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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Quagga Mussel And Zebra Mussel, Ann Mull, Lori R. Spears May 2022

Quagga Mussel And Zebra Mussel, Ann Mull, Lori R. Spears

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Quagga mussel and zebra mussel can cause significant ecological, economical, and recreational impacts. This fact sheet describes these two-sided mollusks and reviews impacts, monitoring, and management of these invasive species.


Utah Farmers Market Snap Toolkit, Regan Emmons, Bridget Stuchly, Gina Cornia May 2022

Utah Farmers Market Snap Toolkit, Regan Emmons, Bridget Stuchly, Gina Cornia

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Utah State University Extension provides research-based programs and resources with the goal of improving the lives of individuals, families and communities throughout Utah. USU Extension manages Create Better Health, Utah’s Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Education Program (known as SNAP-Ed), and provides nutrition education and obesity prevention services to SNAP recipients and other eligible low-income individuals. Create Better Health (SNAP-Ed) offers a variety of classes to expand participants’ knowledge of nutrition, budgeting, cooking, food safety, and physical activity. This toolkit outlines how farmers markets can implement a SNAP program and help combat food insecurity in their communities.


Utah Farmers Market Network: Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Community Of Practice, Jaclyn Pace, Regan Emmons, Kelsey Hall, Celina Wille, Lacee Jimenez, Carrie Durward, Roslynn Mccann May 2022

Utah Farmers Market Network: Diversity, Equity, And Inclusion Community Of Practice, Jaclyn Pace, Regan Emmons, Kelsey Hall, Celina Wille, Lacee Jimenez, Carrie Durward, Roslynn Mccann

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The Utah Farmers Market Network convened a virtual Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion (DEI) Community of Practice (CoP) to explore how markets could be more welcoming and inclusive to historically excluded populations. Between May and November of 2021, members of seven Utah farmers markets convened at least twice monthly to explore basic DEI concepts and create personalized DEI strategic plans for their markets. This document reviews impacts on participants and the personal, market, community, and organizational goals created.


Abiotic Disorders Of Tomatoes, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Sheriden M. Hansen, Maegen A. Lewis Apr 2022

Abiotic Disorders Of Tomatoes, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Sheriden M. Hansen, Maegen A. Lewis

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Monitoring tomato plants regularly from seedling to harvest allows for early detection of abnormal conditions. Although tomato plants can be attacked by a variety of living organisms (insects, mites, pathogens, vertebrates), nonliving (abiotic) conditions can cause just as much damage. Abiotic diseases in tomato plants can arise from nutrient deficiencies, temperature extremes, abnormal lighting, chemical application, changes in water uptake, mechanical damage, genetic mutations, and more. This guide will cover most of the abiotic disorders and diseases that can affect tomatoes in Utah.


Big Bud Disease In Tomatoes And Peppers, Claudia Nischwitz, Erin Petrizzo Apr 2022

Big Bud Disease In Tomatoes And Peppers, Claudia Nischwitz, Erin Petrizzo

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This fact sheet provides information on the symptoms of big bud on tomatoes and peppers. It reviews the disease cycle and recommendations on controlling beet leafhopper and managing big bud disease in Utah.


Fall-Bearing Cultivars: A High Tunnel System For Early Production, Alyssa Palmer, Brent Black Apr 2022

Fall-Bearing Cultivars: A High Tunnel System For Early Production, Alyssa Palmer, Brent Black

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Fresh red raspberries are a consumer favorite in Utah and have a high value but short shelf life, making them an excellent candidate crop for local direct market sales. However, Utah’s high-elevation valleys often experience harsh winter temperatures and short growing seasons, limiting raspberry yields. Raspberry plants exhibit one of two fruiting patterns: the summer-bearing type or the fall-bearing varieties, also referred to as “ever bearers” because of their ability to produce both fall and summer crops. These may be better suited in areas with harsh winter conditions that cause cane dieback. High tunnels can be an effective tool ...


Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield Apr 2022

Importance Of A Dietary Cation-Anion Difference In Peripartum Dairy Cows, Laura A. Motsinger, Jacob Hadfield

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At calving, nutrient requirements of dairy cows increase to support milk synthesis. Energy and protein requirements are increased at the initiation of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Additionally, calcium requirements increase tremendously to meet the demands of lactation (Moore et al., 2000). Calving and subsequent milk synthesis can cause calcium concentrations in the blood to drop. When the demand for calcium exceeds the cow’s ability to mobilize calcium, hypocalcemia (low blood calcium) occurs, which can negatively impact production. This fact sheet reviews hypocalcemia in dairy cows and how to implement hypocalcemia prevention strategies.


Spongy Moth (Lymantria Dispar Dispar Linnaeus), Ann Mull, Lori R. Spears Apr 2022

Spongy Moth (Lymantria Dispar Dispar Linnaeus), Ann Mull, Lori R. Spears

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Spongy moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) are invasive leaf-eating (defoliating) pests that threaten trees and shrubs in urban, suburban, and rural landscapes. The spongy moth was accidentally introduced to the U.S. in 1869 by an amateur French entomologist in Massachusetts who sought to establish a hardier American silkworm industry. These moths now commonly occur in the northeastern U.S. and are also found in parts of Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, North Carolina, Ohio, Virginia, West Virginia, Wisconsin, California, Oregon, and Washington. In Utah, according to the Utah Department of Agriculture and Food (2021), the spongy moth is anticipated to survive and ...


Billbugs In Turfgrass (Sphenophorus Spp.), Desiree Wickwar, Ricardo Ramirez Mar 2022

Billbugs In Turfgrass (Sphenophorus Spp.), Desiree Wickwar, Ricardo Ramirez

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Billbugs are weevils, a type of beetle, in the genus Sphenophorus. At least 10 billbug species are known pests of turfgrass and can be found in both warm and cool season turfgrasses throughout the United States. Though billbug adults do feed on the leaves of turfgrasses, it is the larvae that cause visible damage. Larvae feed within the stems and on roots of grasses, leading to the development of yellow or brown patches, with the potential to escalate into large patches of dead turfgrass. Billbug management in turfgrass presents a number of unique challenges, but early monitoring and informed integration ...


Stock Cut Flower Production In Utah, Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Brent Black, Dan Drost Mar 2022

Stock Cut Flower Production In Utah, Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Brent Black, Dan Drost

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Stock (Matthiola incana) is a cool-season annual in Utah with the highest quality stems being produced in spring and fall. Plants produce a single stem with either single or double florets that are known for their sweet and strong clove-like scent. Stock can be transplanted in the high tunnel and field in early spring and is tolerant of light frosts. Stems require a trellis to promote straight growth and can reach 36 inches tall. In North Logan, UT, stock grown in a high tunnel began blooming 5-10 weeks earlier, had 55% greater marketability, and stems averaged 4-8 inches longer than ...


Community Solar Dehydrator Plans, Kate Weigel, Roslynn Mccann Feb 2022

Community Solar Dehydrator Plans, Kate Weigel, Roslynn Mccann

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As interest in home gardening and self sufficiency surged during the pandemic, many are looking for ways to preserve foods from their newfound harvests. This fact sheet provides an overview of how to build a community solar food dehydrator for food preservation, based on our experience doing so for the community of Moab, Utah. A list of needed building materials, tools, and specific plans are included.


Factors Contributing To Bee Decline, Ann Mull, Jaydee Gunnell, Sheriden M. Hansen, Ricardo Ramirez, Andree' Walker Bravo, Cody Zesiger, Lori R. Spears Feb 2022

Factors Contributing To Bee Decline, Ann Mull, Jaydee Gunnell, Sheriden M. Hansen, Ricardo Ramirez, Andree' Walker Bravo, Cody Zesiger, Lori R. Spears

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Bees provide an important ecosystem service by contributing to the pollination of crop and wild plant species. Many factors have been attributed to bee declines, including habitat loss, improper apiary management, pesticide usage, climate change, pests and pathogens, competition among native and introduced bee species, poor nutrition, and other factors (Koh et al., 2016; Goulson et al., 2015; Graves et al., 2020; Soroye et al., 2020). Acting together, these factors intensify the pressure for survival beyond the adaptability of many species. This fact sheet reviews the factors contributing to decline in bee populations and what can be done to protect ...


