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Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Maples In The Landscape, Sheriden M. Hansen, Jaydee Gunnell, Andra Emmertson May 2021

Maples In The Landscape, Sheriden M. Hansen, Jaydee Gunnell, Andra Emmertson

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Maple trees (Acer sp.) are a common fixture and beautiful addition to Utah landscapes. There are over one hundred species, each with numerous cultivars (cultivated varieties) that are native to both North America and much of Northern Europe. Trees vary in size and shape, from small, almost prostrate forms like certain Japanese maples (Acer palmatum) and shrubby bigtooth maples (Acer grandidentatum) to large and stately shade trees like the Norway maple (Acer platanoides). Tree shape can vary greatly, ranging from upright, columnar, rounded, pyramidal to spreading. Because trees come in a range of shapes and sizes, there is almost always ...


Size And Scope Of Utah County Agriculture 2019, Ryan Feuz, Ryan Larsen, Dean Miner May 2021

Size And Scope Of Utah County Agriculture 2019, Ryan Feuz, Ryan Larsen, Dean Miner

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Utah County is located in the middle of the state. The county seat and largest city is Provo. As of 2018, the population of the county was estimated at 622,213. The Wasatch Mountain Range is in the eastern portion of the county. The elevation drops quickly from the mountains in the east to the Utah Lake valley in the center of the county. This fact sheet reviews land ownership, crop and livestock production, and farm income and age of operators.


Snapdragon Cut Flower Production In Utah, Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Tiffany Maughan, Brent Black, Dan Drost May 2021

Snapdragon Cut Flower Production In Utah, Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Tiffany Maughan, Brent Black, Dan Drost

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This fact sheet describes snapdragon cut flower production in Utah. Snapdragons can bloom spring through fall, with the highest quality stems produced during cool temperatures. Cultivars are grouped based on their blooming response to light and temperature. High-quality stem production can last up to 21 weeks by using multiple groups, staggered planting dates in a high tunnel and field, pinching, and pruning techniques.


Southwest Utah Turfgrass Management Calendar, Kelly Kopp, Candace Schaible, Mark Nelson, Steven J. Price Apr 2021

Southwest Utah Turfgrass Management Calendar, Kelly Kopp, Candace Schaible, Mark Nelson, Steven J. Price

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This is a calendar for turfgrass management for southwest Utah and includes guidelines for seeding, overseeding, sodding, fertilization, mowing, aeration, weed control, and irrigation.


Podredumbre Del Cuello De La Cebolla Por Botrytis, Claudia Nischwitz, Christine Dhiman, Dan Drost, Celina Wille Apr 2021

Podredumbre Del Cuello De La Cebolla Por Botrytis, Claudia Nischwitz, Christine Dhiman, Dan Drost, Celina Wille

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La podredumbre del cuello de la cebolla por Botrytis es una enfermedad causada por los hongos Botrytis aclada y B. allii. Estos hongos pueden encontrarse en el suelo o transmitirse por semillas y pueden estar presentes en cualquier región donde se cultiven cebollas o ajos. La Botrytis puede producir esporas en el tejido de las hojas y ser dispersada por el viento para infectar bulbos dañados. Las cebollas y el ajo que están infectados parecen estar empapados de agua en la región del cuello y cambian a un color marrón a como el hongo crece y se propaga hacia la ...


Piojos En Los Humanos, Erin W. Hodgson, Celina Wille Apr 2021

Piojos En Los Humanos, Erin W. Hodgson, Celina Wille

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Las infestaciones de piojos en humanos, llamadas pediculosis, son muy comunes en todo el mundo. Los piojos pueden transmitir enfermedades y son insectos parásitos en humanos, mascotas y ganado. Los piojos pertenecen al orden Phthiraptera y generalmente se dividen en dos grupos según las piezas bucales y las preferencias alimentarias. Los piojos masticadores (Mallophaga) tienen mandíbulas bien desarrolladas y comen piel, plumas y pelaje de aves y mamíferos.


