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1996

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Articles 1 - 30 of 1863

Full-Text Articles in Life Sciences

Long-Term Monitoring And Analyses Of Physical Factors Regulating Variability In Coastal Antarctic Phytoplankton Biomass, In Situ Productivity And Taxonomic Composition Over Subseasonal, Seasonal And Interannual Time Scales, Mark A. Moline, Barbara B. Prezelin Dec 1996

Long-Term Monitoring And Analyses Of Physical Factors Regulating Variability In Coastal Antarctic Phytoplankton Biomass, In Situ Productivity And Taxonomic Composition Over Subseasonal, Seasonal And Interannual Time Scales, Mark A. Moline, Barbara B. Prezelin

Biological Sciences

A 3 yr high-resolution temporal data base related to phytoplankton dynamics was collected during the austral spring/summer periods of 1991 to 1994 in shelf waters adjacent to Palmer Station, Antarctica. Here, the data base is used (1) to quantify the variability in phytoplankton biomass, in situ productivity and taxonomic composition over subseasonal, seasonal and interannual time scales; (2) to elucidate environmental mechanisms controlling these temporal patterns; and (3) to ascertain which phytoplankton markers are most suitable for detecting longer-term (i.e. decadal) trends in phytoplankton dynamics in coastal waters of the Southern Ocean. The Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) coastal ...


Immunocytochemistry By Electron Spectroscopic Imaging Using Well Defined Boronated Monovalent Antibody Fragments, M. M. Kessels, B. Qualmann, W. D. Sierralta Dec 1996

Immunocytochemistry By Electron Spectroscopic Imaging Using Well Defined Boronated Monovalent Antibody Fragments, M. M. Kessels, B. Qualmann, W. D. Sierralta

Scanning Microscopy

Contributing to the rapidly developing field of immunoelectron microscopy a new kind of markers has been created. The element boron, incorporated as very stable carborane clusters into different kinds of peptides, served as a marker detectable by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) - an electron microscopic technique with high-resolution potential.

Covalently linked immunoreagents conspicuous by the small size of both antigen recognizing part and marker moiety are accessible by using peptide concepts for label construction and their conjugation with Fab' fragments. Due to a specific labeling of the free thiol groups of the Fab' fragments, the antigen binding capacity was not affected ...


In Situ Hybridization, In Situ Transcription, And In Situ Polymerase Chain Reaction, L. E. De Bault, J. Gu Dec 1996

In Situ Hybridization, In Situ Transcription, And In Situ Polymerase Chain Reaction, L. E. De Bault, J. Gu

Scanning Microscopy

In situ hybridization, in situ transcription, and in situ polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are techniques used to detect DNA and RNA sequences within a cell or tissue structure. These three in situ methodologies employ the principles of recombinant DNA to form double-stranded hybrids of DNA-DNA, DNA-RNA, or RNA-RNA. The essence of in situ hybridization (ISH) is the hybridization of a labeled probe to a complementary target sequence, whereas in situ transcription (IST) is the synthesis of complementary DNA incorporating a label directly on the target DNA or RNA within a cell or tissue. In the case of in situ PCR ...


Correlated Confocal And Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopy Imaging Of The Same Cells Using Sequential Fluorescence Labeling, Fixation, And Critical Point Dehydration, Lee D. Peachey, Harunori Ishikawa, Tohru Murakami Dec 1996

Correlated Confocal And Intermediate Voltage Electron Microscopy Imaging Of The Same Cells Using Sequential Fluorescence Labeling, Fixation, And Critical Point Dehydration, Lee D. Peachey, Harunori Ishikawa, Tohru Murakami

Scanning Microscopy

Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and intermediate voltage transmission electron microscopy (IVEM) each has its own particular advantages. CLSM can examine living cells, but is particularly useful when applied to cells that have been lightly fixed, permeabilized, and stained with fluorescent-labeled antibodies for localization of specific molecular species at the resolution of the light microscope while still in the hydrated state. IVEM provides much higher resolution images, but requires more drastic preparation procedures, including dehydration. This paper presents methods for combining these complementary approaches to examine exactly the same cells sequentially by CLSM and IVEM. Cells are grown in culture ...


