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Full-Text Articles in Legal History

Crisis? Whose Crisis?, Jack Beermann Mar 2020

Crisis? Whose Crisis?, Jack Beermann

Faculty Scholarship

Every moment in human history can be characterized by someone as “socially and politically charged.” For a large portion of the population of the United States, nearly the entire history of the country has been socially and politically charged, first because they were enslaved and then because they were subjected to discriminatory laws and unequal treatment under what became known as “Jim Crow.” The history of the United States has also been a period of social and political upheaval for American Indians, the people who occupied the territory that became the United States before European settlement. Although both African-Americans and ...


"Remembering Betsy" By Her Two Professors And Editors, Thomas Green, Dirk Hartog Nov 2019

"Remembering Betsy" By Her Two Professors And Editors, Thomas Green, Dirk Hartog

Tributes

On November 23, 2019, immediately following the conclusion of the annual meeting of the American Society for Legal History, Boston University School of Law held a ceremony marking the opening of an archive devoted to the scholarship of Elizabeth Clark. Betsy Clark, who taught at BU before her untimely death in 1997, was an important presence in the world of legal history in the 1980s and early 1990s. And the archive includes a number of short “responses” to her scholarship. Her colleagues David Seipp and Pnina Lahav were responsible for making the archive a reality.


Why Robert Mueller’S Appointment As Special Counsel Was Unlawful, Gary Lawson, Steven Calabresi Nov 2019

Why Robert Mueller’S Appointment As Special Counsel Was Unlawful, Gary Lawson, Steven Calabresi

Faculty Scholarship

Since 1999, when the independent counsel provisions of the Ethics in Government Act expired, the Department of Justice (“DOJ”) has had in place regulations providing for the appointment of Special Counsels who possess “the full power and independent authority to exercise all investigative and prosecutorial functions of any United States Attorney.” Appointments under these regulations, such as the May 17,2017 appointment of Robert S. Mueller to investigate the Trump campaign, are patently unlawful, for three distinct reasons.

First, all federal offices must be “established by Law,” and there is no statute authorizing such an office in the DOJ. We ...


The Depravity Of The 1930s And The Modern Administrative State, Gary Lawson, Steven Calabresi Dec 2018

The Depravity Of The 1930s And The Modern Administrative State, Gary Lawson, Steven Calabresi

Faculty Scholarship

Gillian Metzger’s 2017 Harvard Law Review foreword, entitled 1930s Redux: The Administrative State Under Siege, is a paean to the modern administrative state, with its massive subdelegations of legislative and judicial power to so-called “expert” bureaucrats, who are layered well out of reach of electoral accountability yet do not have the constitutional status of Article III judges. We disagree with this celebration of technocratic government on just about every level, but this Article focuses on two relatively narrow points.

First, responding more to implicit assumptions that pervade modern discourse than specifically to Professor Metzger’s analysis, we challenge the ...


The Suez Crisis Of 1956 And Its Aftermath: A Comparative Study Of Constitutions, Use Of Force, Diplomacy And International Relations, Pnina Lahav Jul 2015

The Suez Crisis Of 1956 And Its Aftermath: A Comparative Study Of Constitutions, Use Of Force, Diplomacy And International Relations, Pnina Lahav

Faculty Scholarship

This article compares and juxtaposes constitutional war powers (deployed by the belligerents) and diplomacy (deployed by the US) as means of pursuing foreign policy during the 1956 Suez crisis.

In the fall of 1956 the United Kingdom, France and Israel launched a war against Egypt. It soon became clear that this was a coordinated effort. The war started a few days before the US presidential elections but the parties did not share their plans with President Eisenhower. The Hungarian rebellion and the Soviet invasion of Hungary occurred at the same time. Within weeks, the United States, in cooperation with the ...


American Influence On Israeli Law: Freedom Of Expression, Pnina Lahav Mar 2012

American Influence On Israeli Law: Freedom Of Expression, Pnina Lahav

Faculty Scholarship

This chapter provides a historical overview of the American influence on Israel’s jurisprudence of freedom of expression from the 1950s to the first decade of the twenty first century. The chapter uses the format of decades, presenting representative cases for each decade, to record the process by which Israeli judges incorporated and sometimes rejected themes from the U.S. jurisprudence of freedom of expression. In the course of discussing the jurisprudential themes the chapter also highlights the historical context in which the cases were decided, from the war in Korea and McCarthyism in the 1950s, to the process of ...