Vegetable Diseases Of Utah, Claudia Nischwitz, Mair Murray, Nick Volesky Apr 2021

Vegetable Diseases Of Utah, Claudia Nischwitz, Mair Murray, Nick Volesky

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This guide provides a list of vegetable crop diseases that have been documented in Utah along with some that are likely to occur. Plant diseases are caused by pathogens such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and fungal-like organisms. Diagnosing specific plant diseases takes careful observation of signs, symptoms, and sometimes culturing and molecular testing in a laboratory setting.


Utah Livestock Producer Preferred Drought Management Strategies, Kynda R. Curtis, Tatiana Drugova, Ruby Ward Apr 2021

Utah Livestock Producer Preferred Drought Management Strategies, Kynda R. Curtis, Tatiana Drugova, Ruby Ward

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This fact sheet, the second in a series of three, examines livestock producer preferred drought management strategies and how producer preferences change depending on drought severity and expected grazing efficiency. Severe drought in livestock production leads to decreases in feed availability, range or hay quality, and overall lower quality beef (Holupchinski et al., n.d.). Hence, drought increases production costs and producer dependence on imported feed. Thus, extended drought poses a threat to agricultural productivity and the economies of rural and tribal areas in Utah.


Utah Fresh Produce Grower Preferred Drought Management Strategies, Kynda R. Curtis, Tatiana Drugova, Ruby Ward Apr 2021

Utah Fresh Produce Grower Preferred Drought Management Strategies, Kynda R. Curtis, Tatiana Drugova, Ruby Ward

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This fact sheet, the first in a series of three, examines the preferred drought management strategies of fresh produce growers and how their preferences change depending on drought severity and expected yields. Severe drought in fresh produce production causes stunted growth resulting in smaller, lower quality produce, as well as increased vulnerability to pests, all of which result in large economic losses (Holupchinski et al., n.d.). Water shortages are also common, with restrictions on use commonly imposed, especially in the late summer months. Hence, extended drought poses a threat to agricultural productivity and the economies of rural and tribal ...


Chinche De La Semilla Del Olmo, Ryan Davis, Celina Wille Apr 2021

Chinche De La Semilla Del Olmo, Ryan Davis, Celina Wille

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En julio del 2014, el Laboratorio de Diagnóstico de Plagas de Plantas de Utah y USDA APHIS confirmaron el primer reporte de chinche de semilla del olmo (Lygaeidae: Arocatus melanocephalus) en el estado de Utah. Originaria de Europa, la chinche de la semilla del olmo se identificó por primera vez en los Estados Unidos en Idaho en 2012. Desde entonces se ha encontrado en Oregón, Washington, Columbia Británica, Canadá y en varios lugares de Asia y Europa. Si bien el primer reporte en Utah se originó en el condado de Salt Lake, la chinche de la semilla del olmo ahora ...


Mancha Anular Necrótica Y Mancha De Verano Del Césped, Claudia Nischwitz, Kelly Kopp, Jaydee Gunnell, Kent Evans, Erin Frank, Celina Wille Apr 2021

Mancha Anular Necrótica Y Mancha De Verano Del Césped, Claudia Nischwitz, Kelly Kopp, Jaydee Gunnell, Kent Evans, Erin Frank, Celina Wille

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La mancha anular necrótica y mancha de verano del césped son enfermedades fúngicas que infectan los pastos de estación fría y causan síntomas similares. Los síntomas comienzan como un crecimiento deficiente y marchitez de las hojas, que se convierten en parches marrones obvios que varían de 1 a 3 pies de diámetro. Debido a los síntomas similares que se observan en la infección por ambos patógenos, se necesita un microscopio para diagnosticar adecuadamente cada enfermedad. El manejo de ambas enfermedades puede ser difícil y frecuentemente requiere una combinación de técnicas de control cultural, químico y varietal.


