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Just Listening: The Equal Hearing Principle And The Moral Life Of Judges, Barry Sullivan Jun 2019

Just Listening: The Equal Hearing Principle And The Moral Life Of Judges, Barry Sullivan

Barry Sullivan

No abstract provided.


Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer Jun 2019

Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer

James T Gathii

This paper discusses three credible attempts by African governments to restrict the jurisdiction of three similarly-situated sub-regional courts in response to politically controversial rulings. In West Africa, when the ECOWAS Court upheld allegations of torture by opposition journalists in the Gambia, that country’s political leaders sought to restrict the Court’s power to review human rights complaints. The other member states ultimately defeated the Gambia’s proposal. In East Africa, Kenya failed in its efforts to eliminate the EACJ and to remove some of its judges after a decision challenging an election to a sub-regional legislature. However, the member ...


Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs Jan 2019

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs

Faculty Scholarship

That the judge's task is to find the law, not to make it, was once a commonplace of our legal culture. Today, decades after Erie, the idea of a common law discovered by judges is commonly dismissed -- as a "fallacy," an "illusion," a "brooding omnipresence in the sky." That dismissive view is wrong. Expecting judges to find unwritten law is no childish fiction of the benighted past, but a real and plausible option for a modern legal system.

This Essay seeks to restore the respectability of finding law, in part by responding to two criticisms made by Erie and ...


Visiting Judges, Marin K. Levy Jan 2019

Visiting Judges, Marin K. Levy

Faculty Scholarship

Despite the fact that Article III judges hold particular seats on particular courts, the federal system rests on judicial interchangeability. Hundreds of judges “visit” other courts each year and collectively help decide thousands of appeals. Anyone from a retired Supreme Court Justice to a judge from the U.S. Court of International Trade to a district judge from out of circuit may come and hear cases on a given court of appeals. Although much has been written about the structure of the federal courts and the nature of Article III judgeships, little attention has been paid to the phenomenon of ...


Certification Of Legal Questions To The Utah Supreme Court, David Nuffer Jan 2018

Certification Of Legal Questions To The Utah Supreme Court, David Nuffer

Duke Law Master of Judicial Studies Theses

For 30 years, federal courts have certified questions of state law to the Utah Supreme Court. This thesis examines the history and utility of the process and recommends changes to the process in the federal district court and in the Utah Supreme Court.

The current focus of federal judges in certifying questions is on utility for the case before the court. But certification of questions from a federal court to a state court is an expression of federalism—a humble acknowledgment by a federal authority which is often regarded as supreme that the state is the proper and best authority ...


The Influence Of Re-Selection On Independent Decision Making In State Supreme Courts, Ann A. Scott Timmer Jan 2018

The Influence Of Re-Selection On Independent Decision Making In State Supreme Courts, Ann A. Scott Timmer

Duke Law Master of Judicial Studies Theses

No abstract provided.


One Judge's Legacy And The New York Court Of Appeals: Mr. Justice Cardozo And The Law Of Contracts, Meredith R. Miller Jan 2018

One Judge's Legacy And The New York Court Of Appeals: Mr. Justice Cardozo And The Law Of Contracts, Meredith R. Miller

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Justice Benjamin Nathan Cardozo And His Two Most Important Questions: Reflections On The Choice Of Tycho Brahe, Randy Lee Jan 2018

Justice Benjamin Nathan Cardozo And His Two Most Important Questions: Reflections On The Choice Of Tycho Brahe, Randy Lee

Touro Law Review

No abstract provided.


Strategic Publication, Ben Grunwald Jan 2018

Strategic Publication, Ben Grunwald

Faculty Scholarship

Under the standard account of judicial behavior when a panel of appellate court judges cannot agree on the outcome of a case, the panel has two options. First, it can publish a divided decision with a majority opinion and a dissent. Panels usually do not take this route because a dissent dramatically increases the probability of reversal. The second and more common option is for the panel to bargain and compromise over the reasoning of the decision and then publish a unanimous opinion.

This Article argues that a divided panel has a third option: strategic publication. The panel can choose ...


