Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Life Sciences Commons

Open Access. Powered by Scholars. Published by Universities.®

Iowa State University

Discipline
Keyword
Publication Year
Publication
Publication Type
File Type

Articles 1 - 30 of 36247

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Predicting The Spatiotemporal Exposure Of Aquatic Species To Intrusions Of Fire Retardant In Streams With Limited Data, Chris R. Rehmann, P. Ryan Jackson, Holly J. Puglis Aug 2021

Predicting The Spatiotemporal Exposure Of Aquatic Species To Intrusions Of Fire Retardant In Streams With Limited Data, Chris R. Rehmann, P. Ryan Jackson, Holly J. Puglis

Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering Publications

Because fire retardant can enter streams and harm aquatic species including endangered fish, agencies such as the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) must estimate the downstream extent of toxic effects every time fire retardant enters streams (denoted as an “intrusion”). A challenge in estimating the length of stream affected by the intrusion and the exposure time of species in the affected reach is the lack of data typically available on the stream's geometry and flow characteristics. Previously, the USFS estimated the affected reach length assuming instantaneous mixing of the retardant over the reach; however, this approach neglects key river ...


Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński Jun 2021

Waste To Phosphorus: A Transdisciplinary Solution To P Recovery From Wastewater Based On The Triz Approach, Anna Jama-Rodzeńska, Andrzej Białowiec, Jacek A. Koziel, Józef Sowiński

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Phosphorus (P) is a limited yet essential resource. P cannot be replaced, but it can be recovered from waste. We proposed the TRIZ approach (Teoria reszenija izobretatielskich zadacz - Rus., Theory of Inventive Problem Solving - Eng.) to identify a feasible solution. We aimed at minimizing the environmental impact and, by eliminating contradictions, proposed viable technical solutions. P recovery can be more sustainable based on circular economy and 4Rs (reduction, recovery, reuse, and recycling). The TRIZ approach identified sewage sludge (SS) as waste with a large potential for P recovery (up to 90%). Successful selection and application of SS management and P ...


Effect Of Prenatal Ambient Temperature On The Performance Physiological Parameters, And Oxidative Metabolism Of Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Layers Exposed To Heat Stress During Growth, Thaís Pacheco Santana, Eliane Gasparino, Angélica De Souza Khatlab, Claudson Oliveira Brito, Leandro Teixeira Barbosa, Susan J. Lamont, Ana Paula Del Vesco May 2021

Effect Of Prenatal Ambient Temperature On The Performance Physiological Parameters, And Oxidative Metabolism Of Japanese Quail (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Layers Exposed To Heat Stress During Growth, Thaís Pacheco Santana, Eliane Gasparino, Angélica De Souza Khatlab, Claudson Oliveira Brito, Leandro Teixeira Barbosa, Susan J. Lamont, Ana Paula Del Vesco

Animal Science Publications

A strategy to mitigate the negative effects of stress on animals is to enhance their ability to beneficially respond to stressful conditions. This study aimed to assess whether prenatal ambient temperature influences the response of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) chicks to environmental challenges during growth. The experiment was conducted in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement: two temperature conditions for the mothers (thermoneutral and heat stress by continuous exposure to 32 °C) and two offspring ambient temperature conditions (thermoneutral and heat stress by intermittent exposure to 34 °C for 6 h/day from 15 to 35 days of age). Heat ...


Dancing For Parkinson’S: A Gateway For Connectedness To Peers And Social Assurance, P. Izbicki, Elizabeth L. Stegemoller, J. Compton, J. Thompson May 2021

Dancing For Parkinson’S: A Gateway For Connectedness To Peers And Social Assurance, P. Izbicki, Elizabeth L. Stegemoller, J. Compton, J. Thompson

Kinesiology Publications

The first-year student experience in college is a crucial time for personal and professional development, especially for students entering science, technology, education, and mathematics (STEM) disciplines. Unfortunately, it is also the time when students most commonly leave STEM, largely due to disconnection from faculty and peers. The Freshman Research Initiative (FRI) is a program that introduces first-year undergraduates to research in a variety of fields. The program has shown positive outcomes for student success and retention in STEM fields. However, it has not been demonstrated whether this program can increase social connectedness and assurance, potentially contributing to students’ longer-term retention ...


Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang May 2021

Effect Of A Near-Zero Magnetic Field On Development And Flight Of Oriental Armyworm (Mythimna Separata), Meng-Meng Yan, Lei Zhang, Yun-Xia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Wei-Dong Pan, Xing-Fu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The geomagnetic field affects all living organisms on the Earth. In this study we investigated the developmental and behavioral effects of rearing Mythimna separata in a near-zero magnetic field (<500 nT) compared to the local geomagnetic field (approximately 50 µT). The near-zero magnetic field produced by a Helmholtz coil system significantly lengthened larval and pupal development durations, increased male longevity, and reduced pupal weight, female reproduction, and the relative expression level of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene in newly emerged females. Moreover, the near-zero magnetic field had a considerable negative effect on the mating ratio of M. separata adults. In addition, the moths in the near-zero magnetic field displayed less flight activity late in the night than those in the Earth's normal geomagnetic field, indicating that the flight rhythm of M. separata may be affected by the near-zero magnetic field. Reduction in magnetic field intensity may have negative effects on the development and flight of oriental armyworm, with consequent additional effects on its migration.


Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik May 2021

Mitigation Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Barn With Uv-A And Uv-C Photocatalysis, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

UV-A (ca. 365 nm wavelength, a.k.a. ‘black light’) photocatalysis has been investigated to comprehensively mitigate odor and selected air pollutants in the livestock environment. This study was conducted to confirm the performance of UV-A photocatalysis on the swine farm. The objectives of this research were to (1) scale-up of the UV-A photocatalysis treatment, (2) evaluate the mitigation of odorous gases from swine slurry pit, (3) test different UV sources, (4) evaluate the effect of particulate matter (PM) and (5) conduct preliminary economic analyses. We tested UV-A photocatalysis at a mobile laboratory-scale capable of treating ~0.2–0.8 ...


Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik Apr 2021

Evaluation Of Tio2 Based Photocatalytic Treatment Of Odor And Gaseous Emissions From Swine Manure With Uv-A And Uv-C, Myeongseong Lee, Jacek A. Koziel, Wyatt Murphy, William S. Jenks, Baitong Chen, Peiyang Li, Chumki Banik

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

It is essential to mitigate gaseous emissions that result from poultry and livestock production to increase industry sustainability. Odorous volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia (NH3), hydrogen sulfide (H2S), and greenhouse gases (GHGs) have detrimental effects on the quality of life in rural communities, the environment, and climate. This study’s objective was to evaluate the photocatalytic UV treatment of gaseous emissions of odor, odorous VOCs, NH3, and other gases (GHGs, O3—sometimes considered as by-products of UV treatment) from stored swine manure on a pilot-scale. The manure emissions were treated in fast-moving air using a ...


A Pseudomolecule Assembly Of The Rocky Mountain Elk Genome, Rick E. Masonbrink, David Alt, Darrell O. Bayles, Paola Boggiatto, William Edwards, Fred Tatum, Jeffrey Williams, Jennifer Wilson-Welder, Aleksey Zimin, Andrew Severin, Steven Olsen Apr 2021

A Pseudomolecule Assembly Of The Rocky Mountain Elk Genome, Rick E. Masonbrink, David Alt, Darrell O. Bayles, Paola Boggiatto, William Edwards, Fred Tatum, Jeffrey Williams, Jennifer Wilson-Welder, Aleksey Zimin, Andrew Severin, Steven Olsen

Office of Biotechnology Publications

Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus canadensis) populations have significant economic implications to the cattle industry, as they are a major reservoir for Brucella abortus in the Greater Yellowstone area. Vaccination attempts against intracellular bacterial diseases in elk populations have not been successful due to a negligible adaptive cellular immune response. A lack of genomic resources has impeded attempts to better understand why vaccination does not induce protective immunity. To overcome this limitation, PacBio, Illumina, and Hi-C sequencing with a total of 686-fold coverage was used to assemble the elk genome into 35 pseudomolecules. A robust gene annotation was generated resulting in ...


