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Plant Biology

1996

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Articles 1 - 27 of 27

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Evaluation Of The Success Of Constructed Wetlands In The Cave Run Lake Watershed, April Diane Haight Dec 1996

Evaluation Of The Success Of Constructed Wetlands In The Cave Run Lake Watershed, April Diane Haight

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Science and Technology at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science by April Diane Haight on December 10, 1996.


Cross-Polarized Magic-Angle Spinning 13c Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization Of Soil Organic Matter Relative To Culturable Bacterial Species Composition And Sustained Biological Control Of Pythium Root Rot, Michael J. Boehm, Tianyun Wu, Alex G. Stone, Bart Kraakman, Donna A. Iannotti, G. Edwin Wilson, Laurence V. Madden, Harry A.J. Hoitink Nov 1996

Cross-Polarized Magic-Angle Spinning 13c Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Characterization Of Soil Organic Matter Relative To Culturable Bacterial Species Composition And Sustained Biological Control Of Pythium Root Rot, Michael J. Boehm, Tianyun Wu, Alex G. Stone, Bart Kraakman, Donna A. Iannotti, G. Edwin Wilson, Laurence V. Madden, Harry A.J. Hoitink

Papers in Plant Pathology

We report the use of a model system that examines the dynamics of biological energy availability in organic matter in a sphagnum peat potting mix critical to sustenance of microorganism-mediated biological control of pythium root rot, a soilborne plant disease caused by Pythium ultimum. The concentration of readily degradable carbohydrate in the peat, mostly present as cellulose, was characterized by cross-polarized magic-angle spinning 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. A decrease in the carbohydrate concentration in the mix was observed during the initial 10 weeks after potting as the rate of hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate declined below a critical threshold level ...


Promoters From Chlorellavirus Genes Providing Expression Of Genes In Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Hosts, Amitava Mitra, James L. Van Etten Oct 1996

Promoters From Chlorellavirus Genes Providing Expression Of Genes In Prokaryotic And Eukaryotic Hosts, Amitava Mitra, James L. Van Etten

Papers in Plant Pathology

The invention is directed to novel promoters or mutants thereof from Chlorella virus DNA methyltransferase genes. A Chlorella virus gene promoter is operably linked to a first and/or second DNA sequence encoding a gene that is different from the Chlorella virus gene to form an expression cassette. An expression cassette can be introduced into prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic cells and can provide for a high level of expression of the gene encoded by the first and/or second DNA sequence. The invention also provides a method for screening other Chlorella virus genes for promoters that can function to express ...


Taking Root, W. John Hayden Sep 1996

Taking Root, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

The brief description of mangrove reproduction in John N. Cole's "Off Key, Out of Reach" [A Sense of Place, July-August] contains an error.


Fate Of Atrazine And Atrazine Degradates In Soils Of Iowa, Ellen L. Kruger, Joel R. Coats Jun 1996

Fate Of Atrazine And Atrazine Degradates In Soils Of Iowa, Ellen L. Kruger, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Several studies have been conducted to investigate the fate of atrazine (ATR, 2-chloro-4[ethylamino]-6[isopropylamino]-s-triazine) and major degradation products of ATR in soils of Iowa by using laboratory radiotracer studies, field lysimeters, and a field-scale approach. Complete metabolism studies of uniformly ring-labeled 14C-chemicals revealed some major trends. Persistence of ATR, deethylatrazine (DEA, 2-chloro-4[amino]-6[isopropylamino]-s-triazine), and deisopropylatrazine (DIA, 2-chloro-4[ethylamino]-6[amino]-s-triazine) was greater in subsurface soils than in surface soils. In surface soil of Ames, DEA and didealkylatrazine (DDA, 2-chloro-4,6-[diamino]-s-triazine) were predominant degradates of ATR after 60 ...


Fate Of Methyl Bromide In Fumigated Soils, Todd A. Anderson, Patricia J. Rice, James H. Cink, Joel R. Coats May 1996

Fate Of Methyl Bromide In Fumigated Soils, Todd A. Anderson, Patricia J. Rice, James H. Cink, Joel R. Coats

Entomology Publications

Recent controversy over the potential role of methyl bromide (MeBr) in damaging the ozone layer has spurred interest in increasing our understanding of the transformation and movement of this fumigant after it is applied to soil. Our research indicates MeBr is rapidly volatilized from fumigated soil (within the first 24 hours) and volatility significantly increases with temperature (35° C > 25° C = 15° C) and moisture (0.03 bar > 0.3 bar > 1 bar > 3 bar). Degradation of MeBr, measured by production of bromide ion (Br-), was also directly related to temperature and moisture. Undisturbed soil column studies indicated that MeBr ...


