures and stored at 45°F. Ground meat containing any of the seven dried plum mixtures remained at the initial total aerobic count of 6 log CFU/gram after 13 days compared to 8.5 log CFU ...


Effects Of Castration Age And A Growth Implant During Suckling On Weaning And Preconditioned Weights, T.T. Marston, Donald A. Llewellyn, J.W. Homm, Larry C. Hollis Jan 2003

Effects Of Castration Age And A Growth Implant During Suckling On Weaning And Preconditioned Weights, T.T. Marston, Donald A. Llewellyn, J.W. Homm, Larry C. Hollis

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Crossbred Angus calves (n=141) were used to determine the effect of castration age and implant on weaning and preconditioned weights. Calf treatments consisted of: early castration at 90 days of age with no growth implant, early castration with a growth implant (Synovex C) at 90 days of age, or late castration at weaning (226 days of age). All calves completed a preconditioning program that consisted of timely vaccinations (21 days prior and at weaning) and a 28-day, post-weaning feeding period. Steers that were early castrated/implanted had weaning weights similar to those of bull calves, and both groups weighed ...


Improper Dosing Using Average Cattle Weights, M.F. Spire, James J. Higgins, Larry C. Hollis, Dale A. Blasi Jan 2003

Improper Dosing Using Average Cattle Weights, M.F. Spire, James J. Higgins, Larry C. Hollis, Dale A. Blasi

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A retrospective analysis of 6,231 head of stocker and feeder cattle comprising 24 separate lots was conducted to evaluate the extent and degree of improper dosing that would have occurred in individual animals if all animals in each lot were treated with a single dosage level of a pharmaceutical product based upon the average weight of the lot. Nine hundred forty-six head would have been overdosed by 10% or more, while 831 head would have been underdosed by 10% or more. Four hundred thirty-eight head would have been overdosed by 15% or more, while 366 head would have been ...


Corn Particle Size And Pelleting Influence On Growth Performance, Fecal Shedding, And Lymph Node Infection Rates Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, M R. Barker, J Ernest Minton, Joel M. Derouchey, K M. Bond, D J. Lee, T E. Burkey, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2003

Corn Particle Size And Pelleting Influence On Growth Performance, Fecal Shedding, And Lymph Node Infection Rates Of Salmonella Enterica Serovar Typhimurium, M R. Barker, J Ernest Minton, Joel M. Derouchey, K M. Bond, D J. Lee, T E. Burkey, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Ninety-six pigs (initially 13.8 lb.) were used in a 28-d trial to determine the interactive effects between pelleting and particle size on Salmonella serovar Typhimurium shedding and colonization in a young growing pig model. The experiment was a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement consisting of meal or pelleted diets with fine or coarse ground corn. Pigs were fed the diets 1 wk pre-salmonella inoculation and allotted based on weight to one of four dietary treatments. For the main effect of particle size, pigs fed finer ground corn had significantly improved feed efficiency (P<0.01) than pigs fed coarser ground corn for the 28 d trial. Pigs fed meal diets had greater ADG, ADFI, and improved F/G (P<0.05) than the pigs fed pelleted diets. Fecal shedding of salmonella was low and variable, with no significant differences between main effects (P<0.26) or in treatments (P>0.82). There was no difference ...


Effect Of Melengestrol Acetate (Mga) On Cultured Bovine Muscle Satellite Cell Proliferation And Differentiation, E.K. Sissom, J.P. Kayser, A.T. Waylan, J.D. Dunn, B.J. Johnson Jan 2003

Effect Of Melengestrol Acetate (Mga) On Cultured Bovine Muscle Satellite Cell Proliferation And Differentiation, E.K. Sissom, J.P. Kayser, A.T. Waylan, J.D. Dunn, B.J. Johnson

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Melengestrol acetate (MGA) increases growth rate and inhibits estrus in feedlot heifers. Little is known of MGA's effect on skeletal muscle growth and differentiation. The purpose of this trial was to investigate the potential direct effects of MGA on cultured bovine muscle satellite cell proliferation and differentiation. Satellite cells isolated from yearling cattle were used to assess the effect of MGA in a dose titration (0, 1 nM, 10 nM, 100 nM, 1 μM, 10 μM, and 100 μM) study on [3H]-thymidine incorporation. Likewise, satellite cell cultures were allowed to differentiate, and nuclei were stained at 168 hours ...