Finite Element Analysis Of Femoral Neck Strains During Stair Ascent And Descent, Chen Deng, Jason C. Gillette, Timothy R. Derrick Apr 2021

Finite Element Analysis Of Femoral Neck Strains During Stair Ascent And Descent, Chen Deng, Jason C. Gillette, Timothy R. Derrick

Kinesiology Publications

For older population, a better understanding of the hip joint loading environment is needed for the prevention of hip pain, and the reduction of the stress fractures and fall risks. Using the motion analysis and inverse dynamics methods, combined with musculoskeletal modelling, static optimization, and finite element (FE) femur model, the difference of femoral neck strains between stair ascent vs. descent, young vs. older populations was compared. A two-way repeated-measures MANOVA was applied to test the effect of age and stair direction on the femoral neck strains. The strains at the femoral neck cross-section were greater for stair descent than ...


Gwas And Wgcna Uncover Hub Genes Controlling Salt Tolerance In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Seedlings, Langlang Ma, Minyan Zhang, Jie Chen, Chunyan Qing, Shijiang He, Changying Zou, Guangsheng Yuan, Cong Yang, Hua Peng, Guangtang Pan, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yaou Shen Apr 2021

Gwas And Wgcna Uncover Hub Genes Controlling Salt Tolerance In Maize (Zea Mays L.) Seedlings, Langlang Ma, Minyan Zhang, Jie Chen, Chunyan Qing, Shijiang He, Changying Zou, Guangsheng Yuan, Cong Yang, Hua Peng, Guangtang Pan, Thomas Lubberstedt, Yaou Shen

Agronomy Publications

Salt stress influences maize growth and development. To decode the genetic basis and hub genes controlling salt tolerance is a meaningful exploration for cultivating salt-tolerant maize varieties. Herein, we used an association panel consisting of 305 lines to identify the genetic loci responsible for Na+- and K+-related traits in maize seedlings. Under the salt stress, seven significant single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified using a genome-wide association study, and 120 genes were obtained by scanning the linkage disequilibrium regions of these loci. According to the transcriptome data of the above 120 genes under salinity treatment, we conducted a weighted gene ...


Key Factors Involved In Reduction Of Damage To Sunflower By The European Sunflower Moth In China Through Late Planting, Yunxia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Lizhi Luo, Chenguang Liu, Yongjun Wang, Shuangping Liu, Zongze Zhang, Lijun Wang, Xingfu Jiang Apr 2021

Key Factors Involved In Reduction Of Damage To Sunflower By The European Sunflower Moth In China Through Late Planting, Yunxia Cheng, Thomas W. Sappington, Lizhi Luo, Chenguang Liu, Yongjun Wang, Shuangping Liu, Zongze Zhang, Lijun Wang, Xingfu Jiang

Entomology Publications

The European sunflower moth, Homoesoma nebulellum (Denis et Schiffermüller), emerged as a major new pest in Bayannur, China, in 2006. Insecticidal control with a single application is problematic because timing is critical, and multiple applications increase production and environmental costs. Management of H. nebulellum by planting date adjustment can be effective, but the optimal time window for late planting is unknown. Natural levels of H. nebulellum infestation were compared among sunflowers planted on five dates from April 25 to June 5 in two years, and the relationship between timing of adult abundance and flowering assessed. Delaying planting of sunflower from ...


High Mortality Rates For Bean Leaf Beetle In Northern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Apr 2021

High Mortality Rates For Bean Leaf Beetle In Northern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Bean leaf beetle adults (Photo 1) are susceptible to cold weather and most will die when air temperatures fall below 14°F (-10°C). However, they have adapted to winter by protecting themselves from harsh temperatures under plant debris and loose soil. Each spring, adult beetles emerge from their overwintering habitat and migrate to available hosts, such as alfalfa, tick trefoil, and various clovers. As the season progresses, bean leaf beetles move to preferred hosts, like soybean. While initial adult activity can begin before soybean emergence, peak abundance often coincides with early-vegetative soybean.


