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Graduate Theses and Dissertations

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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Identification Of Novel Hits Against, Ala A. Azhari Apr 2018

Identification Of Novel Hits Against, Ala A. Azhari

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by obligate intracellular parasites of the genus Leishmania, including 20 species that are pathogenic to humans. Female sand fly is the known vector that can transmit the disease. Visceral leishmaniasis is the severe form of the disease that affects internal organs and can be fatal with inappropriate diagnosis or treatment. Leishmania donovani is the causative agent of visceral leishmaniasis. Approximately 350 million in 89 countries are at risk of infection. Around 2 million new cases are reported annually with 500,000 of these are visceral leishmaniasis. Current drug therapies are inadequate due to their toxicity ...


The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams Apr 2018

The Association Of Size Variation In The Dental Arch To Third Molar Agenesis For A Modern Population, Devin N. Williams

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The frequency with which individuals do not develop their third molars, or wisdom teeth, is increasing worldwide. This current topic of human evolution is relevant to the research of anthropologists, geneticists, dentists, and other researchers involved in the study of human dentition. Many explanations have been offered to account for the prevalence of molar agenesis including, evolutionary, environmental, and genetic theories. The purpose of this research project is to determine the frequency of third molar agenesis and investigate the relationship between third molar agenesis and maxillomandibular jaw dimensions in a sample of orthodontic patients. This research tests the hypotheses that ...


Extending Spectrophotometric Pht Measurements In Coastal And Estuarine Environments, Nora Katherine Douglas Apr 2018

Extending Spectrophotometric Pht Measurements In Coastal And Estuarine Environments, Nora Katherine Douglas

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Nearshore and estuarine environments play a vital role in the cycling of carbon, but the effects of ocean acidification in estuarine waters have not been studied as extensively as in the open ocean. One reason for this is the limitation of pH measurement capabilities in low-salinity waters. Typically, pH in these environments has been measured using potentiometric methods that are subject to uncertainties on the order of 0.01. Spectrophotometric methods for measuring pHT offer precision and accuracy superior to those of potentiometric methods. However, previous characterizations for purified sulfonephthalein indicators, used for marine spectrophotometric measurements, are not applicable to ...


Tgf-Β2 In Human Milk Research: Exploration Of A New Field Methodology And New Findings Of Biosimilar Tgf-Β2 In Non-Human Milk, Chlöe A. Sweetman Apr 2018

Tgf-Β2 In Human Milk Research: Exploration Of A New Field Methodology And New Findings Of Biosimilar Tgf-Β2 In Non-Human Milk, Chlöe A. Sweetman

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Objectives: There are three aims for this thesis: the first is to develop a field and laboratory protocol for the storage and analysis of transforming growth factor–beta 2 (TGF-β2) in human breastmilk; second, to validate this protocol and the immunoassay used to assess this new method; and lastly, to explore the ramifications of biosimilar TGF-β2 across multiple milks on human health, growth, and immunity through the review of laboratory findings and previous literature.

Rational: Little anthropological research has been done on TGF-β2 in human milk. Anthropology as a discipline is well positioned to provide insight into TGF-β2, combining biocultural ...


The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin Apr 2018

The Role Of Phosphohistidine Phosphatase 1 In Ethanol-Induced Liver Injury, Daniel Richard Martin

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Chronic liver diseases, which includes alcoholic liver disease (ALD), are consistently among the top 15 leading causes of death in the United States. ALD is characterized by progression from a normal liver to fatty liver disease (hepatic steatosis), which can lead to cirrhosis, alcoholic hepatitis, and liver failure. We have identified a novel role of phosphohistidine signaling, mediated through phosphohistidine phosphatase 1 (PHPT1), in the onset of hepatic steatosis. We have identified PHPT1 as a target of selective oxidation following acute ethanol exposure as well as being downregulated following chronic ethanol exposure. We mapped the oxidative modification site and developed ...


Investigation Of Alcohol-Induced Changes In Hepatic Histone Modifications Using Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics, Crystina Leah Kriss Apr 2018

Investigation Of Alcohol-Induced Changes In Hepatic Histone Modifications Using Mass Spectrometry Based Proteomics, Crystina Leah Kriss

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Alcohol liver disease (ALD) is a major health concern throughout the world. Currently, in the United States, 17 million people suffer from alcoholism, of which 1.4 million people are receiving treatment [1, 2]. The link between ethanol metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and liver injury in ALD has been well characterized over the last couple decades [3-10]. Ethanol metabolism relies on the availability of the cofactor NAD+ for the oxidation of ethanol into acetate, consequently causing alterations in redox potential. Redox dysfunction within the mitochondria can affect multiple pathways important in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Chapter 1 provides an introduction ...