Function Of Funnel-Shaped Coral Growth In A High-Sedimentation Environment, Bernhard Riegl, Carlton Heine, George M. Branch Dec 1996

Function Of Funnel-Shaped Coral Growth In A High-Sedimentation Environment, Bernhard Riegl, Carlton Heine, George M. Branch

Marine & Environmental Sciences Faculty Articles

Advantages and disadvantages of a funnel-shaped growth in 2 coral species (Acropora clathrata, Turbinaria peltata) in a high-sedimentation environment (Natal, South Africa) were observed in the field and modeled in a flow tank. Funnel-shaped growth serves different purposes in different hydrographic settings. In calm waters with little currents (in our case deep reef areas, 18 to 25 m) funnel-shaped colonies served as 'sacrificial sediment traps': all sediment trapped inside the funnel was directed towards the centre, where it was concentrated. There, tissues underwent necroses, but all other tissues remained sediment free and healthy. In areas with high currents (in our ...


External Morphology Of The Chorion Of The Annual Fishes Cynolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), Marcelo Loureiro, Rafael O. De Sá Dec 1996

External Morphology Of The Chorion Of The Annual Fishes Cynolebias (Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae), Marcelo Loureiro, Rafael O. De Sá

Biology Faculty Publications

Members of the family Rivulidae (killifishes) inhabit temporary bodies of freshwater in South and Central America (one species is also found in North America). The most remarkable characteristic of the family Rivulidae is that species have an annual life cycle with a drought-resistant egg during the dry season. Parenti's (1981) analysis of the order Cyprinodontiformes considered a single genus, Cynolebias, whereas Cos- ta's (1990) phylogenetic analysis of the family Rivulidae separates Cynolebias from Cynopoecilus. One of Costa's synapomorphies to separate Cynopoecilus is the unique structure of their egg's chorion, which is shared with Leptolebias and Campellolebias.


Eumops Perotis, Troy L. Best, W. Mark Kiser, Patricia W. Freeman Dec 1996

Eumops Perotis, Troy L. Best, W. Mark Kiser, Patricia W. Freeman

Mammalogy Papers: University of Nebraska State Museum

Eumops perotis is the largest bat in the United States. The greater mastiff bat resembles other North American free-tailed bats, but is distinguished from other molossids by its large size and lack of long guard hairs on the rump (Barbour and Davis, 1969). E. perotis has the thinnest dentary of any Eumops (Freeman, 1981a).In the United States, E. perotis can be separated from E. underwoodi by its larger size (forearm is 73-83 mm in E. perotis and 65-77 mm in E. underwoodi), darker color, and lack of long guard hairs on the rump. The ears are longer (36-47 mm ...


Microscopic Analysis Of Dna And Dna-Protein Assembly By Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy And Scanning Force Microscopy, T. Müller-Reichhert, H. Gross Dec 1996

Microscopic Analysis Of Dna And Dna-Protein Assembly By Transmission Electron Microscopy, Scanning Tunneling Microscopy And Scanning Force Microscopy, T. Müller-Reichhert, H. Gross

Scanning Microscopy

To investigate DNA and DNA-protein assembly, nucleic acids were adsorbed to freshly cleaved mica in the presence of magnesium ions. The efficiency of DNA adhesion and the distribution of the molecules on the mica surface were checked by transmission electron microscopy. In addition, various kinds of DNA-protein interactions including DNA wrapping and DNA super-coiling were analyzed using electron microscopy. In parallel, this Mg2+/mica method can be applied (1) to analyze embedded DNA by scanning tunneling microscopy, (2) to visualize freeze-dried, metal coated DNA-protein complexes by tunneling microscopy, and (3) to image DNA or DNA-protein interaction in air or ...


Preparation Of Samples For Polymerase Chain Reaction In Situ, Gerard J. Nuovo Dec 1996

Preparation Of Samples For Polymerase Chain Reaction In Situ, Gerard J. Nuovo

Scanning Microscopy

The purpose of this paper is to describe the key variables in sample and reagent preparation needed for successful polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in situ. Tissue or cell preparations should be fixed in a cross linking fixative, such as 10% buffered formalin, preferably from 15 to 48 hours. Tissues should be embedded in paraffin; cell preparations can be fixed when near confluence, then physically removed and processed. When possible three samples (4 μM tissue sections or 1-5000 cells) should be placed on silane coated glass slides. Digestion in pepsin (2 mg/ml) for 30 min is adequate for DNA detection ...