The Optimal True Ileal Digestible Lysine Requirement For 22 To 45 Lb Pigs, N A. Lenehan, J L. Usry, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2003

The Optimal True Ileal Digestible Lysine Requirement For 22 To 45 Lb Pigs, N A. Lenehan, J L. Usry, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Joel M. Derouchey, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 1,440 pigs (initially 22.5 lb and 21 d after weaning) was used in a 21-d growth assay to determine the optimal lysine level to maximize growth performance of 22- to 45-lb pigs. Pigs were fed one of five dietary treatments with increasing dietary lysine (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4 and 1.5% true digestible lysine). All diets had the same soybean meal level with crystalline amino acids added to achieve the increasing lysine levels while maintaining a minimum ratio of all other amino acids to lysine. Average daily gain and feed efficiency ...


Evaluation Of Different Soy Protein Concentrate Sources On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs, N A. Lenehan, M R. Barker, N Z. Frantz, C N. Groesbeck, T Iwasawa, T P. Keegan, K R. Lawrence, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2003

Evaluation Of Different Soy Protein Concentrate Sources On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs, N A. Lenehan, M R. Barker, N Z. Frantz, C N. Groesbeck, T Iwasawa, T P. Keegan, K R. Lawrence, Robert D. Goodband, Michael D. Tokach, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Three experiments were conducted using 486 weanling pigs (216 in Experiment 1; 210 in Experiment 2; 60 in Experiment 3) to determine the effects of different soy protein concentrate (SPC) sources on growth performance. Soy protein concentrate source 1 is dried with a torus disk following the concentration of soy proteins. This drying procedure will generate some degree of heat and possibly mechanical forces somewhat similar to extrusion processing (Soycomil P®, ADM). Soy protein concentrate source 2 is dried by a different process, and then it is moist extruded (Profine E, Central Soya). Therefore, the objective of our study was ...


Evaluation Of Hemicell® On Growth Performance Of Late Nursery Pigs, N A. Lenehan, C N. Groesbeck, C W. Hastad, T P. Keegan, K R. Lawrence, M G. Young, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2003

Evaluation Of Hemicell® On Growth Performance Of Late Nursery Pigs, N A. Lenehan, C N. Groesbeck, C W. Hastad, T P. Keegan, K R. Lawrence, M G. Young, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 276 pigs (initially 21.9 lb) was used to determine the effects of added Hemicell® on growth performance. Hemicell® is a patented fermentation product of Bacillus lentus. The active ingredient in the fermentation product is β-mannanase. However, other enzymes such as amylase, xylanase, cellulases, and α-galactosidase also are present. It is claimed that Hemicell® degrades β-mannan in feed, thus, removing its effects as an antinutritive factor in swine diets. Dietary treatments were arranged as a 2 x 3 factorial, with or without 0.05% Hemicell®, in diets with 3 levels of energy density (1,388, 1 ...