Termination Timing Of Cereal Rye Cover Crop For Improved Weed Control In Soybean, Prashant Jha Apr 2021

Termination Timing Of Cereal Rye Cover Crop For Improved Weed Control In Soybean, Prashant Jha

Integrated Crop Management News

Current cooler weather conditions are posing challenges for growers with a cereal rye cover crop to get it terminated. However, for growers planning to plant soybeans into the rye cover crop, there may be a perk to letting the rye cover crop accumulate more biomass. That perk being the cover crop biomass can help with weed suppression. The ability of cereal rye to suppress weeds is directly related to the biomass accumulation at the time of termination.


Spring Forage Management Considerations, Aaron Saeugling, Rebecca K. Vittetoe Apr 2021

Spring Forage Management Considerations, Aaron Saeugling, Rebecca K. Vittetoe

Integrated Crop Management News

Pasture and forages stands have really started to green-up. Here are some fertilizer and weed management considerations and recommendations to help make the most out of pasture and forage stands this year.


Check Fieldwatch® Before Pesticide Applications, Elizabeth Danielson Apr 2021

Check Fieldwatch® Before Pesticide Applications, Elizabeth Danielson

Integrated Crop Management News

Prepare for a safe pesticide application season by checking the FieldWatch® registry before making pesticide applications. The FieldWatch® registry provides easy-to-use, accurate, and secure online tools to enhance communications and awareness between crop producers, beekeepers, and pesticide applicators.FieldWatch® features a voluntary mapping tool through Google Maps™ that shows pesticide applicators the locations of registered sensitive crops and beehives so they can make informed decisions regarding pesticide applications. Taking the time to review what is near a field prior to applications helps prevent off-target application problems and helps commercial applicators comply with the Iowa Bee Rule.


To Terminate Or Not To Terminate?, Robert G. Hartzler Apr 2021

To Terminate Or Not To Terminate?, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

Current cool temperatures increase the risk of failures in terminating cover crops. While cereal rye continues to grow during these conditions, activity of herbicides is reduced. Translocation of glyphosate to growing points is reduced under cool temperatures, slowing activity and increasing the potential for control failures. It is generally recommended to avoid applications when nighttime temperatures fall below 40 F, and we prefer temperatures at application to be at least in the mid-50s with clear skies. Based on current forecasts, herbicide applications to terminate in many areas of the state should be delayed until more favorable conditions exist.


Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht Apr 2021

Biochar-Swine Manure Impact On Soil Nutrients And Carbon Under Controlled Leaching Experiment Using A Midwestern Mollisols, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Mriganka De, Darcy Bonds, Baitong Chen, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Biochar application to the soil can improve soil quality and nutrient leaching loss from swine manure adapted soils. Our working hypothesis was that the biochar-incubated with manure could be a better soil amendment than conventional manure application. The manure-biochar application to the soil would decrease nutrient leaching from manure and increase plant-available nutrients. The study objectives were to 1) assess the physicochemical properties of the manure-biochar mixture after lab incubation and 2) evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and other major and minor nutrients in comparison to conventional manure application to soil. Three biochars ...


Tournament And Non-Tournament Anglers Have Little Effect On A Largemouth Bass Population Compared To Natural Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael J. Weber Apr 2021

Tournament And Non-Tournament Anglers Have Little Effect On A Largemouth Bass Population Compared To Natural Mortality, Andrea Sylvia, Stephen J. Dinsmore, Michael J. Weber

Natural Resource Ecology and Management Publications

Popularity of bass Micropterus spp. catch and release and tournament angling during the past decade has resulted in increased potential for these activities to induce population level effects. Understanding capture rates and mortality sources relative to total population mortality is essential to focus of management. We conducted monthly electrofishing, solicited nontournament angler tag returns, and censused largemouth bass Micropterus salmoides tournaments at Brushy Creek Lake, IA, USA from April 2015 to June 2018. We used a multistate mark-recapture model to evaluate the effects of air temperature, water temperature, tournament bass per angler, and tournament initial mortality on non-tournament and tournament ...