The Effects Of Disturbance Architecture On Landscape-Level Population Dynamics, Kirk A. Moloney, Simon A. Levin Mar 1996

The Effects Of Disturbance Architecture On Landscape-Level Population Dynamics, Kirk A. Moloney, Simon A. Levin

Botany Publication and Papers

Phenomena such as disturbance play a major role in structuring ecological systems by producing a spatiotemporal mosaic of patches at different successional states. The distribution of species within the resulting mosaic depends upon an interaction between species' life history traits and the spatial and temporal structure of the ecological processes controlling species' distributions. We have used a spatially explicit simulation model (Jasper) of a serpentine grassland to examine the importance of some of these relationships, focusing primarily on the role of disturbance. The model Jasper is hierarchical in design and was developed to simulate the population dynamics of three interacting ...


Plantain Sunflower (Helianthus Occidentalis Subsp. Plantagineus) In Arkansas, Daniel L. Marsh, Timothy A. Golden Jan 1996

Plantain Sunflower (Helianthus Occidentalis Subsp. Plantagineus) In Arkansas, Daniel L. Marsh, Timothy A. Golden

Journal of the Arkansas Academy of Science

No abstract provided.


The Complete Nucleotide Sequence And Genome Organization Of The M Rna Segment Of Peanut Bud Necrosis Tospovirus And Comparison With Other Tospoviruses, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. E. Mitchell, D. V. R. Reddy, S. Kresovich, R. Jarret, R. A. Naidu, S. Gowda, J. W. Demski Jan 1996

The Complete Nucleotide Sequence And Genome Organization Of The M Rna Segment Of Peanut Bud Necrosis Tospovirus And Comparison With Other Tospoviruses, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. E. Mitchell, D. V. R. Reddy, S. Kresovich, R. Jarret, R. A. Naidu, S. Gowda, J. W. Demski

Papers in Plant Pathology

The M RNA of peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV; synonym groundnut bud necrosis virus) is 4801 nucleotides in length. It comprised two ORFs in an ambisense organization and terminal inverted repeats. The 3' large ORF (3363 nucleotides in the virus-complementary strand) encoded a protein with a predicted size of 127.2 kDa which was identified as the glycoprotein precursor (GP) of the G1 and G2 glycoproteins. A comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of GP revealed 37 % identity and 58-59% similarity with that of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV, serogroup I) and impatiens necrotic spot virus (INSV, serogroup III ...


Diagnosis And Resistance Breeding Of Peanut Bud Necrosis Virus, D. V. R. Reddy, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. L. Dwivedi, A. S. Ratna, A. A. M. Buiel, G. V. Ranga Rao, S. N. Nigam, R. A. Naidu, H. T. Hsu, J. W. Demski Jan 1996

Diagnosis And Resistance Breeding Of Peanut Bud Necrosis Virus, D. V. R. Reddy, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. L. Dwivedi, A. S. Ratna, A. A. M. Buiel, G. V. Ranga Rao, S. N. Nigam, R. A. Naidu, H. T. Hsu, J. W. Demski

Papers in Plant Pathology

The occu!fence of peanut bud necrosis (PBN) disease in India was first reported in 1968. The high incidence ofPBN disease during the 1960s coincided with largescale imports of the peanut cultivars Asiria Mwitundae and Spanish Improved, both of which are highly susceptible to PBN. Since then, a number of reports have been published in India describing bud necrosis under at least seven different names (Reddy 1988). Crop losses due to PBN have been estimated at USD89 million per year in India during 1976-1986. The disease is also currently recognized as economically important in Nepal (Sharma 1996), in Sri Lanka ...


Morphometric Analysis And Comparisons Of Electrophoretic Protein Profiles Of The Scutellaria Ovata Hill (Lamiaceae) Complex In West Virginia, Virginia And Ohio With Emphasis On Shale Barren Taxa, Eric W. Ewing Jan 1996

Morphometric Analysis And Comparisons Of Electrophoretic Protein Profiles Of The Scutellaria Ovata Hill (Lamiaceae) Complex In West Virginia, Virginia And Ohio With Emphasis On Shale Barren Taxa, Eric W. Ewing

Theses, Dissertations and Capstones

Elements of the Scutellaria ovata complex in the eastern United States are reported to include S. ovata var. pseudoarguta, S. ovata var. rugosa, S. ovata var. virginiana and S. ovata ssp. ovata. All but S. ovata ssp. ovata occur in the shale barren habitat of eastern West Virginia and western Virginia. S. ovata var. pseudoarguta has been proposed as a threatened element in North America. A morphometric study of specimens collected in West Virginia, Virginia and Ohio was undertaken to determine which characters are most useful in separating taxa in the complex. Nineteen characters were assessed from 104 herbarium specimens ...