Effects Of L-Carnitine On Fetal Growth And The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System In Pigs, A T. Waylan, B J. Johnson, J P. Kayser, D P. Gnad, J D. Dunn, E K. Sissom, James J. Higgins, J C. Woodworth Jan 2003

Effects Of L-Carnitine On Fetal Growth And The Insulin-Like Growth Factor System In Pigs, A T. Waylan, B J. Johnson, J P. Kayser, D P. Gnad, J D. Dunn, E K. Sissom, James J. Higgins, J C. Woodworth

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Twelve sows were used to examine the effects of feeding L-carnitine from artificial insemination to mid-gestation on maternal circulating IGF-I and carnitine concentrations and fetal growth. Supplementing L-carnitine did not influence the serum concentration of IGF-I. However, sows that were fed carnitine had increased circulating plasma free carnitine. Litters from sows fed L-carnitine were heavier and had more fetuses. The increase in litter fetus number was not detrimental to other growth traits such as individual fetal weight or crown to rump length. Our study suggests that feeding L-carnitine to gestating sows is beneficial for fetal growth and development.; Swine Day ...


Added Fat In Diets For Pigs In Early And Late Finishing, E C. Baudon, N Llanes, Joe D. Hancock Jan 2003

Added Fat In Diets For Pigs In Early And Late Finishing, E C. Baudon, N Llanes, Joe D. Hancock

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 416 pigs, with an average initial body weight of 127 lb, was used to determine the effect of adding fat in diets for early and late finishing on growth performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments were: a no added fat control; addition of fat in early finishing (127 to 219 lb body weight); addition of fat in late finishing (219 to 280 lb body weight); and addition of fat throughout finishing (127 to 280 lb body weight). For the first period (127 to 219 lb body weight), ADG and F/G were improved by 5 and 9%, respectively ...


Comparision Of Antibiotics And Antimicrobial Alternatives On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs In A Commercial Environment, T P. Keegan, Joel M. Derouchey, Jim L. Nelssen, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2003

Comparision Of Antibiotics And Antimicrobial Alternatives On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs In A Commercial Environment, T P. Keegan, Joel M. Derouchey, Jim L. Nelssen, Michael D. Tokach, Robert D. Goodband, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 320 weanling pigs (11.7 lb and 14 ± 3 d of age, PIC) was used to determine the effects of antibiotics and antimicrobial alternatives in diets for nursery pigs reared in a commercial environment. Pigs were fed one of 5 experimental diets: 1) control with no antimicrobials; 2) carbadox (50 g/ton); 3) Lacto- Sacc® (0.2%); 4) Bio-Plus® 2B (0.05%); or 5) Bio-Mos™(0.3%). Lacto Sacc® is a concentrated form of selected live yeast cells while Bio Plus® 2B contains two bacillus strains. Bio-Mos™ is a mannanoligosaccharide derived from yeast. Overall (d 0 ...


The Influence Of Dietary Fat Level And Crystalline Amino Acid Additions On Growth Performance Of 25- To 50-Lb Pigs, J Usry, Michael D. Tokach, Joel M. Derouchey, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2003

The Influence Of Dietary Fat Level And Crystalline Amino Acid Additions On Growth Performance Of 25- To 50-Lb Pigs, J Usry, Michael D. Tokach, Joel M. Derouchey, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

To determine the effects of increasing added fat on pig growth performance 1,440 pigs (each initially 26 lb) were used in a 21 d growth trial. Pigs were fed diets containing none, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0% choice white grease. Increasing added fat reduced (linear, P<0.05) ADFI and improved F/G. Although ADG was not significantly affected by fat level, increasing added fat from 0 to 1.5% or greater resulted in a 1-lb increase in total weight gain over the entire trial. The greatest improvement in feed efficiency was also observed with the addition of the first 1.5% fat; however, further increases in dietary fat continued to linearly reduce ADFI and improve F/G. These results would suggest that from 25 to 50 lb, 1.5 to 3.0% added fat optimized pig growth performance. Based on the results of Experiment 1, we conducted Experiment 2 to confirm the optimum level of added fat in combination with increased use of crystalline amino acids (3 vs 6 lb/ton L-lysine + other amino acids) to meet the pig's lysine requirements. In Experiment 2, 1,152 pigs (each initially 21 lb) were fed one of four dietary treatments arranged in a 2 x 2 factorial. Main effects included added fat (3 or 6%) and crystalline amino acid amounts (3 vs 6 lb/ton Llysine HCl with other amino acids added to maintain proper amino acid to lysine ratios). No differences were observed in growth performance, but based on current ingredient prices, reducing the amount of soybean meal by the use of higher levels of crystalline amino acids increased margin over feed cost. In conclusion, these data indicate that 3% added fat will optimize growth performance and margin over feed costs, and that the use of greater amounts of crystalline amino acids (up to 6 lb/ton L-lysine with added L-threonine and DL methionine) are efficiently used by the pig and will also help further increase margin over feed costs.; Swine Day, 2003, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, 2003