Alfalfa Weevils Active Throughout Southern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Apr 2021

Alfalfa Weevils Active Throughout Southern Iowa, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Adult alfalfa weevils become active and start laying eggs as soon as temperatures exceed 48°F. Like other insects, the development of alfalfa weevil depends on temperature, and we can use accumulation of growing degree days (GDD) to predict activity. Alfalfa weevil egg hatching begins when 200-300 GDD (base 48°F) have accumulated since January 1.


Seedcorn Maggots Get An Early Start, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson Apr 2021

Seedcorn Maggots Get An Early Start, Ashley Dean, Erin W. Hodgson

Integrated Crop Management News

Seedcorn maggot is a seed and seedling pest of corn and soybean. The larvae, or maggots, feed on germinating corn and soybean seeds or seedlings (Photo 1). Feeding can delay development or kill the plant. Plant injury is especially prevalent during cool and wet springs when plants are growing slowly. Infestations tend to be field-wide instead of in patches like for many other pests. To confirm seedcorn maggot injury, check field areas with stand loss and look for maggots, pupae and damaged seeds (hollowed out seeds or poorly developing seedlings).


Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown Apr 2021

Mitigation Of Acute Ammonia Emissions With Biochar During Swine Manure Agitation Before Pump-Out: Proof-Of-The-Concept, Baitong Chen, Jacek A. Koziel, Andrzej Białowiec, Myeongseong Lee, Hantian Ma, Samuel C. O'Brien, Peiyang Li, Zhanibek Meiirkhanuly, Robert C. Brown

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Ammonia (NH3) emissions from animal agriculture can cause eutrophication of water ecosystems and are precursors to secondary particulate matter (PM2.5). NH3 emissions from stored swine manure represent nutrient loss affecting the fertilizing value of manure. The short-term emission bursts occur when farmers agitate manure before emptying storage and fertilizing fields. There is no proven technology to mitigate gaseous emissions during agitation, while the hazards of acute releases (e.g., H2S) are well-known. Biochar mitigates NH3 emissions from manure over the long-term. The objective of this research was to evaluate the mitigation of acute NH3 emissions during/after agitation. Two ...


Preemergence Herbicides, Dry Soils And Rain, Robert G. Hartzler Apr 2021

Preemergence Herbicides, Dry Soils And Rain, Robert G. Hartzler

Integrated Crop Management News

The potential for continued dry weather across the state raises concerns about the impact of dry soils on preemergence herbicides. Preemergence herbicides kill weeds by being absorbed into the seed as the seed imbibes water. To be effective, the herbicide must be located within the soil profile at the depth where weed seeds germinate (primarily the upper inch of soil). In addition, there must be sufficient water to keep the herbicide dissolved in soil water. Both factors can be adversely affected by limited rain early in the season.


Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht Apr 2021

Comparing Biochar-Swine Manure Mixture To Conventional Manure Impact On Soil Nutrient Availability And Plant Uptake—A Greenhouse Study, Chumki Banik, Jacek A. Koziel, Darcy Bonds, Asheesh K. Singh, Mark A. Licht

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The use of swine manure as a source of plant nutrients is one alternative to synthetic fertilizers. However, conventional manure application with >90% water and a low C:N ratio results in soil C loss to the atmosphere. Our hypothesis was to use biochar as a manure nutrient stabilizer that would slowly release nutrients to plants upon biochar-swine manure mixture application to soil. The objectives were to evaluate the impact of biochar-treated swine manure on soil total C, N, and plant-available macro- and micronutrients in greenhouse-cultivated corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.). Neutral pH red oak ...