Peanut Bud Necrosis Virus: Purification Of Nucleocapsids And Sequence Homology Of Nucleocapsid Protein And Glycoprotein Precursor With Other Tospoviruses, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. E. Mitchell, D. V. R. Reddy, S. Brown, S. Kresovich, R. Jarret, S. Gowda, R. A. Naidu, J. W. Demski Jan 1996

Peanut Bud Necrosis Virus: Purification Of Nucleocapsids And Sequence Homology Of Nucleocapsid Protein And Glycoprotein Precursor With Other Tospoviruses, Satyanarayana Tatineni, S. E. Mitchell, D. V. R. Reddy, S. Brown, S. Kresovich, R. Jarret, S. Gowda, R. A. Naidu, J. W. Demski

Papers in Plant Pathology

A procedure for the purification of peanut bud necrosis virus (PBNV) nucleocapsids was developed. Virus particles were treated with nonionic detergent to disrupt the envelope membrane and free nucleocapsids were separated. into three lightscattering zones after sucrose gradient centrifogation. Nucleocapsids from the top zone contained S RNA and traces ofM RNA; whereas, nucleoplasids from the middle zone contained M RNA with detectable levels of S RNA and those from the bottom zone contained L RNA with traces of M and S RNAs. Clones from a cDNA library made from the purified PBNV Sand M RNAs were characterized and sequenced. Comparison ...


Molecular Diagnostics Of Three Diabrotica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Pest Species, Allen L. Szalanski, Thomas O. Powers Jan 1996

Molecular Diagnostics Of Three Diabrotica (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) Pest Species, Allen L. Szalanski, Thomas O. Powers

Papers in Plant Pathology

A 257 bp region of the mitochondrial ND4 gene was analyzed for genetic variation in three species of corn rootworm, southern corn rootworm (Diabrotica undecim punctata howardi Barber, SCR), northern corn rootworm (D. barberi Smith and Lawrence, NCR), and western corn rootworm (D. virgifera virgifera LeConte, WCR). Nucleotide sequencing revealed 26 polymorphic sites. Genetic distances averaged 8% for all pair-wise comparisons among the three species. Restriction maps were constructed from sequence data and compared to potential species specific restriction sites. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) revealed three restriction enzymes (Alu I, Apo I and Sau 3A) which ...


A Revision Of Discocarpus (Euphorbiaceae), Sheila M. Hayden, W. John Hayden Jan 1996

A Revision Of Discocarpus (Euphorbiaceae), Sheila M. Hayden, W. John Hayden

Biology Faculty Publications

As revised here, Discocarpus is interpreted to consist of three neotropical species: D. essequeboensis Klotzsch, D. gentryi S. M. Hayden, which is described and named herein as new to science, and D. spruceanus Müll. Arg. One previously accepted name, D. brasiliensis Klotzsch ex Müll. Arg., is reduced to synonymy of D. essequeboensis. Lecto-types are proposed for the two species previously described. One species is newly excluded from Discocarpus, as are three others, following previous literature. Foliar anatomy is described with a focus on epidermal sclereids, which are shown to occur on both epidermides. Evidence presented supports close relationships with Lachnostylis ...


Evapotranspiration From A Saltcedar-Dominated Desert Floodplain: A Scaling Approach, S. D. Smith, A. M. Sala, Dale A. Devitt Jan 1996

Evapotranspiration From A Saltcedar-Dominated Desert Floodplain: A Scaling Approach, S. D. Smith, A. M. Sala, Dale A. Devitt

Life Sciences Faculty Publications

The purpose of this study was to investigate evapotranspiration (ET) from a variety of scales (leaf to landscape) in saltcedar-dominated floodplain vegetation along the lower Virgin River of southern Nevada. Leaf-level gas exchange indicated that saltcedar exhibits similar stomatal conductance as the sympatric phreatophytes arrowweed, mesquite, and willow. However, sap flow in saltcedar was higher per unit sapwood area than the other species, suggesting that it maintains higher leaf area per unit sapwood area. At the stand level, saltcedar ET was found to exceed potential ET early in the summer when soils were moist and the water table was near ...