Utah Hay And Forage Grower Preferred Drought Management Strategies, Kynda R. Curtis, Tatiana Drugova, Ruby Ward Apr 2021

Utah Hay And Forage Grower Preferred Drought Management Strategies, Kynda R. Curtis, Tatiana Drugova, Ruby Ward

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This fact sheet, the third in a series of three, examines the preferred drought management strategies of hay and forage growers and how their preferences change depending on drought severity and expected yields. Severe drought in forage production causes crop damage and losses leading to decreases in yield and profitability for growers (Yost et al., 2019). Water shortages are also common, with restrictions on use commonly imposed, especially in the late summer months. Hence, extended drought poses a threat to agricultural productivity and the economies of rural and tribal areas in Utah.


High Tunnel Pest Management - Aphids, Nick Volesky, Zachery R. Schrumm Apr 2021

High Tunnel Pest Management - Aphids, Nick Volesky, Zachery R. Schrumm

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Aphids are a common pest found on high tunnel crops such as fruits, vegetables, ornamentals, grasses, and weeds. Four aphid species commonly found in Utah in high tunnels are green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), melon aphid (Aphis gossypii), potato aphid (Macrosiphum euphorbiae), and cabbage aphid (Brevicoryne brassicae). This fact sheet describes different aphids and reviews the aphid life cycle. It also addresses how to monitor for damage caused by aphids and cultural, biological, and chemical controls.


Blue Orchard Bee (Osmia Lignaria): Commercial Pollinator For Orchards, Theresa Pitts-Singer Mar 2021

Blue Orchard Bee (Osmia Lignaria): Commercial Pollinator For Orchards, Theresa Pitts-Singer

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The most common mason bee in Utah is the blue orchard bee. Blue orchard bees collect pollen from a large variety of flowering plants but prefer fruit trees from the family Rosaceae. Recent concerns about honey bees, coupled with the blue orchard bee’s superior pollination of tree fruits, have increased interest in rearing blue orchard bees.


Goatsrue (Galega Officinalis) Identification And Management In Pastures And Croplands, Jacob Hadfield, Corey Ransom, Cody Zesiger, Clark Israelsen Mar 2021

Goatsrue (Galega Officinalis) Identification And Management In Pastures And Croplands, Jacob Hadfield, Corey Ransom, Cody Zesiger, Clark Israelsen

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Goatsrue is an aggressive invasive plant and a declared Utah state noxious weed (Category 1B). It was introduced into the Cache Valley in 1891 and spread through the irrigation canals, streams, and rivers of the Bear River drainage. Cache County has one of the largest goatsrue infestations in the nation. Luckily, only small infestations are found in neighboring counties (Box Elder, Rich, Weber, and Davis). Goatsrue’s rapid growth, prolific seed production, and ability to spread quickly through waterways make it a problem and concern for many residents of Cache County. Properly identifying and managing goatsrue can help reduce the ...


Squash Bug Integrated Pest Management, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray Mar 2021

Squash Bug Integrated Pest Management, Nick Volesky, Mair Murray

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This infographic reviews integrated pest management for squash bugs. It includes information on the following: resistant varieties of vegetables to plant and crop rotation, homemade traps, mechanical destruction, mulches, trap crops, natural enemies, and organic and synthetic insecticides.


Irrigation Management In High Tunnels, Dan Drost, Brent Black, Melanie Stock Mar 2021

Irrigation Management In High Tunnels, Dan Drost, Brent Black, Melanie Stock

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High tunnels provide season extension for various high-value horticulture crops in a diverse range of climates. These large, plastic-covered structures modify the environmental conditions of the covered area. Temperature management is commonly the focus when growing in high tunnels as this may be the key factor limiting plant growth during much of the year. While high tunnel temperature management is important, growers also need to address water management to ensure plants are not water-stressed. Common mistakes are underestimating water needs, which stresses plants or creates conditions favoring plant diseases and nutrient leaching from overwatering. Knowing when to irrigate and how ...