Following Form And Function: A Philosophical Archaeology Of Life Science, Stephen Asma Dec 1996

Following Form And Function: A Philosophical Archaeology Of Life Science, Stephen Asma

Stephen T Asma

No abstract provided.


Aspects Of Cryofixation And Cryosectioning For The Observation Of Bulk Biological Samples In The Hydrated State By Cryoelectron Microscopy, K. Richter Dec 1996

Aspects Of Cryofixation And Cryosectioning For The Observation Of Bulk Biological Samples In The Hydrated State By Cryoelectron Microscopy, K. Richter

Scanning Microscopy

Cryoelectron microscopy allows the observation of hydrated samples at high spatial resolution, and it would be of great interest in biology to apply this method to cells and tissues. However, because of technical problems, the cryo-observation of frozen hydrated ultrathin sections of bulk material has not become an established method. The major limitations are due to the difficulty of achieving the vitrification of such material, and the structural deformation caused by ultrathin sectioning: 1. The vitrification of cells in a physiological environment requires high-pressure freezing. However, new results suggest that the pressure may alter the ultrastructure of the sample. 2 ...


Functional Analysis Of The Mutations In The Human Cardiac Beta-Myosin That Are Responsible For Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Implication For The Clinical Outcome, Masataka Sata, Mitsuo Ikebe Dec 1996

Functional Analysis Of The Mutations In The Human Cardiac Beta-Myosin That Are Responsible For Familial Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Implication For The Clinical Outcome, Masataka Sata, Mitsuo Ikebe

Open Access Publications by UMass Chan Authors

More than 30 missense mutations in the beta-cardiac myosin heavy chain gene have been shown to be responsible for familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. To clarify the effects of these point mutations on myosin motor function, we expressed wild-type and mutant human beta-cardiac myosin heavy chains in insect cells with human cardiac light chains. The wild-type myosin was well purified with similar enzymatic and motor activities to those of the naturally isolated V3 cardiac myosin. Arg249-->Gln and Arg453-->Cys mutations resulted in decreased actin translocating activity (61 and 23% of the wild-type, respectively) with decreased intrinsic ATPase activity. Arg403-->Gln mutation ...


Cropwatch No. 96-26, Dec. 13, 1996, Lisa Brown Jasa Dec 1996

Cropwatch No. 96-26, Dec. 13, 1996, Lisa Brown Jasa

Crop Watch

Corn, soybean, sorghum crops weigh in with record harvests ..............175

Field drydown doesn't cause dry matter loss.............. 175

Briefs.............. 176

Seed supplies 'good' for '97 ..............177

Northeast Center nitrogen rate research shows little yield difference this year ..............178

Research jury still out on new product - Amisorb ..............179

Research shows little yield benefit, increased harvest loss from narrow row corn ..............179

Use winter to assess, plan, prepare equipment for planting ..............180

1996 CropWatch index ..............181


Fishery Independent Standing Stock Surveys Of Oyster Populations In Virginia 1996, Roger L. Mann, James Wesson Dec 1996

Fishery Independent Standing Stock Surveys Of Oyster Populations In Virginia 1996, Roger L. Mann, James Wesson

Reports

Extensive description of the Virginia oyster resource and history of its utilization has been given by Haven, Hargis and Kendall (1981), and more recently reviewed by Hargis and Haven (1988). These contributions, among many others, describe a state of continuing decline. The James River, Virginia has served as the focal point for the Virginia oyster industry for over a century, being the source of the majority of seed oysters that were transplanted for grow-out to locations within the Virginia portion of the Chesapeake Bay and much further afield in the Middle Atlantic states (Haven et al, 1981 ). The Rappahannock River ...


The Rna-Binding Site Of Bacteriophage Qβ Coat Protein, Francis Lim, Marc Spingola, David S. Peabody Dec 1996

The Rna-Binding Site Of Bacteriophage Qβ Coat Protein, Francis Lim, Marc Spingola, David S. Peabody

Marc Spingola

The coat proteins of the RNA bacteriophages Qβ and MS2 are specific RNA binding proteins. Although they possess common tertiary structures, they bind different RNA stem loops and thus provide useful models of specific protein-RNA recognition. Although the RNA-binding site of MS2 coat protein has been extensively characterized previously, little is known about Qβ. Here we describe the isolation of mutants that define the RNA-binding site of Qβ coat protein, showing that, as with MS2, it resides on the surface of a large β-sheet. Mutations are also described that convert Qβ coat protein to the RNA binding specificity of MS2 ...