Go West Young Woman!: The Mercer Girls And Legal Historiography, Kristin Collins Jan 2010

Go West Young Woman!: The Mercer Girls And Legal Historiography, Kristin Collins

Faculty Scholarship

This essay is a response to Professor Kerry Abrams’s article The Hidden Dimension of Nineteenth-Century Immigration Law, published in Vanderbilt Law Review. The Hidden Dimension tells the story of Washington Territory’s entrepreneurial Asa Shinn Mercer, who endeavored to bring hundreds of young women from the East Coast to the tiny frontier town of Seattle as prospective brides for white men who had settled there. Abrams locates the story of the Mercer Girls, as they were called, in the history of American immigration law. My response locates The Hidden Dimension in American legal historiography, both that branch of American ...


Breaking The Mold Of Citizenship: The "Natural" Person As Citizen In Nineteenth-Century America (A Fragment), Elizabeth B. Clark Dec 2001

Breaking The Mold Of Citizenship: The "Natural" Person As Citizen In Nineteenth-Century America (A Fragment), Elizabeth B. Clark

Publications

Mary Wollstronecraft once said, probably with a sigh, "I do earnestly wish to see the distinction of sex confounded in society, unless where love animates the behavior." Two centuries later, many groups in American political life are still caught in the same dilemma: hoping that a just society will take account of an essential characteristic -- race and sex spring to mind -- in ways that will benefit the group, while eschewing the potentially harmful characterizations that lie just on the flip side of the coin.


Book Preface, Hendrik Hartog, Thomas A. Green Jan 1999

Book Preface, Hendrik Hartog, Thomas A. Green

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

At her death in December 1997, Betsy Clark had been working for more than a dozen years on a study tentatively entitled "Women, Church and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America." Between 1987 and 1995, several of the planned chapters had appeared in law reviews and in history journals. Another chapter had been written and revised before and during the first stages of her illness. Two chapters can be found in preliminary form in her 1989 Princeton dissertation and had been presented to a colloquium at Harvard Law School. But other chapters planned for the ...


Chapter 2 - Anticlericalism And Antistatism, Elizabeth B. Clark Jan 1999

Chapter 2 - Anticlericalism And Antistatism, Elizabeth B. Clark

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

Note: This is the first draft of the second chapter of a manuscript which through the lens of abolitionism and women's rights, traces the transformation of the ideology of individual rights over the course of the nineteenth century as it expanded to encompass, not just rights in the civil sphere, but rights of the person in private life. Part I of this paper examines nineteenth-century intellectual movements that located moral authority in the individual; Part II outlines the attack on authority within liberal Protestantism; Part III traces the extension of that critique to the state; and Part IV discusses ...


Chapter 7 - Reflections On The Scholarship Of Elizabeth B. Clark, Kristin Olbertson, Carol Weisbrod, Christine Stansell, Martha Minow Jan 1998

Chapter 7 - Reflections On The Scholarship Of Elizabeth B. Clark, Kristin Olbertson, Carol Weisbrod, Christine Stansell, Martha Minow

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

Elizabeth Clark's essays on early nineteenth-century reform movements make a compelling case that abolitionists and feminists alike understood individual rights from a profoundly religious perspective. Clark also demonstrates how these reformers advocated the protection of so-called "natural rights" for enslaved African-Americans and white women in the vivid and fervently emotional language of evangelical revivalism. Broader cultural and intellectual trends of resistance to governmental and clerical authority, trends rooted in liberal and evangelical Protestantism, Clark argues, helped fuel attacks on slavery and gender inequality. Rejecting other historians' portrayals of the antebellum reformers as primarily secular in orientation, Clark makes the ...


Tribute, Jeffrey L. Salinger Jan 1998

Tribute, Jeffrey L. Salinger

Tributes

I remember sitting in the law auditorium late in our first semester of law school. Listening to a handful of professors, we heard about the electives offered for second semester. I am not sure how I felt prior to entering the auditorium that day. I do remember how I felt afterwards -- I was going to get into Professor Clark’s class. From what I’ve heard, her legal history seminar was by far the most highly coveted of the first-year electives. That’s no surprise, though -- you could almost feel her excitement as she spoke about the course. On hearing ...