Nutrition And Chronic Pain, Elise Withers, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Riley Samples, Maren Wright Voss Mar 2021

Nutrition And Chronic Pain, Elise Withers, Mateja R. Savoie-Roskos, Riley Samples, Maren Wright Voss

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The internet is full of information about anti-inflammatory diets, foods, and supplements claiming to prevent or alleviate chronic pain. For those who struggle with chronic pain, sound dietary advice is essential to improve intake and ultimately decrease pain (Arranz et al., 2010). However, it’s important to note that research showing the impact of specific foods on health and the immune system is currently limited; therefore, these claims should be interpreted with caution (Elma et al., 2020; Harvard Health, 2018). This fact sheet will cover (1) how inflammation affects chronic pain and (2) how eating a well-balanced diet may help ...


Aphid Natural Enemies And Biological Control, Ron Patterson, Ricardo Ramirez Feb 2021

Aphid Natural Enemies And Biological Control, Ron Patterson, Ricardo Ramirez

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This fact sheet lists common arthropods of Utah that eat aphids. It will help identify those arthropods and will describe management practices that aid in their success. Many of these predators will eat other plant damaging insects in addition to aphids.


Tips To Safely Ferment Food At Home, Kelsie Maw, Brian Nummer, Callahan K. Ward, Melanie Jewkes Feb 2021

Tips To Safely Ferment Food At Home, Kelsie Maw, Brian Nummer, Callahan K. Ward, Melanie Jewkes

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Fermenting foods is perhaps the oldest food preservation method and has grown in popularity in recent years due to their touted “gut,” probiotic, and other additional health benefits. Fermenting at home is an inexpensive way to control what goes inside your food. Fermentation is the process of “good” microorganisms fermenting sugars and nutrients in food to produce byproducts (acids) that usually preserve the food in some manner. For example, milk is fermented to produce acids that create cheese, yogurt, and other products. In most cases, fermentation alone cannot produce a shelf-stable (room temperature) food product. Nearly all fermented foods require ...


Ingredient Substitutions And Equivalents, Ann Henderson, Suzanne Jorgenson, Susan Haws Feb 2021

Ingredient Substitutions And Equivalents, Ann Henderson, Suzanne Jorgenson, Susan Haws

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This fact sheet lists substitutions for leavening agents, liquids, sugars, flour, fats, rice and pasta, spices and miscellaneous items. Also lists equivalent measurements.


Western Conenose Bug (Kissing Bug), Zachery R. Schrumm Jan 2021

Western Conenose Bug (Kissing Bug), Zachery R. Schrumm

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The western conenose bug is the only species of kissing bug that is known to occur in Utah, and it is uncommon. Kissing bugs feed on the blood of vertebrates and can transmit the parasite that causes Chagas disease in humans. However, the transmission of the parasite does not occur from a kissing bug bite, but rather from the insect’s feces that can be infected with the parasite. Transmission of the parasite from the western conenose bug is less likely compared to other species of kissing bugs that exist in other areas of the United States. Prevent kissing bugs ...


Community Agriculture: Concepts, Models, And Impacts, Bayli Hanson, Roslynn Brain Mccann, Sean Damitz Jan 2021

Community Agriculture: Concepts, Models, And Impacts, Bayli Hanson, Roslynn Brain Mccann, Sean Damitz

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Community agriculture initiatives are often run by organizations (1) relying on volunteer structures; (2) growing produce sustainably; and (3) aiming to improve health and access to food in their communities. To clarify “growing produce sustainably,” the Utah Conservation Corps Urban Community Farm (UCC UCF) (a volunteer and AmeriCorps-driven community agriculture model based in Logan, Utah) engages in regenerative agriculture practices, which are reviewed in this fact sheet. Community agriculture benefits and challenges are explored.


Impacts Of Drought On Tribal Economies In New Mexico, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim Jan 2021

Impacts Of Drought On Tribal Economies In New Mexico, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim

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Sustaining agricultural production on tribal lands will become progressively more challenging in the future due to decreased water availability, extended droughts, and changes in precipitation amounts and timing. This fact sheet will illustrate the potential economic impacts of drought on agriculture and reservation economies in New Mexico. New Mexico is the fifth driest state in the United States, with average yearly precipitation of 13.38 inches, and 69% of the state experienced abnormally dry conditions over the past two decades. The results discussed here cover six reservations located in New Mexico, including Acoma Pueblo, Jicarilla Apache Nation, Laguna Pueblo, Mescalero ...