Meeting Minutes, December 10th, 1996, National Smokejumper Association Executive Committee Dec 1996

Meeting Minutes, December 10th, 1996, National Smokejumper Association Executive Committee

National Smokejumper Association Meeting Minutes

Agenda: Minutes approved; Financial report given by Lowell Hanson; Income taxes be paid on Jack's stipend; Tax deferred expenses; Membership; Reunion 2000; Life Memberships; Other:; Smokejumper Video; Orders of caps, cups, etc.; NSA's ad in the National Wildfire magazine; Jack's stipend; Computer; Certificates of Appreciation; E-mail hookup; Donation to RSVP; Meeting adjourned;


Evaluation Of The Success Of Constructed Wetlands In The Cave Run Lake Watershed, April Diane Haight Dec 1996

Evaluation Of The Success Of Constructed Wetlands In The Cave Run Lake Watershed, April Diane Haight

Morehead State Theses and Dissertations

A thesis presented to the faculty of the College of Science and Technology at Morehead State University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Degree of Master of Science by April Diane Haight on December 10, 1996.


Electro-Optical Imaging Of F-Actin And Endoplasmic Reticulum In Living And Fixed Plant Cells, Nina Stromgren Allen, Marty N. Bennett Dec 1996

Electro-Optical Imaging Of F-Actin And Endoplasmic Reticulum In Living And Fixed Plant Cells, Nina Stromgren Allen, Marty N. Bennett

Scanning Microscopy

Confocal and video micrographs of living and fixed alfalfa roots, onion epithelial and pear pollen cells illustrate the architecture of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum in plant cells. Fixation of plant tissues to preserve cytoplasmic structure poses special problems. When possible, emphasis should be placed on the imaging of structures in stained living cells over time. The early events that occur when Nod factors or bacteria elicit nodule formation in alfalfa roots will illustrate several approaches to plant cell fixation, staining and imaging. The first observable events after Nod factor stimulation occur in root hairs and are changes in rates ...


Parasexuality And Heterokaryosis In Fusarium Oxysporum Forma Specialis Cubense, Blanca R. Cortes Dec 1996

Parasexuality And Heterokaryosis In Fusarium Oxysporum Forma Specialis Cubense, Blanca R. Cortes

FIU Electronic Theses and Dissertations

Intra and Inter Vegetative Compatibility Group (VCG) heterokaryon formation was observed in Fusariurn oxysporum f.sp. cubense (Foc). Using the double-pick method to force heterokaryon formation via hyphal anastomosis, 104 pairwise combinations were done between 100 auxotrophic mutants of Foe representing races 1, 2 and 4 in five VCGs. Inter formae speciales heterokaryon formation was also observed on pairings between benomyl resistant Wild Type Testers (WTT) and wild type isolates in 15 VCGs and four different formae speciales. Microconidia analysis of heterokaryons identified both parental phenotypes as well as diploid phenotypes. Colonies with altered and hybrid genotypes were recovered ...


Chemical Communication In House Mice (Mus Musculus): Can They Recognize Gender From The Anogenital, Harderian Gland Or Mouth/Nose Odor?, Dawn Michele Andrews Dec 1996

Chemical Communication In House Mice (Mus Musculus): Can They Recognize Gender From The Anogenital, Harderian Gland Or Mouth/Nose Odor?, Dawn Michele Andrews

Dissertations and Theses

Identifying the sensory systems animals employ to communicate chemically and the function of the chemical signals facilitates further understanding of chemical communication. Increased knowledge of how animals use the olfactory and vomeronasal systems in order to interpret the meaning of body odors will aid in developing a more detailed organization of chemosensory pathways. The message that each body odor contains can change from species to species.

The purpose of this thesis was to study three previously untested body odors in house mice (M. musculus) for their role in gender recognition of conspecifics. These odors are the anogenital (feces, urine, and ...