How To Promote Intuitive Eating In Adolescents, Madeline Peterson, Stacy Bevan, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Brooke Parker Feb 2022

How To Promote Intuitive Eating In Adolescents, Madeline Peterson, Stacy Bevan, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Brooke Parker

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Intuitive eating is a pattern of eating that includes awareness of hunger and fullness cues and encourages an appropriate and respectful response to them. It is a non-diet approach to eating and is not focused on weight loss or weight gain—although changes in weight can occur for individuals who adopt or practice intuitive eating. This fact sheet discusses how to promote intuitive eating in adolescents as a way to build a healthier relationship with food and improve body image.


Fusarium And Verticillium Wilts Of Vegetables, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Claudia Nischwitz Feb 2022

Fusarium And Verticillium Wilts Of Vegetables, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray, Claudia Nischwitz

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Fusarium wilt and Verticillium wilt are soilborne plant diseases that attack vascular tissue. They cause similar symptoms in their hosts and are difficult to manage as they can survive in the soil for many years. Once a plant is infected, there is no treatment or cure. Therefore, management should focus on preventive and cultural control practices. This fact sheet identifies the many vegetables susceptible to these pathogens in Utah and reviews symptoms, diagnosis, and ways to prevent these diseases.


Vegetable Diseases Of Utah, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion Murray, Nick Volesky Feb 2022

Vegetable Diseases Of Utah, Claudia Nischwitz, Marion Murray, Nick Volesky

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This guide provides a list of vegetable crop diseases that have been documented in Utah along with some that are likely to occur. Plant diseases are caused by pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and fungal-like organisms. Diagnosing specific plant diseases takes careful observation of signs, symptoms, and sometimes culturing and molecular testing in a laboratory setting.


Celosia Cut Flower Production In Utah, Anna Collins, Melanie Stock, Maegen A. Lewis, Sheriden M. Hansen Feb 2022

Celosia Cut Flower Production In Utah, Anna Collins, Melanie Stock, Maegen A. Lewis, Sheriden M. Hansen

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Celosia is a warm-season annual that can be grown in a field or high tunnel in Utah. Transplant plugs after last frost in the field and 6 to 8 weeks before last frost in a high tunnel. Celosia benefit from trellising to promote straight stems and do best with moderate soil fertility and frequent harvesting. Peak harvest occurs from July – September in the field and begins nearly one month earlier in a high tunnel. Once established, celosia thrive in Utah’s hot summers and can be used in fresh or dried arrangements.


Temperaturas Críticas De Primavera Para Yemas De Los Árboles Frutales, Michael Pace, Marion Murray Jan 2022

Temperaturas Críticas De Primavera Para Yemas De Los Árboles Frutales, Michael Pace, Marion Murray

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Esta publicación enumera las temperaturas primaverales críticas para las yemas de árboles frutales cuando el 10% y 90% de las yemas mueren en diferentes etapas de desarrollo después de 30 minutos de exposición.


25 Rules Of Thumb For Field Crops, Matt Yost, Niel Allen, Grant Cardon, Earl Creech, Ryan Larsen, Rhonda Miller, Mark Nelson, Claudia Nischwitz, Matthew Palmer, Steven Price, Ricardo Ramirez, Corey Ransom, Benjamin Scow, Randall Violett Jan 2022

25 Rules Of Thumb For Field Crops, Matt Yost, Niel Allen, Grant Cardon, Earl Creech, Ryan Larsen, Rhonda Miller, Mark Nelson, Claudia Nischwitz, Matthew Palmer, Steven Price, Ricardo Ramirez, Corey Ransom, Benjamin Scow, Randall Violett

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This article is not a comprehensive list of the practices farmers need to be successful in their operations, but it represents an attempt to capture 25 common tips or “rules” from a wide range of Extension experts throughout Utah, from seedbed preparation, to harvesting guidelines.


Grape Varieties For Utah, Michael Caron, Taun Beddes, Tiffany Maughan, Michael Pace, Brent Black Jan 2022

Grape Varieties For Utah, Michael Caron, Taun Beddes, Tiffany Maughan, Michael Pace, Brent Black

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This fact sheet introduces the different types of grapes and provides suggestions of grape varieties that can be grown in Utah.