Panel Assignment In The Federal Courts Of Appeals, Marin K. Levy Jan 2017

Panel Assignment In The Federal Courts Of Appeals, Marin K. Levy

Faculty Scholarship

It is common knowledge that the federal courts of appeals typically hear cases in panels of three judges and that the composition of the panel can have significant consequences for case outcomes and for legal doctrine more generally. Yet neither legal scholars nor social scientists have focused on the question of how judges are selected for their panels. Instead, a substantial body of scholarship simply assumes that panel assignment is random. This Article provides what, up until this point, has been a missing account of panel assignment. Drawing on a multiyear qualitative study of five circuit courts, including in-depth interviews ...


What Judges Say And Do In Deciding National Security Cases: The Example Of The State Secrets Privilege, Anthony John Trenga Jan 2016

What Judges Say And Do In Deciding National Security Cases: The Example Of The State Secrets Privilege, Anthony John Trenga

Duke Law Master of Judicial Studies Theses

From the criminal trial of Aaron Burr on charges of treason to modern-day litigation involving the CIA, the state secrets privilege presents a thorny issue for federal judges. Judge Trenga examines the legal issues at the heart of this privilege—separation of powers, non-justiciability, evidentiary privilege, national security interests, and military secrets—and the two primary doctrinal tracks judges invoke. Then, based on interviews with thirty-one federal judges, Judge Trenga offers insights into how judges think about applying the state secrets privilege to sensitive material.


Would United States Judges Benefit From More Graduate Training?, Nancy Joseph Jan 2016

Would United States Judges Benefit From More Graduate Training?, Nancy Joseph

Duke Law Master of Judicial Studies Theses

In the United States, there is no degree or training required to become a judge. On-the-job education primarily consists of orientation programs and updates on substantive and procedural law. Although these programs serve an important need, they are generally of limited duration and scope, taught by fellow judges, and are not degree programs. Two notable exceptions are the now-defunct University of Virginia Graduate Program for Judges, which offered an LL.M. in judicial process for sitting appellate judges and the Duke University School of Law’s LL.M. in judicial studies—also for sitting judges. Do judges benefit from such ...


Designated Hitters, Pinch Hitters, And Bat Boys: Judges Dealing With Judgment And Inexperience, Career Clerks Or Term Clerks, Donald W. Molloy Jan 2016

Designated Hitters, Pinch Hitters, And Bat Boys: Judges Dealing With Judgment And Inexperience, Career Clerks Or Term Clerks, Donald W. Molloy

Duke Law Master of Judicial Studies Theses

This paper explores the relationship of the law clerk to the judge and why judges decide to make their term clerks career clerks or switch from career clerks back to term clerks. In exploring this issue, 26 judges were interviewed and provided a broad set of reasons both to have a career clerk or to stick with term clerks. The decision to hire a career clerk rests on serendipitous events while the choice to switch back to term clerks is deliberate. In the game of baseball the manager in the World Series has to change tactics when considering how to ...


Just Listening: The Equal Hearing Principle And The Moral Life Of Judges, Barry Sullivan Jan 2016

Just Listening: The Equal Hearing Principle And The Moral Life Of Judges, Barry Sullivan

Faculty Publications & Other Works

No abstract provided.


How Bayesian Are Judges?, Jack Knight, Mitu Gulati, David F. Levi Jan 2016

How Bayesian Are Judges?, Jack Knight, Mitu Gulati, David F. Levi

Faculty Scholarship

Richard Posner famously modeled judges as Bayesians in his book, How Judges Think? A key element of being Bayesian is that one constantly updates with new information. This model of the judge who is constantly learning and updating, particularly about local conditions, also is one of the reasons why the factual determinations of trial judges are given deference on appeal. But do judges in fact act like Bayesian updaters? Judicial evaluations of search warrant requests for probable cause provides an ideal setting to examine this question because the judges in this context have access to information on how well they ...