Effects Of Diet Complexity And Replacement Of Soybean Meal On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs, E C. Baudon, N Llanes, Joe D. Hancock Jan 2003

Effects Of Diet Complexity And Replacement Of Soybean Meal On Growth Performance Of Weanling Pigs, E C. Baudon, N Llanes, Joe D. Hancock

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 192 pigs (avg initial BW of 13.9 lb and avg initial age of 21 d) was used to determine the effects of complex diet formulations (with plasma protein and whey) in nursery diets with wheat gluten used to replace soybean meal. Treatments were arranged as a 2 x 2 factorial, with main effects of diet complexity (no animal plasma and 10% dried whey vs 7% animal plasma and 20% dried whey) and soybean meal (25% vs none). For d 0 to 14, the complex diet formulations increased ADG while replacement of the soybean meal with wheat ...


Dietary Energy Density And Growing-Finishing Pig Performance And Profitability, M G. Young, Michael D. Tokach, Joel M. Derouchey, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz Jan 2003

Dietary Energy Density And Growing-Finishing Pig Performance And Profitability, M G. Young, Michael D. Tokach, Joel M. Derouchey, Robert D. Goodband, Jim L. Nelssen, Steven S. Dritz

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A retrospective analysis of 25 studies (16 at university and 9 at field research facilities) was conducted to model the response in ADG and F/G to increasing dietary energy density and its effect on profitability. Average daily feed intake in the field studies was approximately 30% lower than in the university studies, and as pigs increase in weight in the university studies they transition to a non-energy dependent phase of growth at a lighter weight than those in the field studies. The percentage response in ADG per percent added fat in the university studies was greater for the first ...


Investigation Of Tenderness Mechanisms In Calcium-Enhanced Muscle, T.E. Lawrence, J.W. Stephens, E. Obuz, J.R. Davis, Michael E. Dikeman Jan 2003

Investigation Of Tenderness Mechanisms In Calcium-Enhanced Muscle, T.E. Lawrence, J.W. Stephens, E. Obuz, J.R. Davis, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

We explored the mechanism(s) of calcium- induced tenderization in calcium-enhanced beef muscle. At 72 hours postmortem, we injected (9% by weight) beef strip loins (n=15) with 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 M calcium chloride (CaCl2) with and without 0.05 M zinc chloride (ZnCl2), and they were then aged until 15 days postmortem. Warner- Bratzler shear force peak values indicated that addition of ZnCl2 drastically inhibited tenderization; however, enhancement with CaCl2 still tended to reduce shear values (P=0.07; 0.55 kg) when ZnCl2 was present. In the absence of ZnCl2, the ...


Heritability And Correlation Estimates Of Warner-Bratzler Shear Force And Marbling Score From Angus-, Charolais-, Hereford-, And Simmental-Sired Cattle, J.A. Minick, E.J. Pollak, D.E. Wilson, E.W. Dressler, Michael E. Dikeman Jan 2003

Heritability And Correlation Estimates Of Warner-Bratzler Shear Force And Marbling Score From Angus-, Charolais-, Hereford-, And Simmental-Sired Cattle, J.A. Minick, E.J. Pollak, D.E. Wilson, E.W. Dressler, Michael E. Dikeman