Signal Detection Of Adverse Drug Reaction Using The Adverse Event Reporting System: Literature Review And Novel Methods, Minh H. Pham Mar 2018

Signal Detection Of Adverse Drug Reaction Using The Adverse Event Reporting System: Literature Review And Novel Methods, Minh H. Pham

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

One of the objectives of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is to protect the public health through post-marketing drug safety surveillance, also known as Pharmacovigilance. An inexpensive and efficient method to inspect post-marketing drug safety is to use data mining algorithms on electronic health records to discover associations between drugs and adverse events.

The purpose of this study is two-fold. First, we review the methods and algorithms proposed in the literature for identifying association drug interactions to an adverse event and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Second, we attempt to adapt some novel methods that have been used ...


Remote Sensing And Spatial Metrics For Quantifying Seagrass Landscape Changes: A Study On The 2011 Indian River Lagoon Florida Seagrass Die-Off Event, René Dieter Baumstark Mar 2018

Remote Sensing And Spatial Metrics For Quantifying Seagrass Landscape Changes: A Study On The 2011 Indian River Lagoon Florida Seagrass Die-Off Event, René Dieter Baumstark

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Florida’s seagrasses are ecologically important marine environments which have suffered major degradation caused by increasing anthropogenic pressures. A 2011 seagrass die-off event caused by an algal bloom in the Florida Indian River Lagoon (IRL) was particularly severe with a majority of seagrass lost in areas such as the Banana River. An understanding of how this coastal marine environment changed is an important step toward better managing resources for conservation. Modern tools and methods provide new opportunities to study these changes at the landscape scale, a scale that informs on the larger more comprehensive state of a system. Classified satellite ...


Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott Mar 2018

Comparison Of Thermal Glove Wrist-Hand Orthoses In Their Effectiveness On Rheumatoid Arthritis, Brittany E. Mott

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease affecting nearly 1% of the world’s population with symptoms such as inflammation, pain, and reduced strength [1]. Physicians and scientists work to develop pharmaceuticals and medical devices aimed at decreasing the symptoms associated with RA to better the lives of those affected. One of the most recent developments is the addition of thermal therapy gloves to the array of upper limb orthoses available to patients with RA. It was hypothesized that this study will show that orthoses in the form of thermal therapy gloves are beneficial to the patients by reducing symptoms ...


Grooming Behaviors Of, Lauren N. Williams Mar 2018

Grooming Behaviors Of, Lauren N. Williams

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The giant freshwater shrimp, Macrobrachium rosenbergii is a large species of prawn grown extensively in aquaculture settings. A social hierarchy exists within the males of this species, representing three distinct male morphotypes. These male morphotypes differ in their behavior, physiology, and morphology and include the largest blue-clawed males (BC males), moderately- sized orange-clawed males (OC males), and the undifferentiated small-clawed males (SM males). All individuals of this species perform grooming behaviors to rid themselves of body fouling which can impede important functions such as movement, respiration, chemoreception, and reproduction. Grooming behaviors in crustaceans often utilize specialized structures called setae, which ...


Food Insecurity And Age Of Menarche: Using A Biocultural Approach And Life History Theory To Assess Risks Of Food Insecurity Among Girls In Tampa Bay, Fl, Mecca Burris Mar 2018

Food Insecurity And Age Of Menarche: Using A Biocultural Approach And Life History Theory To Assess Risks Of Food Insecurity Among Girls In Tampa Bay, Fl, Mecca Burris

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Using life-history theory within a biocultural perspective, this research explores whether household food insecurity correlates with early or delayed menarche among adolescent females in Tampa Bay, Florida. Early onset of puberty and menstruation is connected with numerous health consequences including growth stunting, obesity, type-2 diabetes, adult-onset asthma, reproductive cancers, increased risk for depression, behavioral problems, and early sexual activity which increases the risk for STIs and ovarian cancer. Early menarche also seems to disproportionally impact disadvantaged and minority groups. While there are many known factors that influence age at menarche (e.g.: genetics, diet), little is understood regarding the effect ...


Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio Mar 2018

Developing Motion Platform Dynamics For Studying Biomechanical Responses During Exercise For Human Spaceflight Applications, Kaitlin Lostroscio

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In future human spaceflight missions, with prolonged exposure to microgravity, resistive and aerobic exercises will be countermeasures for bone loss, muscle loss, and decreased aerobic capacity. Two of the exercises of interest are squats and rowing. The cyclic forces produced during these exercises are at relatively low frequencies which are likely to excite structural resonances of space vehicles. Vibration Isolation Systems (VIS) are being designed to be paired with future exploration exercise devices in order to prevent these cyclic exercise forces from impacting the space vehicle. The VIS may be configured such that a platform supports the human and exercise ...