Production, Evaluation, And Utilization Of Hybrid Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] , Kimberly Suzanne Lewers Jan 1996

Production, Evaluation, And Utilization Of Hybrid Soybean [Glycine Max (L.) Merr.] , Kimberly Suzanne Lewers

Retrospective Theses and Dissertations

Soybean is an autogamous crop species, and the production of large numbers of hybrid seeds has been tedious. Nevertheless, hybrid seed is important to certain types of research. Insect pollination of male-sterile plants facilitates the production of hybrid soybean seed. A new method of hybrid soybean seed production, the Cosegregation Method, which was developed in this dissertation research, utilizes close genetic linkage between a male-sterility locus, Ms6, and a seedling marker locus, W1. This closely-linked marker system allows identification of male-sterile plants at the seedling stage and improves hybrid seed production through greater efficiency and higher yield of hybrid seed ...


Toxin Producing Phytoplankton In Chesapeake Bay, Harold G. Marshall Jan 1996

Toxin Producing Phytoplankton In Chesapeake Bay, Harold G. Marshall

Biological Sciences Faculty Publications

Three diatoms and nine dinoflagellates, known to be associated with toxin production, have been identified within Chesapeake Bay. Over the past several decades this number has increased to its present level so that they now represent approximately 1.7% the total number of phytoplankton species reported for the Bay.


Phenolic And Lignin Concentration As An Indicator Of Resistance To Phytophthora Cinnamomi In Banksia Species, Sandra Jane Nicoski Jan 1996

Phenolic And Lignin Concentration As An Indicator Of Resistance To Phytophthora Cinnamomi In Banksia Species, Sandra Jane Nicoski

Theses : Honours

Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, a soilborne fungus, is regarded as one of the most devastating pathogens yet recorded in natural ecosystems. The disease, caused by P. cinnamomi, poses an enormous threat to the flora of the southwest. The Proteaceae, in particular, contribute considerably to species richness and provide the fundamental floristic structure of many south-western plant communities. The genus Banksia, a member of the Proteaceae, is very susceptible to disease caused by P. cinnamomi. Three species, namely B. attenuata, B. grandis and B. menziesii. Were established in an aeroponics system under glasshouse conditions. Trials were conducted to optimise growing conditions in ...


Weeds Can Poison Crops, Aik Hock Cheam Jan 1996

Weeds Can Poison Crops, Aik Hock Cheam

Journal of the Department of Agriculture, Western Australia, Series 4

Weeds can interfere with the growth of a crop simply by competing with the crop for nutrients, moisture and light. But some weeds also release chemicals that inhibit the germination and growth of crop plants; the technical term for this is allelopathy. Aik Cheam outlines the problems caused by two common weeds and the discusses preventative measures.


Development And Optimisation Of A Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Method For The Separation And Identification Of Phenolics From Eucalypt Species, Andrew J. Tromans Jan 1996

Development And Optimisation Of A Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography Method For The Separation And Identification Of Phenolics From Eucalypt Species, Andrew J. Tromans

Theses : Honours

Several buffers were examined for their ability to separate a complex mixture of phenolic compounds using micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC). The phenolic mixture included simple phenols, phenolic acids and coumarins. Of the different buffers examined, 6 mM borate, 10 mM phosphate, 100 mM SDS, pH 8.3 gave the best separation. The ability of organic modifiers, complexation agents such as α cyclodextrin, β cyclodextrin and mixed SDS I Brij 35 micelles to improve the separation and peak retention time reproducibility of the buffer system was investigated. Baseline separation of the 18 phenolics was achieved by the 6 mM borate ...


Effect Of Carbohydrate Source, Auxin And Endogenous Ethylene Upon Root Induction Of Eucalyptus Marginata Donn Ex Sm. In Vitro, Meredith Magaret Fairbanks Jan 1996

Effect Of Carbohydrate Source, Auxin And Endogenous Ethylene Upon Root Induction Of Eucalyptus Marginata Donn Ex Sm. In Vitro, Meredith Magaret Fairbanks

Theses : Honours

The utilisation of eucalypts around the world is increasing, mainly through the development of plantations. Clonal propagation has become important in some countries for production of such plantation trees. Micropropagation has been utilised to produce clones of trees selected for specific characteristics such as disease resistance, salt tolerance and fast growth rates. However, a suitable micropropagation protocol for all eucalypts has not been produced. One component of the micropropagation protocol, in which there is considerable difficulty, is the induction of adventitious roots on micropropagated shoots. Of particular interest, is the development of these procedures for Eucalyptus marginata (Jarrah) that have ...


