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Constitutional Law

2010

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Articles 31 - 60 of 505

Full-Text Articles in Law

Whether Foreigner Or Alien: A New Look At The Original Language Of The Alien Tort Statute, M. Anderson Berry Nov 2010

Whether Foreigner Or Alien: A New Look At The Original Language Of The Alien Tort Statute, M. Anderson Berry

M. Anderson Berry

Until now, the word that puts the ‘A’ in ATS has been completely overlooked. No court or commentator has delved in to the 1789 meaning of “alien,” or to the drafters' understanding of and possible intentions behind that word.

In the Supreme Court’s only opinion regarding the Alien Tort Statute, Sosa v. Alvarez-Machain, the Court unanimously agreed that although the first House of Representatives modified the Senate’s draft of what eventually became the Judiciary Act of 1789, it made hardly any changes to the provisions on aliens, including what became the ATS. The Court did not point out ...


On The Formation Of The American Corporate State: The Fuller Supreme Court, 1888-1910, George Skouras Nov 2010

On The Formation Of The American Corporate State: The Fuller Supreme Court, 1888-1910, George Skouras

George Skouras

This paper deals with the formation and legitimation of the American Corporate State by the Fuller Supreme Court. It argues that the Fuller Court was wrong to use the Due Process Clause of the 14th Amendment and natural law to support laissez-faire capitalism and the emergent corporate structure at the expense of labor and labor unions. It also argues that the corporatization of America has created a social and cultural environment that places business as the center of the American universe. This has led to a very asymmetrical relationship between corporations and citizens. It further argues that recent revisionist scholarship ...


The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act And Constitutional Challenges, Mel Cousins Oct 2010

The Patient Protection And Affordable Care Act And Constitutional Challenges, Mel Cousins

Mel Cousins

Having undergone an extensive process of political discussion and debate, the Health Care Reform Act (properly the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act) is now under intensive legal challenge with at least 20 different cases from both states and organizations and individuals currently under way. Although this litigation is at an early stage, there has already been considerable academic (and other) interest with a number of websites tracking the development of the litigation and providing links to the considerable commentary which has already been developed (albeit much of it inevitably speculative in nature). There have now been five substantive rulings ...


The Defense Of Marriage Act (Doma), Equal Protection And State Authority – Gill V Office Of Personnel Management And Commonwealth Of Massachusetts V United States Dept Of Health And Human Services, Mel Cousins Oct 2010

The Defense Of Marriage Act (Doma), Equal Protection And State Authority – Gill V Office Of Personnel Management And Commonwealth Of Massachusetts V United States Dept Of Health And Human Services, Mel Cousins

Mel Cousins

The issue of the recognition of same-sex marriages and the constitutionality of a refusal to recognize such marriages has received considerable attention in the US state courts in the last decade. A number of state courts have ruled that, state constitutions require the recognition of same-sex marriages. However, relatively few cases had reached the federal courts and in almost all these cases the restrictions had been upheld. However, two recent challenges to a ban on same-sex marriages in California (Proposition 8) and restrictions of the rights of same-sex couples under federal law (DOMA) have now been successful before federal district ...


Can The Federal Reserve Adopt An Inflation Targeting Regime Under The Current Statutory Arrangements?, Hong Kyoon Cho Oct 2010

Can The Federal Reserve Adopt An Inflation Targeting Regime Under The Current Statutory Arrangements?, Hong Kyoon Cho

Hong Kyoon Cho

This paper discussed legal perspectives in institutional framework of central banking, keyed to monetary policy framework. The statutory objectives of monetary policy provide an environment under which the central bank can design its monetary policy framework, in that the choice of the monetary policy framework could lie within the scope of the spirits embodied in the statutory objectives of monetary policy. Monetary policy framework could illuminate legal aspects of debate, as specifically seen in the Federal Reserve’s case that has adopted not an explicit but an implicit monetary policy framework, namely the Just-Do-It approach. Under the current legal mandate ...


Arizona V. Gant And Its Impact On Search And Seizure Law And Vehicle Searches, Michael Gizzi, R Curtis Oct 2010

Arizona V. Gant And Its Impact On Search And Seizure Law And Vehicle Searches, Michael Gizzi, R Curtis

Michael C Gizzi

The decision in Arizona v. Gant, handed down in April of 2009, was a surprise for law enforcement and Supreme Court observers alike. For law enforcement, it took away their unfettered discretion to search a car anytime they engaged in a routine traffic stop, which was a commonly used tool for drug interdiction and combating gangs. For Court observers, it not only was a rare decision to suppress evidence in a Fourth Amendment case but it also presented an unusual line up of justices. This study considers the implications of Gant both for law enforcement and for observers of the ...