Distinct Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection During Heat Stress In Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Tissue, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Vivian Yu, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou Apr 2021

Distinct Transcriptomic Response To Newcastle Disease Virus Infection During Heat Stress In Chicken Tracheal Epithelial Tissue, Perot Saelao, Ying Wang, Ganrea Chanthavixay, Vivian Yu, Rodrigo A. Gallardo, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Susan J. Lamont, Terra Kelly, Huaijun Zhou

Animal Science Publications

Newcastle disease (ND) has a great impact on poultry health and welfare with its most virulent (velogenic) strain. In addition, issues exacerbated by the increase in global temperatures necessitates a greater understanding of the host immune response when facing a combination of biotic and abiotic stress factors in poultry production. Previous investigations have revealed that the host immune response is tissue-specific. The goal of this study was to identify genes and/or signaling pathways associated with immune response to NDV (Newcastle disease virus) in the trachea, an essential organ where NDV replicate after the infection, by profiling the tissue specific ...


Broadening The Impact Of Plant Science Through Innovative, Integrative, And Inclusive Outreach, Joanna Friesner, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Et Al. Apr 2021

Broadening The Impact Of Plant Science Through Innovative, Integrative, And Inclusive Outreach, Joanna Friesner, Gustavo C. Macintosh, Et Al.

Biochemistry, Biophysics and Molecular Biology Publications

Population growth and climate change will impact food security and potentially exacerbate the environmental toll that agriculture has taken on our planet. These existential concerns demand that a passionate, interdisciplinary, and diverse community of plant science professionals is trained during the 21st century. Furthermore, societal trends that question the importance of science and expert knowledge highlight the need to better communicate the value of rigorous fundamental scientific exploration. Engaging students and the general public in the wonder of plants, and science in general, requires renewed efforts that take advantage of advances in technology and new models of funding and knowledge ...


Niche Differentiation Of Bacteria And Fungi In Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Of Different Habitats In A Temperate Coniferous Forest: A Metaproteomic Approach, Robert Starke, Rubén López Mondéjar, Zander Rainer Human, Diana Navrátilová, Martina Štursová, Tomáš Větrovský, Heather M. Olson, Daniel J. Orton, Stephen J. Callister, Mary S. Lipton, Adina Howe, Lee Ann Mccue, Christa Pennacchio, Igor Grigoriev, Petr Baldrian Apr 2021

Niche Differentiation Of Bacteria And Fungi In Carbon And Nitrogen Cycling Of Different Habitats In A Temperate Coniferous Forest: A Metaproteomic Approach, Robert Starke, Rubén López Mondéjar, Zander Rainer Human, Diana Navrátilová, Martina Štursová, Tomáš Větrovský, Heather M. Olson, Daniel J. Orton, Stephen J. Callister, Mary S. Lipton, Adina Howe, Lee Ann Mccue, Christa Pennacchio, Igor Grigoriev, Petr Baldrian

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

Temperate coniferous forests sustain the highest levels of biomass of all terrestrial ecosystems and belong to the major carbon sinks on Earth. However, the community composition and its functional diversity depending on the habitat have yet to be unveiled. Here, we analyzed the proteomes from litter, plant roots, rhizosphere, and bulk soil in a temperate coniferous forest at two time points to improve the understanding of the interplay between bacterial and eukaryotic communities in different habitats. Our metaproteomic approach yielded a total of 139,127 proteins that allowed to differentiate the contribution of microbial taxa to protein expression as well ...


A Comparison Of The Release Of Phosphorus By A Phytase Enzyme In Pigs Fed Diets Deficient Or Adequate In Phosphorus Content, Kristin M. Olsen, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience Apr 2021

A Comparison Of The Release Of Phosphorus By A Phytase Enzyme In Pigs Fed Diets Deficient Or Adequate In Phosphorus Content, Kristin M. Olsen, Stacie A. Gould, John F. Patience

Animal Science Publications

Previous research indicated that phytase may release less phosphorus (P) from phytate when it is evaluated using diets with P levels above requirement as compared with diets below requirement. The objectives of this experiment were to further test the hypothesis that the P release values determined for phytase are higher when pigs are fed diets that are deficient (DE) in P compared with when they are fed diets that are adequate (AD) in P, and that phytase will increase the digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), nitrogen (N), and calcium (Ca) independent of dietary P status. Twenty-four barrows ...