Breeding Sorghum And Pearl Millet For Forage And Fuel, Jeffrey F. Pedersen Jan 1996

Breeding Sorghum And Pearl Millet For Forage And Fuel, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] and pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] are unique species in their ability to be used in many forage llivestock system roles. Such flexibility has made prioritizing breeding objectives difficult and has even contributed to contradictory opinions on appropriate forage breeding objectives. Few breeding projects identified in the USDA-ARS, USDA-CREES, or at ICRISAT had forage sorghum or forage pearl millet as their sole research assignment. In the United States, it can be argued that breeding resources committed to forage sorghum improvement are probably declining. A new forage sorghum and forage pearl millet project recently ...


Germplasm And Cultivar Development, M. D. Casler, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, G. C. Eizenga, S. D. Stratton Jan 1996

Germplasm And Cultivar Development, M. D. Casler, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, G. C. Eizenga, S. D. Stratton

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Cool-season forage grasses have evolved, and continue to evolve, in natural ecosystems subject to environmental factors both in the presence and absence of human influences. The literature often lacks facts describing the evolution and domestication of forage grasses. Furthermore, the literature on this subject mainly deals with evolution of species in the broad scope, i.e., on a scale of hundreds of thousands or millions or years. Thus, some of our conclusions are necessarily speculative and are highly subject to the nature of the research that has been reported. We describe the forces of selection that act upon cool-season forage ...


Media Effects On Phenotype Of Callus Cultures Initiated From Photoperiod-Insensitive, Elite Inbred Sorghum Lines, H. F. Kaeppler, Jeffrey F. Pedersen Jan 1996

Media Effects On Phenotype Of Callus Cultures Initiated From Photoperiod-Insensitive, Elite Inbred Sorghum Lines, H. F. Kaeppler, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) is a crop of worldwide agronomic importance. Routine production of high quality (friable, embryogenic, fast growing) callus cultures is fundamental to tissue culture based genetic study and improvement of sorghum. Genotype by culture medium interactions for sorghum callus growth and morphology have been previously reported. The objective of this study was to identify tissue culture media that would support high quality callus growth across photoperiod insensitive, relatively elite genotypes. Explants from immature inflorescences of 11 sorghum genotypes were cultured on 6 tissue culture media of differing composition. After 3 and 5 months in culture, calli ...


Movement Of Crop Transgenes Into Wild Plants, Kathleen H. Keeler, Charles E. Turner, Margaret R. Bolick Jan 1996

Movement Of Crop Transgenes Into Wild Plants, Kathleen H. Keeler, Charles E. Turner, Margaret R. Bolick

Faculty Publications in the Biological Sciences

Despite the great potential and increasing importance of other weed control options (Turner et al. 1992) and unwanted environmental side effects of some herbicides, herbicides constitute a very important means of weed control. The escape of herbicide resistance genes to wild, weedy plants could cause more severe weed problems, and presents a very real threat to the efficacy of herbicides as a weed control option. Therefore, management strategies that prevent, or reduce the likelihood and frequency of HRG escape through containment methods are advisable, as are mitigation plans in the event of HRG escape to wild plants.


Annual Forages: New Approaches For C-4 Forages, Jeffrey F. Pedersen Jan 1996

Annual Forages: New Approaches For C-4 Forages, Jeffrey F. Pedersen

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

The current agricultural paradigm in the U.S. is heavily biased towards the production and marketing of crops as commodities. This paradigm is kept in place by grain handling and marketing infrastructure, as well as government farm programs, designed for crops as commodities. Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench) and maize (Zea mays L.) grown for grain certainly fit into this current paradigm.

A new approach to agricultural production and marketing, identity preserved products, is gaining in importance. This is made possible through new technologies and markets demanding products designed specifically for their needs. Examples of investment in identity preserved products ...


Application Of The Single Kernel Wheat Characterization Technology To Sorghum Grain, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, C. R. Martin, F. C. Felker, J. L. Steele Jan 1996

Application Of The Single Kernel Wheat Characterization Technology To Sorghum Grain, Jeffrey F. Pedersen, C. R. Martin, F. C. Felker, J. L. Steele

Agronomy & Horticulture -- Faculty Publications

A single kernel wheat characterization system (SKWCS) was recently developed by the USDA, ARS Grain Marketing Research Laboratory and is currently being marketed by Perten Instruments North America, Inc. This device has been shown to accurately measure individual seed hardness, moisture, and size of wheat. The objective of this study was to determine if the SKWCS technology could be applied to the measurement of sorghum grain. Grains from 64 sorghum plots grown at Mead, NE in 1992 were characterized using a prototype SKWCS at the USDA, ARS Grain Marketing Research Laboratory. Problems encountered were primarily associated with the single kernel ...