Excluding Exclusion: How Herring Jeopardizes The Fourth Amendment's Protections Against Unreasonable Search And Seizure, Hariqbal Basi Oct 2010

Excluding Exclusion: How Herring Jeopardizes The Fourth Amendment's Protections Against Unreasonable Search And Seizure, Hariqbal Basi

Hariqbal Basi

Abstract- For nearly a half-century, the exclusionary rule has remained an important mechanism for ensuring police compliance with the Fourth Amendment and deterring unconstitutional searches and seizures. In January 2009, the Supreme Court held in Herring v. United States that the exclusionary rule does not apply to good faith negligent police behavior. This significantly broadened the law, and severely limits the future application of the exclusionary rule. Furthermore, this holding has strong potential for abuse by police departments. By analogizing to Fifth Amendment jurisprudence and Miranda rights, I argue that the ruling in Herring needs to be limited in order ...


Snyder V. Phelps & The Supreme Court's Speech-Tort Jurisprudence: A Prediction, Deana Ann Pollard Sacks Oct 2010

Snyder V. Phelps & The Supreme Court's Speech-Tort Jurisprudence: A Prediction, Deana Ann Pollard Sacks

Deana A Pollard

In Snyder v. Phelps, members of the Westboro Baptist Church targeted a young marine’s untimely death to exemplify their hate-filled message to the world that “God Hates Fags” and retaliates against America for tolerating homosexuality by killing American soldiers. A jury awarded the marine’s father $10.9 million for invasion of privacy and emotional distress after the church members disseminated extremely hateful and personalized attacks against the fallen marine’s family. The Supreme Court is reviewing the case to determine whether civil liability based on invasive, hate-filled, injurious speech violates the First Amendment. In New York Times v ...


Sexual Reorientation, Elizabeth M. Glazer Oct 2010

Sexual Reorientation, Elizabeth M. Glazer

Elizabeth M Glazer

Bisexuals have been invisible for at least ten years. Ten years ago, Kenji Yoshino wrote about the “epistemic contract of bisexual erasure,” the tacit agreement between both homosexuals and heterosexuals to erase bisexuals. Though legal scholarship has addressed bisexuality only in rare moments, Yoshino’s epistemic contract of erasure answered Ruth Colker’s earlier call for a “bi jurisprudence” and explained why the “vast and vastly unacknowledged wall between heterosexual and homosexual identities” that Naomi Mezey identified has been so “vigilantly maintained.” While the tenth anniversary of the publication of Yoshino’s article is reason enough to revisit the topic ...


The Bible And The Constitution, Brad Jacob Oct 2010

The Bible And The Constitution, Brad Jacob

Robert Weston Ash

ABSTRACT

The Bible and the Constitution Prof. Bradley P. Jacob

Is the United States Constitution consistent with the Holy Bible? For many people today, and especially for most lawyers, legal scholars and judges, the question is both irrelevant and silly. Their answer would be a simple, “Who cares?”

Yet there are some – Christian judges, lawyers and legal scholars – for whom the question matters a great deal. It matters to anyone who follows the tradition of Thomas Aquinas, William Blackstone, and Martin Luther King, Jr., in holding that a human law that violates God’s eternal principles of justice is no ...


The Kinston Ruling: Black Preferred Candidates And The Meaning Of The 15th Amendment, Brandon F. Douglass Oct 2010

The Kinston Ruling: Black Preferred Candidates And The Meaning Of The 15th Amendment, Brandon F. Douglass

Brandon F Douglass

Since the 1960s, section five of the Voting Rights Act requires covered jurisdictions to seek preclearance before making certain changes to their political structure. Recently, the United States Department of Justice ruled that Kinston, North Carolina’s attempt at removing partisan labels from its ballots for municipal posts violated section five of the Voting Rights Act, based on the premise that absent a partisan cue, Kinston’s African-American voters will not be able to elect their candidate of choice. This paper presents a summary of the preclearance process and an analysis of the Department’s ruling regarding Kinston’s attempt ...


This Is A Big @&%#*^! [Political Question] Deal!”, Ryan H. James Oct 2010

This Is A Big @&%#*^! [Political Question] Deal!”, Ryan H. James

Ryan H. James

No abstract provided.


Non-Compactness And Voter Exchange; Towards A Constitutional Cure For Gerrymandering, Shlomo Angel Oct 2010

Non-Compactness And Voter Exchange; Towards A Constitutional Cure For Gerrymandering, Shlomo Angel

Shlomo Angel

No abstract provided.


Excluding Exclusion: How Herring Jeopardizes The Fourth Amendment’S Protections Against Unreasonable Searches And Seizures, Hariqbal Basi Oct 2010

Excluding Exclusion: How Herring Jeopardizes The Fourth Amendment’S Protections Against Unreasonable Searches And Seizures, Hariqbal Basi

Hariqbal Basi

Abstract- For nearly a half-century, the exclusionary rule has remained an important mechanism for ensuring police compliance with the Fourth Amendment and deterring unconstitutional searches and seizures. In January 2009, the Supreme Court held in Herring v. United States that the exclusionary rule does not apply to good faith negligent police behavior. This significantly broadened the law, and severely limits the future application of the exclusionary rule. Furthermore, this holding has strong potential for abuse by police departments. By analogizing to Fifth Amendment jurisprudence and Miranda rights, I argue that the ruling in Herring needs to be limited in order ...