Drought Mitigation For Cow/Calf Producers: Depopulation Strategies, Reganne K. Briggs, Joshua Dallin, Jacob Hadfield, Matthew D. Garcia Jan 2022

Drought Mitigation For Cow/Calf Producers: Depopulation Strategies, Reganne K. Briggs, Joshua Dallin, Jacob Hadfield, Matthew D. Garcia

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Drought is a recurring event faced by many cow/calf producers across the nation. As drought events increase in their severity, it is important for cattle producers to have a management plan to mitigate the economic effects of drought. Two of the most common strategies for mitigating the effects of drought include buying additional feed and depopulating a portion of the herd. This fact sheet reviews strategies that will guide the decision-making process to cull cattle during drought.


Seeding The Way: A Guide To Restoring Native Plants In Great Salt Lake Wetlands, Emily Tarsa, Rae Robinson, Coryna Hebert, David England, Keith Hambrecht, Chad Cranney, Karin Kettenring Jan 2022

Seeding The Way: A Guide To Restoring Native Plants In Great Salt Lake Wetlands, Emily Tarsa, Rae Robinson, Coryna Hebert, David England, Keith Hambrecht, Chad Cranney, Karin Kettenring

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From densely vegetated marshes to sparse patches of playa vegetation, native plants of Great Salt Lake drive healthy wetlands. They provide habitat, cover, and food for the many birds, amphibians, insects, and mammals that call these wetlands home. Disturbances to these wetlands, such as treating invasive Phragmites australis or building dikes, can impact native plant communities. Reestablishing native vegetation is critical to rebuilding healthy wetlands. Though there is still much to be learned, here we have summarized our knowledge of the "what, where, and how" of native plant revegetation in these wetlands, specifically using native seed. This guide is intended ...


Sap Beetles, Nick Volesky, Zachery R. Schrumm, Kalen Taylor Dec 2021

Sap Beetles, Nick Volesky, Zachery R. Schrumm, Kalen Taylor

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Sap beetles are typically considered a secondary pest of corn and overripe fruits and vegetables. They are broadly identified by their small and ovular bodies and club-shaped antennae. Adult sap beetles often feed on corn silk, pollen, and tassels. Larvae feed on kernels inside the husk. This fact sheet reviews how to identify sap beetles and their hosts and damage. It also provides ideas on how to monitor for sap beetles and outlines the options for managing them.


Managing Vegetation Around Fruit Trees, Teryl Roper Nov 2021

Managing Vegetation Around Fruit Trees, Teryl Roper

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Fruit trees thrive along the Wasatch Front and in many other locations in Utah. Backyard fruit trees are very common in Utah, and producers quickly become attuned to insect and disease pests that can swiftly spoil substantial amounts of fruit. They are typically less aware of the detrimental effect of competing vegetation around fruit trees. This fact sheet describes the nature of vegetation competition and proposes management strategies to reduce or eliminate competition.


Lily Leaf Beetle, Ann Mull, Lori R. Spears Nov 2021

Lily Leaf Beetle, Ann Mull, Lori R. Spears

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The lily leaf beetle (LLB) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) is an important pest from Eurasia that threatens native and cultivated true lilies (Lilium spp.) and fritillaries (Fritillaria spp.). It is also known as the red lily leaf beetle or scarlet lily beetle. LLB was first reported in North America in Montréal, Canada, in 1945 and in the U.S. in 1992 in Massachusetts, likely arriving via European shipments of lily bulbs. LLB has been detected in nine of the 10 Canadian provinces and 14 U.S. states, including the New England states, Pennsylvania, Wisconsin, Minnesota, and Washington (EDDMapS, 2021). Based on LLB ...


The Backyard Garden - Cole Crops Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray Nov 2021

The Backyard Garden - Cole Crops Pests, Nick Volesky, Marion Murray

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This fact sheet contains information about pests and diseases that affect cole crops. Cole crops are plants that belong to the mustard (Brassica) family, including hardy, cool-season crops such as broccoli, kohlrabi, cabbage, rutabaga, cauliflower, kale, Brussels sprouts, and turnips. The fact sheet offers general information and guidance on severity, other hosts, symptoms, and management.