Judicial Retirements And The Staying Power Of U.S. Supreme Court Decisions, Stuart M. Benjamin, Georg Vanberg Jan 2016

Judicial Retirements And The Staying Power Of U.S. Supreme Court Decisions, Stuart M. Benjamin, Georg Vanberg

Faculty Scholarship

The influence of U.S. Supreme Court majority opinions depends critically on how these opinions are received and treated by lower courts, which decide the vast majority of legal disputes. We argue that the retirement of Justices on the Supreme Court serves as a simple heuristic device for lower court judges in deciding how much deference to show to Supreme Court precedent. Using a unique dataset of the treatment of all Supreme Court majority opinions in the courts of appeals from 1953 to 2012, we find that negative treatments of Supreme Court opinions increase, and positive treatments decrease, as the ...


Practice And Precedent In Historical Gloss Games, Joseph Blocher, Margaret H. Lemos Jan 2016

Practice And Precedent In Historical Gloss Games, Joseph Blocher, Margaret H. Lemos

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


The Distinctive Role Of Justice Samuel Alito: From A Politics Of Restoration To A Politics Of Dissent, Neil S. Siegel Jan 2016

The Distinctive Role Of Justice Samuel Alito: From A Politics Of Restoration To A Politics Of Dissent, Neil S. Siegel

Faculty Scholarship

Justice Samuel Alito is regarded by both his champions and his critics as the most consistently conservative member of the current Supreme Court. Both groups seem to agree that he has become the most important conservative voice on the Court. Chief Justice John Roberts has a Court to lead; Justice Antonin Scalia and his particular brand of originalism have passed on; Justice Clarence Thomas is a stricter originalist and so writes opinions that other Justices do not join; and Justice Anthony Kennedy can be ideologically unreliable. Justice Alito, by contrast, is unburdened by the perceived responsibilities of being Chief Justice ...


Courts Of Good And Ill Repute: Garoupa And Ginsburg’S Judicial Reputation: A Comparative Theory, Tracey E. George, G. Mitu Gulati Jan 2016

Courts Of Good And Ill Repute: Garoupa And Ginsburg’S Judicial Reputation: A Comparative Theory, Tracey E. George, G. Mitu Gulati

Faculty Scholarship

Nuno Garoupa and Tom Ginsburg have published an ambitious book that seeks to account for the great diversity of judicial systems based, in part, on how courts are designed to marshal the power of a high public opinion of the judiciary. Judges, the book posits, care deeply about their reputations both inside and outside the courts. Courts are designed to capitalize on judges’ desire to maximize their reputation, and judges’ existing stock of reputation can affect the design of the courts which they serve. We find much to like in this book, ranging from its intriguing and ambitious positive claims ...


Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer Jan 2016

Backlash Against International Courts In West, East And Southern Africa: Causes And Consequences, Karen J. Alter, James T. Gathii, Laurence R. Helfer

Faculty Scholarship

This paper discusses three credible attempts by African governments to restrict the jurisdiction of three similarly-situated sub-regional courts in response to politically controversial rulings. In West Africa, when the ECOWAS Court upheld allegations of torture by opposition journalists in the Gambia, that country’s political leaders sought to restrict the Court’s power to review human rights complaints. The other member states ultimately defeated the Gambia’s proposal. In East Africa, Kenya failed in its efforts to eliminate the EACJ and to remove some of its judges after a decision challenging an election to a sub-regional legislature. However, the member ...


Antipodal Invective: A Field Gude To Kangaroos In American Courtrooms, Parker B. Potter Jr. Jul 2015

Antipodal Invective: A Field Gude To Kangaroos In American Courtrooms, Parker B. Potter Jr.

Akron Law Review

This article discusses three other groups of opinions that use the phrase “kangaroo court.” The first section describes the various decision-making behaviors that qualify a tribunal to wear the Scarlet K. It does so by discussing opinions in which a judge or a litigant has given a definition of the term “kangaroo court” when that term is used metaphorically, as invective, to disparage the fairness of another tribunal. The second section describes the habitat of adjudicatory kangaroos by examining opinions like Silver v. Castle Memorial Hospital, in which a judge has called another tribunal a kangaroo court. The third section ...


Judge Posner's Simple Law, Mitchell N. Berman Apr 2015

Judge Posner's Simple Law, Mitchell N. Berman

Michigan Law Review

The world is complex, Richard Posner observes in his most recent book, Reflections on Judging. It follows that, for judges to achieve “sensible” resolutions of real-world disputes—by which Judge Posner means “in a way that can be explained in ordinary language and justified as consistent with the expectations of normal people” (p. 354)—they must be able to navigate the world’s complexity successfully. To apply legal rules correctly and (where judicial lawmaking is called for) to formulate legal rules prudently, judges must understand the causal mechanisms and processes that undergird complex systems, and they must be able to ...