Angiostrongylus Cantonensis: Epidemiologic Review, Location-Specific Habitat Modelling, And Surveillance In Hillsborough County, Florida, U.S.A., Brad Christian Perich Mar 2018

Angiostrongylus Cantonensis: Epidemiologic Review, Location-Specific Habitat Modelling, And Surveillance In Hillsborough County, Florida, U.S.A., Brad Christian Perich

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Angiostrongylus cantonensis is a parasitic nematode endemic to tropical and subtropical regions and is the leading cause of human eosinophilic meningitis. The parasite is commonly known as rat lungworm because the primary host in its lifecycle is the rat. A clinical overview of rat lungworm infection is presented, followed by a literature review of rat lungworm epidemiology, risk factors, and surveillance projects. Data collected from previous snail surveys in Florida was considered alongside elevation, population per square kilometer, median household income by zip code territory, and normalized difference vegetation index specific to the geographic coordinates from which the snail samples ...


Characterization Of The Transcriptional Elongation Factor Ell3 In B Cells And Its Role In B-Cell Lymphoma Proliferation And Survival, Lou-Ella M.M. Alexander Jan 2018

Characterization Of The Transcriptional Elongation Factor Ell3 In B Cells And Its Role In B-Cell Lymphoma Proliferation And Survival, Lou-Ella M.M. Alexander

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The studies presented in this dissertation establish the dynamics of Eleven nineteen Lysine-rich leukemia (ELL) family of elongation factors during B cell differentiation and provide a description of ELL3 function in B cells.

The transition from a mature naïve B cells into an activated B cell is dependent on a large increase in transcriptional output, which is followed by focused expression on secreted immunoglobulin upon terminal differentiation into plasma cell. While ELL family members have previously been implicated in alternative splicing at the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus in plasma cells, their presence and function prior to differentiation is currently not ...


Impact Of Lawsonia Intracellularis And Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae On Pig Performance And Metabolism, Emma Helm Jan 2018

Impact Of Lawsonia Intracellularis And Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae On Pig Performance And Metabolism, Emma Helm

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Disease from endemic respiratory and enteric pathogen agents such as Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) and Lawsonia intracellularis (LI) is common in swine herds worldwide and reduces profits at all production stages. However, the metabolic mechanisms behind these reductions in growth performance and tissue accretion have not been fully explained. Additionally, to minimize feed costs, producers place heavy emphasis on selection for production traits such as enhanced feed efficiency (FE), but genetic selection for higher FE has been touted to have negative consequences on a pig’s ability to respond to disease. Therefore, the overall objective of this thesis was to characterize ...


Auxinic Herbicide Residue Impact On Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Growth And Yield, Kevin Ross Mcgregor Jan 2018

Auxinic Herbicide Residue Impact On Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] Growth And Yield, Kevin Ross Mcgregor

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The commercialization of 2,4-D- and dicamba-tolerant trait seed technologies will alter how producers utilize auxinic herbicides. The purpose of this research is to evaluate the current recommended pesticide cleanout procedures for removing auxinic herbicides from two types of spray tanks, identify if increased incubation time of auxinic herbicides in spray tanks increases residue amounts after cleanout, and how soybean growth and yield is impacted by reduced rates of auxinic herbicides similar to those that might occur with ineffective tank clean-out procedures. High-density polyethylene pesticide tanks retained higher amounts of auxinic herbicide residues when compared to stainless steel tanks. Increasing ...


Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng Jan 2018

Femur/Femoral Neck Load Estimation During Stair Navigation, Chen Deng

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Project 1:

Femoral neck is of particular concern in the hip fractures and aging. A better understanding of the hip loading environment is helpful for the hip fracture prevention, rehabilitation, and the design of osteogenic exercises. This study was to compare the femoral neck stresses between young and older adults during stair ascent and descent, and to identify the contribution of muscle and reaction forces to the stress. Motion analysis and inverse dynamics method, musculoskeletal and elliptical femoral neck cross-section models were used to estimate stress on the femoral neck. During stair ascent, a significantly increased tension at the superior ...