Evaluation Of Cold-Hardy Grapes On The Wasatch Front, Michael Caron, Taun Beddes, Michael Pace, Brent Black Nov 2021

Evaluation Of Cold-Hardy Grapes On The Wasatch Front, Michael Caron, Taun Beddes, Michael Pace, Brent Black

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Grapes can be an excellent addition to home gardens and a revenue opportunity for small-acreage farms. Utah’s Wasatch Front region, along with portions of Cache Valley, are well suited to grow grapes, particularly the more cold-hardy cultivars. Many new cold-hardy cultivars have been introduced over the last few decades, including both wine and table types. However, many of these newer cultivars have not been adequately tested in Utah’s unique climate. Utah State University Extension conducted a grape cultivar comparison planting in Lehi, Utah. This fact sheet reviews the outcomes of the study and offers information on tested varieties ...


Low Tunnels For Field Cut Flower Production, Shannon Rauter, Melanie Stock, Brent Black, Dan Drost Nov 2021

Low Tunnels For Field Cut Flower Production, Shannon Rauter, Melanie Stock, Brent Black, Dan Drost

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Cut flower production in Utah can be limited by cold winters, late-spring freezes, daily temperature fluctuations, canyon winds, and intense sunlight. For growers who lack the space to construct a high tunnel, low tunnels can advance, extend, and improve seasonal production. Temperature increases from low tunnels during winter and spring can increase emergence and yield compared to unprotected beds, but require venting to avoid heat damage. During summer, low tunnels easily transition into shade structures that provide cooling and protection from the sun. This fact sheet describes a simple and cost-effective low tunnel design with metal-conduit hoops that are tall ...


Breastfeeding: Tools For Success, Norah Ashby, Casey Coombs, Stacy Bevan, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos Oct 2021

Breastfeeding: Tools For Success, Norah Ashby, Casey Coombs, Stacy Bevan, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos

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Every mother has a unique breastfeeding experience. Breastfeeding is natural, but that does not mean it comes naturally to every mother. The benefits of exclusively breastfeeding for the first six months and supplemental breastfeeding through the second year of life are well documented (Lessen & Kavanagh, 2015). However, there are many barriers that may prevent mothers from breastfeeding, including discomfort or pain, milk supply concerns, or simply not knowing how to breastfeed (Lessen & Kavanagh, 2015; Westerfield et al., 2018). Fortunately, there are a variety of tools that mothers can use to create a successful breastfeeding experience (Dennis et al., 2015; Kaunonen, Hannula, & Tarkka, 2012; Westerfield et al., 2018). This fact sheet will address some common challenges women face and tools to help with breastfeeding success.


Evaluating Alternative Feed Sources During Drought, Matthew D. Garcia, Ruger P. Carter, Ryan Larsen, Eric Thacker, Jacob Hadfield, Reganne K. Briggs, Justen Smith Oct 2021

Evaluating Alternative Feed Sources During Drought, Matthew D. Garcia, Ruger P. Carter, Ryan Larsen, Eric Thacker, Jacob Hadfield, Reganne K. Briggs, Justen Smith

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During years of drought, it is important to critically evaluate alternative feed sources available for cattle. The traditional method for sustaining a herd through a drought is feeding extra stored forage to compensate for decreased forage production or decreased forage quality available on rangelands and pastures due to drought conditions. However, hay prices rise substantially, and availability decreases due to irrigation water limitations and increased demand from livestock producers. This fact sheet will evaluate why hay prices rise and what alternatives are available to compensate for forage reductions during drought.


Size And Scope Of San Juan County Agriculture 2020, Reagan Wytsalucy, Ryan Feuz, Ryan Larsen, Paige Wray Sep 2021

Size And Scope Of San Juan County Agriculture 2020, Reagan Wytsalucy, Ryan Feuz, Ryan Larsen, Paige Wray

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Located in the southeast corner of the state with approximately 5.2 million acres, San Juan County (SJC) is the largest county in Utah. It makes up one of the four corner states bordered by Colorado on the east and Arizona on the south. Surrounding Utah counties include Kane, Garfield, Wayne, Emery, and Grand. The current population is estimated at 15,772. This fact sheet provides agricultural information on land ownership, crop, vegetable, and livestock production, county characteristics, and producer farm income for San Juan County.