The Theme Of "Relevance" In Third World Human Sciences, Syed Farid Alatas Dec 1996

The Theme Of "Relevance" In Third World Human Sciences, Syed Farid Alatas

farid alatas

The fact that the humanities and social sciences in developing societies generally originated in the West has raised the issue of the relevance of these arts and sciences to the needs and problems of Third World societies. This questioning of relevance has led, in turn, to the call for the indigenisation of knowledge in developing societies. While there has been a great deal of discussion on indigenisation, there has been little practice of indigenised humanities and social science. As a result, there are few examples of what indigenous knowledge constitutes from theoretical, methodological and empirical points of view. This paper ...


Bulletin No. 35: Native Woody Plant Collection Checklist, Michael P. Harvey, Glenn D. Dreyer Dec 1996

Bulletin No. 35: Native Woody Plant Collection Checklist, Michael P. Harvey, Glenn D. Dreyer

Bulletins

No abstract provided.


Evagination Of The Thyroid Primordium Involves Novel Cell Behaviors, Gwendolyn M. Kinebrew, S. R. Hilfer Dec 1996

Evagination Of The Thyroid Primordium Involves Novel Cell Behaviors, Gwendolyn M. Kinebrew, S. R. Hilfer

Biology

No abstract provided.


Number 34 (December 1996), Southern Fishes Council Dec 1996

Number 34 (December 1996), Southern Fishes Council

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

(December 1996) - The Fishes of the Little River Drainage in Alabama. By Terri L. Ballard and J. Malcolm Pierson, 6pp., plus News Notes.


Competitive Orientations And Motives Of Adult Sport And Exercise Participants, Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, Jeffrey J. Martin Dec 1996

Competitive Orientations And Motives Of Adult Sport And Exercise Participants, Diane L. Gill, Lavon Williams, Deborah A. Dowd, Christina M. Beaudoin, Jeffrey J. Martin

Kinesiology, Health and Sport Studies

Participants in four different adult sport and exercise programs (running club, exercise classes, cardiac rehabilitation program, senior games) completed measures of competitive orientation and participation motivation. Our samples were older and more diverse than samples of previous research, and their competitive orientations and motives were similarly diverse. Multivariate analyses revealed gender and sample differences. Males were higher than females on competitiveness and win orientation, and runners were less win-oriented than other groups, but overall, all groups were similar to previous college-age samples in competitive orientation. Groups varied on specific motives, with females rating fitness, flexibility, affiliation, and appearance higher than ...


Front Matter, Southeastern Fishes Council Dec 1996

Front Matter, Southeastern Fishes Council

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

No abstract provided.


News Notes, Southeastern Fishes Council Dec 1996

News Notes, Southeastern Fishes Council

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Fishes Of The Little River Drainage In Alabama, Terri L. Ballard, J. Malcom Pierson Dec 1996

Fishes Of The Little River Drainage In Alabama, Terri L. Ballard, J. Malcom Pierson

Southeastern Fishes Council Proceedings

No abstract provided.


Biology: What One Needs To Know, Ursula Goodenough Dec 1996

Biology: What One Needs To Know, Ursula Goodenough

Biology Faculty Publications & Presentations

Biology on this planet represents an astonishing experiment in carbon-based chemistry which, over billions of years, has generated billions of species adapted to countless major and minor fluctuations in ecological circumstances. In one sense there is no way to generalize about biology. While biological activities can all be ultimately explained by physical laws (like everything else in the universe), it is the emergent intensely particular properties of organisms that most interest us. This essay represents an attempt to describe some of the more prominent patterns that emerge from the sea of biological particularities, patterns that present many opportunities for religious ...


Mechanisms Of Carnitine-Mediated Modulation Of Aflatoxin B1-Dna Adduct Formation, Ayub Mohd Yatim Dec 1996

Mechanisms Of Carnitine-Mediated Modulation Of Aflatoxin B1-Dna Adduct Formation, Ayub Mohd Yatim

Doctoral Dissertations

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the possible mechanism(s) of L-carnitine-mediated modulation of AFB1-DNA adducts formation. The first part of the study investigated the effect of increased doses of carnitine on AFB1 binding to macromolecules, AFB1 uptake, activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST), and total glutathione concentrations in freshly isolated hepatocytes. Carnitine dose was significantly correlated with the formation of AFB1-DNA adduct ( r = -0.68;p = 0.0002 ), AFB1-protein adduct (r = 0.58;p = 0.017), but not AFB1-RNA adduct (r = 0.14;p = 0.604). There ...