Fermentation Performance And Nutritional Assessment Of Physically Processed Lentil And Green Pea Flour, Bibek Byanju, Milagros P. Hojilla‐Evangelista, Buddhi P. Lamsal Mar 2021

Fermentation Performance And Nutritional Assessment Of Physically Processed Lentil And Green Pea Flour, Bibek Byanju, Milagros P. Hojilla‐Evangelista, Buddhi P. Lamsal

Food Science and Human Nutrition Publications

BACKGROUND

A significant amount of nutrients, including dietary fibers, proteins, minerals, and vitamins are present in legumes, but the presence of anti‐nutritional factors (ANFs) like phytic acid, tannins, and enzyme inhibitors impact the consumption of legume and nutrient availability. In this research, the effect of a physical process (sonication or precooking) and fermentation with Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici on ANFs of some legumes was evaluated.

RESULTS

Total phenolic contents were significantly (p<0.05) reduced for modified and fermented substrates compared to non‐fermented controls. Trypsin inhibitory activity (TIA) was reduced significantly for all substrates except for unsonicated soybean and lentil fermented with L. plantarum and P. acidilactici. When physical processing was done, there was a decrease in TIA for all the substrate. Phytic acid content decreased for physically ...


Genomics Of Response To Prrsv In Purebred And Crossbred Sows: Antibody Response And Performance Following Natural Infection Versus Vaccination, Leticia P. Sanglard, Felipe M. W. Hickmann, Yijian Huang, Kent A. Gray, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Megan C. Niederwerder, Rohan L. Fernando, Joseph Braccini Neto, Nick V. L. Serão Mar 2021

Genomics Of Response To Prrsv In Purebred And Crossbred Sows: Antibody Response And Performance Following Natural Infection Versus Vaccination, Leticia P. Sanglard, Felipe M. W. Hickmann, Yijian Huang, Kent A. Gray, Daniel C. L. Linhares, Jack C. M. Dekkers, Megan C. Niederwerder, Rohan L. Fernando, Joseph Braccini Neto, Nick V. L. Serão

Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine Publications

Antibody response, measured as sample-to-positive (S/P) ratio, to Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSV) following a PRRSV-outbreak (S/POutbreak) in a purebred nucleus and following a PRRSV-vaccination (S/PVx) in commercial crossbred herds have been proposed as genetic indicator traits for improved reproductive performance in PRRSV-infected purebred and PRRSV-vaccinated crossbred sows, respectively. In this study, we investigated the genetic relationships of S/POutbreak and S/PVx with performance at the commercial (vaccinated crossbred sows) and nucleus level (non-infected and PRRSV-infected purebred sows), respectively, and tested the effect of previously identified SNP for these indicator traits. Antibody response was ...


Performance Analysis And Drying Kinetics Of Maize In An Aflastop Dryer, Ernest Owusu-Sekyere, George Obeng-Akrofi, Joseph O. Akowuah, Dirk Maier Mar 2021

Performance Analysis And Drying Kinetics Of Maize In An Aflastop Dryer, Ernest Owusu-Sekyere, George Obeng-Akrofi, Joseph O. Akowuah, Dirk Maier

Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Publications

The performance of an AflaSTOP dryer which utilises biomass energy for drying maize was investigated. The drying behaviour of maize grains in the dryer was also investigated using ten (10) thin-layer mathematical models. The models were compared based on coefficient of determination (R2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) values between experimental and predicted moisture ratios. At an average drying air temperature of 50˚C and drying air velocity of 2.5 m/s, maize at average moisture content (MC) of 17.5% (wb) was dried to an average MC of 11.5% (wb) in three (3) hours. The ...