Genetic And Environmental Control Of Lignin Biosynthesis And C Emission From Crop Stover, Sarah Hill-Skinner Jan 2018

Genetic And Environmental Control Of Lignin Biosynthesis And C Emission From Crop Stover, Sarah Hill-Skinner

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Lignin is the second most abundant terrestrial biopolymer in the world and provides structural strength to plants. The maize brown midrib (bm) mutants accumulate less and altered lignin relative to non-mutants. Maize bm4-encoded folylpolyglutamate synthase functions to generate the preferred substrate of folate-dependent enzymes, such as bm2-encoded methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. Consistent with bm4’s predicted function upstream of bm2, both mutants display a 7-10% reduction in lignin content and a 16-40% increase in S/G lignin ratio relative to wild-type. This interplay between lignin biosynthesis and various metabolic processes is also seen between lignin and stover carbon emission. As climate change ...


Manufacturing The American Way Of Farming: Agriculture, Agribusiness, And Marketing In The Postwar Period, Margaret Baker Weber Jan 2018

Manufacturing The American Way Of Farming: Agriculture, Agribusiness, And Marketing In The Postwar Period, Margaret Baker Weber

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

The rise of the corporation is one of the most transformative events in the history of United States, including the agricultural economy. Seeking to understand how these private businesses influence American foodways, my research examines the emergence of agribusiness in the period after 1945. These private entities manipulated the physical and metaphysical landscape of agriculture to sell not just their products, but also to remake rural America in a way that suited their needs. Agribusinesses wanted to make themselves, their products, and their specific vision of production and consumption, indispensable to the agricultural system. They intended to expand their hold ...


The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish Jan 2018

The Growing Together Project: Understanding Impacts On Field Day Attendees And Iowa Master Gardeners, Laura Irish

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Citizen science has been shown to be an effective tool for increasing data collection, as well as a great benefit to those who participate in the research project. The rising costs and limited funding for conducting large-scale research projects make citizen science projects valuable assets for researchers. Understanding the impact of citizen science projects on the volunteers must be done to better engage with and retain the volunteers. The Growing Together project, a partnership between the ISU Extension and Outreach Master Gardener program and the Human Sciences Extension, was created to increase food security in Iowa. The two major components ...


Perceptions Of Middle, High School And Community College Agricultural Teachers In Iowa Regarding Agricultural Awareness Concepts And Activities In The Middle School Curriculum: Grades 7-9, Abisoye Oyeyinka Odubanjo Jan 2018

Perceptions Of Middle, High School And Community College Agricultural Teachers In Iowa Regarding Agricultural Awareness Concepts And Activities In The Middle School Curriculum: Grades 7-9, Abisoye Oyeyinka Odubanjo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Teachers are relied upon to teach basic agricultural knowledge among young learners who are devoid of real-world agricultural experiences. The middle school serves as a tool for achieving this goal because self and environmental awareness, and career choices begin at this educational stage. Since agricultural teachers are the major driver of agricultural education program in the middle school, their perceptions regarding this program are important. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceptions of agricultural teachers regarding teaching agriculture and selected course content in the middle school. The Theory of Planned Behavior was used as a theoretical framework ...


Traces: A Farm In Eastern Iowa, Rachel Deutmeyer Jan 2018

Traces: A Farm In Eastern Iowa, Rachel Deutmeyer

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Through my project, Traces: a farm in eastern Iowa, I photograph interior and exterior spaces of Kenny and June Friederick’s retired dairy farm. The images provide record of the home and acreage throughout 2017 and early 2018, a time when farming practices are rapidly evolving. Grouped with aerial photographs and farm day books (1980 - current), the project shares a representation of the farm as it exists today and a reference to the history of the space. Through the combination of photographs and text, I present a tribute to the immeasurable contribution of a farmer to his or her land ...


Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff Jan 2018

Utility Of The Handgrip And Vertical Jump Assessments As Fitness Indicators In Physical Education, Jessica Ann Velthoff

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

As research continues to provide evidence supporting musculoskeletal fitness as a strong indicator of an individual’s overall health, proposals for further evidence substantiating select indicator’s powerful link with youth health outcomes have been made. The vertical jump, a measure of lower body power, and handgrip strength, a measure of upper body musculoskeletal strength, have both been acknowledged as being strong measures of one’s health, and recommended for potential use in school fitness testing. FitnessGram®, the default fitness testing battery in United States (US) schools, is currently working to include these two measures to provide a more ...


Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken Jan 2018

Online Communities Of Practice As A Strategy For Staff Involvement In Switch, Rebecca Harken

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (CSPAP) target physical activity behaviors through the recommended “whole-of-school” approach which recommends staff from all areas of school should be involved in health promotion. The component of Staff Involvement is highly effective at improving student health behaviors; however, descriptive research in this area is limited. One program that focuses on supporting school staff to lead school wellness programing is SWITCH. It is recommended that school staff should be given opportunities for professional development that are ongoing and collaborative, and online communities of practice (CoP) have been shown to support staff in this way. Therefore, the ...


Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee Jan 2018

Biomechanical Analysis Of Bovine Lamina, Ray Jeffrey Lee

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Bovine lameness is an economic drain on producers and is a welfare issue. There are many causes of lameness; however, most causes involve the hoof. One of the supporting structures of the hoof is the interface between the hard epidermal layer and the sensitive dermal layer and is referred to as the lamina. Lamina consist of leaflets of tissue that interdigitate with one another to allow for constant renewal and remodeling of these hoof attachments. Systemic or traumatic insults can compromise the integrity of the lamina and may result in reduced ambulatory capabilities of the animal, pain, and a myriad ...


Evaluating The In Vivo Immune Response To Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection In Naive And Vaccinated Calves, Tracy Lindquist Jan 2018

Evaluating The In Vivo Immune Response To Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection In Naive And Vaccinated Calves, Tracy Lindquist

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

In these studies, an implant device was developed to detect vaccination-induced, cell-mediated immunity in the subcutaneous tissue of calves. The long-term, future aim of these combined studies is to use the implant device to efficiently screen novel Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) vaccine candidates. This in vivo screening test would rapidly and inexpensively provide knowledge of a vaccine’s

efficacy in the host species; vaccine candidates exhibiting evidence of efficacy could then be selected for more extensive vaccine challenge studies. A better understanding of in vivo cell-mediated immunity in response to MAP immunization is essential for the development of a ...


Effect Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome On Seed Quality And Agronomic Trait Qtls, Josh Knight Jan 2018

Effect Of Soybean Sudden Death Syndrome On Seed Quality And Agronomic Trait Qtls, Josh Knight

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Soybean production has grown over the years and soybean has become one of the main crops in the world. Protecting and advancing soybean production has become a main goal for soybean producers and breeders. The following chapters look at the soybean-pest interaction for one of the leading soybean diseases called Fusarium virguliforme. that causes sudden death syndrome (SDS) in soybean, and potential genetic regions controlling seed quality traits. Chapter two compares Fusarium virguliforme, Fv inoculated fields vs non-inoculated fields for soybean agronomic and seed quality traits. SDS is one of the leading soybean pests in the United States. This study ...


The Promise Of Biochar: From Lab Experiment To National Scale Impacts, Hamze Dokoohaki Jan 2018

The Promise Of Biochar: From Lab Experiment To National Scale Impacts, Hamze Dokoohaki

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Biochar is a carbon rich soil amendment produced from biomass by a thermochemical process,

pyrolysis or gasication. Soil biochar applications have generated a great deal of interest as a

strategy for mitigating climate change by sequestering carbon in soils, and simultaneously as a

strategy for enhancing global food security by increasing crop yields especially on degraded and

poor quality soils.

In this study we evaluated the eect of biochars presence on soil and crop in various spatial

scales ranging from lab experiments to regional scale simulations.

In the rst chapter, we used an incubated experiment with 3 biochar application rates ...


Cover Crop Effects On Maize Productivity: Insights From Statistical And Process-Based Models, Guillermo Marcillo Jan 2018

Cover Crop Effects On Maize Productivity: Insights From Statistical And Process-Based Models, Guillermo Marcillo

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Winter cover crops can be an effective strategy to buffer soil and water impairing effects from intensively managed agriculture. While cover crops have shown potential to sequester off-season nitrate, control weeds, or promote nutrient cycling, knowledge gaps persist in regard to maize impacts driven by cover crop decision making. In this context, statistical and process-based models can be valuable tools for predicting changes in maize systems that include a winter cover crop. In a meta-analysis combining peer-reviewed research from several regions in the US, grain yields were found to change between 0 and 21% when maize (Zea mays L.) followed ...


Evaluation Of Statistical And Process-Based Models As Nitrogen Recommendation Tools In Maize Production Systems, Laila Alejandra Puntel Jan 2018

Evaluation Of Statistical And Process-Based Models As Nitrogen Recommendation Tools In Maize Production Systems, Laila Alejandra Puntel

Graduate Theses and Dissertations

Optimizing nitrogen (N) management in maize (Zea mays L.) production systems is critical and essential to ensure profitability, productivity, and environmental sustainability. However, it represents a challenge because N is highly mobile within the soil-plant-atmospheric system. Therefore finding the optimum N rate for maize is a difficult task. The overall goal of this research was to evaluate crop model and statistical -based approaches to making N recommendations for maize and quantify prediction accuracy in two major maize production regions: Iowa, USA and Buenos Aires, Argentina. I addressed three questions: 1) how accurately process-based modeling and statistical based approaches can simulate ...