Dedication: For Betsy Clark, 1952-1997, Law & History Review Editor Jan 1998

Dedication: For Betsy Clark, 1952-1997, Law & History Review Editor

Tributes

With the consent of those whose work appears here, and on behalf of the American Society for Legal History, this issue of the Law and History Review is dedicated to the memory of our friend and colleague, Elizabeth Battelle Clark, who died on the evening of December 26th, 1997, after a long and fierce fight with cancer. It is deeply saddening to realize that in each of our last three issues we have noted the death of a colleague -- of Willard Hurst, Paul Murphy, and now Betsy Clark. Hers is perhaps the hardest of these deaths to take, because in ...


Chapter 6 - "Organized Mother Love": Moral Governance And The Maternal State In Late Nineteenth-Century America, Elizabeth B. Clark Jan 1997

Chapter 6 - "Organized Mother Love": Moral Governance And The Maternal State In Late Nineteenth-Century America, Elizabeth B. Clark

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

This draft comprises two sequential pieces of a work very much in progress. They are unreconstructed first drafts which represent an attempt to get primary sources down on paper; and to draw a philosophy of governance out of a wide range of materials from the woman's temperance movement, most of which do not purport to be formal or theoretical statements. The first describes how evangelical women developed theories of moral governance within the home; the second how they translated those precepts into canons of civil governance.


Lessons From The Past: Revenge Yesterday And Today Symposium, Tamar Frankel Feb 1996

Lessons From The Past: Revenge Yesterday And Today Symposium, Tamar Frankel

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Seipp's Paper transports us to the Middle Ages to discover a society that views crime and tort quite differently from the way we view these categories today. Yet our discovery of that society offers a perspective about our own. In Professor Seipp's world the victim of a wrong had a choice: demand revenge by determining how the wrongdoer would be punished, or demand monetary compensation. These two entitlements were mutually exclusive. The victim could choose either one, but to some extent, especially in earlier times, the right of revenge was considered a higher right that the victim ...


"The Sacred Rights Of The Weak": Pain, Sympathy, And The Culture Of Individual Rights In Antebellum America, Elizabeth B. Clark Sep 1995

"The Sacred Rights Of The Weak": Pain, Sympathy, And The Culture Of Individual Rights In Antebellum America, Elizabeth B. Clark

Publications

In 1835 an antislavery sympathizer leaving a lecture by Theodore Dwight Weld went home to dream that she was transported above the world; looking down at the United States, she saw "multitudes of sable figures, bending beneath a scorching sun -- their backs lacerated by the whip -- scourged, maimed, loaded with irons -- subject to every insult -- and exposed to every gust of unbridled passions." The dreamer, a Mrs. Sturges, drew from many discourses in describing her lengthy dream, but the fundamental trope of her visionary narrative was the story of the suffering slave, a trope that in the 1830s began to ...


Chapter 1 - "The Sacred Rights Of The Weak": Pain, Sympathy, And The Culture Of Individual Rights In Antebellum America (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark Sep 1995

Chapter 1 - "The Sacred Rights Of The Weak": Pain, Sympathy, And The Culture Of Individual Rights In Antebellum America (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

In 1835 an antislavery sympathizer leaving a lecture by Theodore Dwight Weld went home to dream that she was transported above the world; looking down at the United States, she saw "multitudes of sable figures, bending beneath a scorching sun -- their backs lacerated by the whip -- scourged, maimed, loaded with irons -- subject to every insult -- and exposed to every gust of unbridled passions." The dreamer, a Mrs. Sturges, drew from many discourses in describing her lengthy dream, but the fundamental trope of her visionary narrative was the story of the suffering slave, a trope that in the 1830s began to ...


Matrimonial Bonds: Slavery And Divorce In Nineteenth-Century America, Elizabeth B. Clark Apr 1990

Matrimonial Bonds: Slavery And Divorce In Nineteenth-Century America, Elizabeth B. Clark

Publications

In the covenant of marriage, woman is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master -- the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement. He has so framed the law of divorce . . . as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of women -- the law, in all cases, going upon a false supposition of the supremacy of man, and giving all power into his hands.