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

The objective of this study was to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations for Warner- Bratzler shear force and marbling score of longissimus steaks from Angus-, Charolais-, Hereford-, and Simmental-sired cattle in the National Cattlemen's Beef Association (NCBA) coordinated Carcass Merit Traits Project funded with Beef Checkoff dollars. There were 700 Angus-sired steers, 691 Charolais-sired steers and heifers, 938 Hereford-sired steers, and 1,167 Simmental-sired steers and heifers in the study. Restricted maximum likelihood estimates of the genetic parameters were determined using a sire model with a sire/maternal grandsire relationship matrix. The heritabilities for Warner-Bratzler shear force and marbling ...


Interseeding Lespedeza Into Crabgrass Pasture Versus Additional Nitrogen Fertilization On Forage Production And Cattle Performance, Lyle W. Lomas, Joseph L. Moyer, F.K. Brazle, Gary L. Kilgore Jan 2003

Interseeding Lespedeza Into Crabgrass Pasture Versus Additional Nitrogen Fertilization On Forage Production And Cattle Performance, Lyle W. Lomas, Joseph L. Moyer, F.K. Brazle, Gary L. Kilgore

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

A total of 160 steers grazed "˜Red River' crabgrass pastures that were either fertilized with additional nitrogen (N) or interseeded with lespedeza during the summers of 1998, 1999, 2000, and 2001. Wheat was also grazed in 1999, 2000, and 2001 prior to crabgrass emergence. Legume cover, forage dry matter production, grazing steer performance, and subsequent feedlot performance were measured. Available forage dry matter and grazing steer performance were similar between pastures of crabgrass fertilized with additional N and those interseeded with lespedeza in 1998, 1999, and 2000. In 1999, finishing feed intake, finishing gain and ribeye area were higher (P ...


Rate Of Bloom Of Beef Longissimus Lumborum: Effects Of Muscle Temperature, Age, And Oxygen Exposure Time, C.M. Trater, Melvin C. Hunt Jan 2003

Rate Of Bloom Of Beef Longissimus Lumborum: Effects Of Muscle Temperature, Age, And Oxygen Exposure Time, C.M. Trater, Melvin C. Hunt

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

Steaks from 12 loins were used to determine the best time and temperature combinations for blooming (development of a bright-red color) of the longissimus muscle at 2, 14, and 26 days postmortem. The lowest temperature (28°F) provided the fastest rate of bloom when the muscle was 2 days postmortem, and 30 minutes were needed to achieve 75% of final bloom color. For meat 14 days old, greater bloom occurred at 35 and 40°F than at 28°F. For meat 26 days old, rate of bloom was equal at all three temperatures. Thus, packers should bloom carcasses one-half hour ...


Effect Of Processing Variables On Characteristics Of Steam-Flaked Corn, J.J. Sindt, Sean P. Montgomery, E.R. Loe, James S. Drouillard Jan 2003

Effect Of Processing Variables On Characteristics Of Steam-Flaked Corn, J.J. Sindt, Sean P. Montgomery, E.R. Loe, James S. Drouillard

Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station Research Reports

We evaluated tempering moisture concentration, addition of a surfactant to improve moisture uptake, steam conditioning time, and flake density to determine their impact on characteristics of steam-flaked corn. Increasing steam conditioning time from 20 to 40 minutes or adding a surfactant during tempering did not increase final flake moisture concentration, but moisture content of flaked corn was linearly increased by increasing tempering moisture concentration. Addition of Grain Prep® surfactant during tempering decreased (P<0.05) the amount of moisture lost during flaking. Flake durability was increased by increasing tempering moisture concentration, but only if corn was steamed for 40 minutes (tempering moisture x steam time interaction; P<0.10). Decreasing flake density linearly increased both starch availability (P<0.01) and flake durability (P<0.05). In this experiment, tempering moisture concentration had the largest impact on flake moisture content, and flake density was the most influential variable altering flake durability and starch availability.