Law Clerks And The Institutional Design Of The Federal Judiciary, Albert Yoon Oct 2014

Law Clerks And The Institutional Design Of The Federal Judiciary, Albert Yoon

Marquette Law Review

This Essay highlights the evolving institutional changes in the federal judiciary—a protracted confirmation process, higher caseload demands, and declining real salaries—in concurrence with evidence suggesting greater reliance by judges on their law clerks when writing opinions. These dynamic forces arguably undermine the integrity of the judicial process and counsel for legislative action to address judicial working conditions or for changes by judges in the hiring of law clerks.


Dissent Aversion At The Court Of Justice Of The European Union, Marsha C. Erb Jan 2014

Dissent Aversion At The Court Of Justice Of The European Union, Marsha C. Erb

Duke Law Master of Judicial Studies Theses

The Court of Justice of the European Union has jurisdiction over 28 politically, culturally and linguistically disparate member states in the interpretation and application of EU law. Throughout its 60-year history, the Court has banned publication of the separate opinions of its judges and their voting records favouring instead brief unsigned unanimous decisions achieved by majority vote. The CJEU defends its practice in the interests of protecting judicial independence and its own authority and legitimacy. The Court’s critics call for greater transparency by publishing dissenting opinions along the lines of the United States Supreme Court. The CJEU is one ...


Who Writes? Gender And Judgment Assignment On The Supreme Court Of Canada, Peter Mccormick Jan 2014

Who Writes? Gender And Judgment Assignment On The Supreme Court Of Canada, Peter Mccormick

Osgoode Hall Law Journal

This article poses the question: Now that women are receiving an increasing share of the seats on the Supreme Court of Canada (the Court), can we conclude with confidence that they have been admitted to full participation, with a mix of judgments—including the more significant decisions—that is fully comparable to their male colleagues? The author looks at the assignment of reasons for judgment on the Court over the last three chief justiceships, with specific reference to the relative rate of assignments to male and female judges. He finds that the male/female gap is more robust than ever ...


A Winner’S Curse?: Promotions From The Lower Federal Courts, Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati, Eric A. Posner Jan 2014

A Winner’S Curse?: Promotions From The Lower Federal Courts, Stephen J. Choi, Mitu Gulati, Eric A. Posner

Faculty Scholarship

The standard model of judicial behavior suggests that judges primarily care about deciding cases in ways that further their political ideologies. But judicial behavior seems much more complex. Politicians who nominate people for judgeships do not typically tout their ideology (except sometimes using vague code words), but they always claim that the nominees will be competent judges. Moreover, it stands to reason that voters would support politicians who appoint competent as well as ideologically compatible judges. We test this hypothesis using a dataset consisting of promotions to the federal circuit courts. We find, using a set of objective measures of ...


Judges Under Fire - Alj Independence At Issue, Debra Cassens Moss Apr 2013

Judges Under Fire - Alj Independence At Issue, Debra Cassens Moss

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


General Semantics, Stare Decisis And Change Through Considerations Of A New Ethics, Irene S. Ross Apr 2013

General Semantics, Stare Decisis And Change Through Considerations Of A New Ethics, Irene S. Ross

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Surviving The Politics Of Judging: National Association Of Adminsitrative Law Judges Luncheon Address, September 13, 1999 , Penny J. White Apr 2013

Surviving The Politics Of Judging: National Association Of Adminsitrative Law Judges Luncheon Address, September 13, 1999 , Penny J. White

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.


Ncalj Panel Discussion: Alj Decisions - Final Or Fallible?, Jim Flanagan, Jim Rossi, John Hardwicke, Tyrone T. Butler Apr 2013

Ncalj Panel Discussion: Alj Decisions - Final Or Fallible?, Jim Flanagan, Jim Rossi, John Hardwicke, Tyrone T. Butler

Journal of the National Association of Administrative Law Judiciary

No abstract provided.