Economic Impacts Of Drought In Utah: Uintah And Ouray Reservation, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim Jan 2021

Economic Impacts Of Drought In Utah: Uintah And Ouray Reservation, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim

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Sustaining agricultural production on tribal lands will become progressively more challenging in the future due to decreased water availability, extended droughts, and changes in precipitation amounts and timing. The objective of this fact sheet is to illustrate the economic impacts of drought on agriculture and the economy of the Uintah and Ouray Reservation in Utah.


Impacts Of Drought On Tribal Economies In Arizona, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim Jan 2021

Impacts Of Drought On Tribal Economies In Arizona, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim

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Sustaining agricultural production on tribal lands will become progressively more challenging in the future due to decreased water availability, extended droughts, and changes in precipitation amounts and timing. The objective of this fact sheet is to illustrate the economic impacts of drought on agriculture and reservation economies in Arizona. Arizona is the fourth driest state in the United States, with average yearly precipitation of 11.24 inches, and 78% of the state experienced abnormally dry conditions over the past 20 years. The results discussed here cover five reservations located in Arizona, including the Hopi Tribe, Navajo Nation, San Carlos Apache ...


Impacts Of Drought On Tribal Economies In Nevada, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim Jan 2021

Impacts Of Drought On Tribal Economies In Nevada, Tatiana Drugova, Kynda R. Curtis, Man-Keun Kim

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Sustaining agricultural production (e.g., crops, food, livestock) on tribal lands will become progressively more challenging in the future due to decreased water availability, extended droughts, and changes in precipitation amounts and timing. The objective of this fact sheet is to illustrate the economic impacts of drought on agriculture and reservation economies in Nevada.


High Tunnel Pest Management - Caterpillars, Nick Volesky Jan 2021

High Tunnel Pest Management - Caterpillars, Nick Volesky

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In Utah high tunnel production, there are various caterpillar pests (larvae of moth and butterfly species) that cause economic damage to crops. Common caterpillar pest species found in Utah include hornworms, tomato fruit worms, imported cabbage worms, diamondback moths, cabbage loopers, armyworms, and cutworms. Various weed species growing inside or outside high tunnels can attract and harbor caterpillar pests. Managing caterpillar pests in high tunnels involves various mechanical, chemical, biological, and cultural control practices.


Peony Cut Flower Production Budget, One Field, Northern Utah, 2020, Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Ruby Ward, Brent Black, Dan Drost Jan 2021

Peony Cut Flower Production Budget, One Field, Northern Utah, 2020, Maegen Lewis, Melanie Stock, Ruby Ward, Brent Black, Dan Drost

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This enterprise budget contains costs (preplant and site preparation, establishment and maintenance, and harvest and processing) and returns for the production and sale of peony cut flowers that were grown in a field (14 feet by 42 feet, the size of one high tunnel for comparison). Peonies are a perennial crop that require at least three years for establishment and produce in years 4-20. The costs are representative, but should be adjusted where necessary for individual situations. The net income resulting from stems sold at a price of $5.00 per high-quality stem (100% sold) and $2.00 per low ...


Pet Rabbit Projects: Getting Started, Melanie Stock, Jessie Hadfield, Jake Hadfield, Nicloe Reed Jan 2021

Pet Rabbit Projects: Getting Started, Melanie Stock, Jessie Hadfield, Jake Hadfield, Nicloe Reed

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Rabbits are becoming increasingly popular companion animals. Pet rabbits can thrive in rural and suburban environments and can happily live indoors or outside. They are relatively low maintenance compared to some of the more common family pets and are great for all ages of youth with proper supervision and education. It is important not to be fooled into thinking they are an easy pet, however. Rabbits are a long-term commitment that require daily care and continued effort. This fact sheet has tips to get started keeping rabbits as pets.