Chapter 5 - Matrimonial Bonds: Slavery And Divorce In Nineteenth-Century America (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark Apr 1990

Chapter 5 - Matrimonial Bonds: Slavery And Divorce In Nineteenth-Century America (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

In the covenant of marriage, woman is compelled to promise obedience to her husband, he becoming, to all intents and purposes, her master -- the law giving him power to deprive her of her liberty, and to administer chastisement. He has so framed the law of divorce . . . as to be wholly regardless of the happiness of women -- the law, in all cases, going upon a false supposition of the supremacy of man, and giving all power into his hands.


The Politics Of God And The Woman's Vote: Religion In The American Suffrage Movement, 1848-1895, Elizabeth B. Clark Oct 1989

The Politics Of God And The Woman's Vote: Religion In The American Suffrage Movement, 1848-1895, Elizabeth B. Clark

Publications

This thesis examines the role of religion— both liberal and evangelical Protestantism— in the development of a feminist political theory in America during the nineteenth century and how that feminist theory in turn helped to transform American liberalism. Chapter 1 looks for the genesis of women's rights language, not in the republican rhetoric of the Founding Fathers, but in the teachings of liberal Protestantism and its links with laissez-faire economic theory. The antebellum understanding of rights is shown to have encompassed social and civil rights alike, and to have arisen from a vision of the mutual benefits that derived ...


Self-Ownership And The Political Theory Of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Elizabeth B. Clark Jan 1989

Self-Ownership And The Political Theory Of Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Elizabeth B. Clark

Publications

The emphasis on freedom or enslavement of the body, and the issues that sprang from that focus, were feminists' contribution to nineteenth-century American liberalism, as well as their link to radical thought. Elizabeth Cady Stanton drew arguments from the realm of political liberty and religious tolerance to make the case for choice in private life. But the vision of individual autonomy in sexual and domestic matters served also as the basis for her definition of citizenship and as a paradigm for relations among citizens and between citizens and the state. Self-ownership was the unifying theme that ran through Stanton's ...


Chapter 4 - Self-Ownership And The Political Theory Of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark Jan 1989

Chapter 4 - Self-Ownership And The Political Theory Of Elizabeth Cady Stanton (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

The emphasis on freedom or enslavement of the body, and the issues that sprang from that focus, were feminists' contribution to nineteenth-century American liberalism, as well as their link to radical thought. Elizabeth Cady Stanton drew arguments from the realm of political liberty and religious tolerance to make the case for choice in private life. But the vision of individual autonomy in sexual and domestic matters served also as the basis for her definition of citizenship and as a paradigm for relations among citizens and between citizens and the state. Self-ownership was the unifying theme that ran through Stanton's ...


Religion, Rights And Difference In The Early Woman's Rights Movement, Elizabeth B. Clark Jan 1987

Religion, Rights And Difference In The Early Woman's Rights Movement, Elizabeth B. Clark

Publications

The meeting of feminists at Seneca Falls in July of 1848 marked the nominal beginning of the movement which in the nineteenth century was labeled "woman's rights." For us that term has become commonly interchangeable with "suffrage," and we often assume that "woman's rights" describes a seventy-odd year campaign to gain civil and political power and protection from a government which -- although it had perpetrated outrages against women and blacks -- had an unquestioned legitimacy as the guarantor and enforcer of rights.


Chapter 3 - Religion, Rights And Difference In The Early Woman's Rights Movement (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark Jan 1987

Chapter 3 - Religion, Rights And Difference In The Early Woman's Rights Movement (Previously Published Article), Elizabeth B. Clark

Manuscript of Women, Church, and State: Religion and the Culture of Individual Rights in Nineteenth-Century America

The meeting of feminists at Seneca Falls in July of 1848 marked the nominal beginning of the movement which in the nineteenth century was labeled "woman's rights." For us that term has become commonly interchangeable with "suffrage," and we often assume that "woman's rights" describes a seventy-odd year campaign to gain civil and political power and protection from a government which -- although it had perpetrated outrages against women and blacks -- had an unquestioned legitimacy as the guarantor and enforcer of rights.