Escaping Legal Limbo: Can Illinois Residents Who Entered Into A Legally Recognized Same-Sex Marriage Or Civil Union In Another State Dissolve Their Marriage In Illinois?, Michelle R. Green, Allen Wall, Jacob H. Karaca, Melissa Sereda Oct 2010

Escaping Legal Limbo: Can Illinois Residents Who Entered Into A Legally Recognized Same-Sex Marriage Or Civil Union In Another State Dissolve Their Marriage In Illinois?, Michelle R. Green, Allen Wall, Jacob H. Karaca, Melissa Sereda

Michelle R. Green

Legal limbo: when a same-sex couple in a valid, legally performed marriage performed in a jurisdiction that recognizes such marriages wants to dissolve their marriage, but now lives in a jurisdiction that refuses to recognize their marriage as valid. This article explores the options available to such couples in Illinois and provides a practical roadmap for practitioners that we think provides the best chance of success for their clients seeking to dissolve a same-sex union.

While Illinois courts have not yet determined whether such a couple may lawfully dissolve their marriage in Illinois, many lessons can be gleaned from other ...


Dennis The Menace?: An Analysis Of Whether The Episcopal Church’S Dennis Canon Entitles The Church To An Exemption From Neutral Trust Law, Robert W. Humphrey Ii Oct 2010

Dennis The Menace?: An Analysis Of Whether The Episcopal Church’S Dennis Canon Entitles The Church To An Exemption From Neutral Trust Law, Robert W. Humphrey Ii

Robert W Humphrey II

In 1979, the Episcopal Church amended its canons to include a provision whereby all dioceses and local churches agreed to hold their property in trust for the national church. The Dennis Canon, as it is known, was a response to a schism within the church and an attempt by the church to preserve real property owned by local churches. Many courts construing the effect of the Dennis Canon have found it applies even when common law trust principles would provide otherwise. However, the Supreme Court of South Carolina recently refused to give effect to it, stating it has “no legal ...


Smt. Selvi And Ors. Versus State Of Karnataka: Case Note, Vivek Jain Oct 2010

Smt. Selvi And Ors. Versus State Of Karnataka: Case Note, Vivek Jain

vivek jain

No abstract provided.


Ghostwriting: Filling In The Gaps Of Pro Se Prisoners’ Access To The Courts, Ira P. Robbins Oct 2010

Ghostwriting: Filling In The Gaps Of Pro Se Prisoners’ Access To The Courts, Ira P. Robbins

Ira P. Robbins

Compared with other litigants, pro se prisoners are at an inherent disadvantage when they try to vindicate their rights. They lack many of the resources enjoyed by non-prisoner litigants. They have limited finances and limited access to legal-research materials. Even if they had such access, their illiteracy would lessen its effectiveness. Moreover, many attorneys are unwilling or unable to undertake full representation of prisoner litigants. As a result, pro se prisoners struggle to navigate the complex legal system, often losing their cases on procedural grounds before ever reaching a decision on the merits. This Article argues that, in order to ...


Lessons From Hurricane Katrina: Prison Emergency Preparedness As A Constitutional Imperative, Ira P. Robbins Oct 2010

Lessons From Hurricane Katrina: Prison Emergency Preparedness As A Constitutional Imperative, Ira P. Robbins

Ira P. Robbins

Hurricane Katrina was one of the worst natural disasters ever to strike the United States, in terms of casualties, suffering, and financial cost. Often overlooked among Katrina's victims are the 8,000 inmates who were incarcerated at Orleans Parish Prison (OPP) when Katrina struck. Despite a mandatory evacuation of New Orleans, these men and women, some of whom had been held on charges as insignificant as public intoxication, remained in the jail as the hurricane hit, and endured days of rising, toxic waters, a lack of food and drinking water, and a complete breakdown of order within OPP. When ...


Iran’S “New Constitutionalism”: Constitutional Politics In Post-Revolutionary Iran, Kambiz Behi Oct 2010

Iran’S “New Constitutionalism”: Constitutional Politics In Post-Revolutionary Iran, Kambiz Behi

Kambiz Behi

This Article argues that the Iranian constitutional system, although distinctive in application and in jurisprudence, is structurally and functionally similar to a set of rapidly globalizing forms of constitutional arrangement. These similarities include, in the main, legal institutions, legal thought, and methods of jurisprudence. In particular, I argue that the post-1989 constitutional reforms in Iran incorporate a globalizing constitutional mode of legal arrangement marked by proportionality analysis and judicial interventionism at the expense of representative politics. The Article also aims to make a contribution to the methodology of legal analysis by applying a Critical approach to the study of a ...


No Place To Hide: First Amendment Protection For Geolocation Privacy, Theodore F. Claypoole Oct 2010

No Place To Hide: First Amendment Protection For Geolocation Privacy, Theodore F. Claypoole

Theodore F Claypoole

The article analyzes the conflict between established Constitutional rights and evaporating privacy, by exploring technological changes that threaten anonymity and examining the First Amendment rights to be anonymous in association and speech.


Women And Pornography: The Reasons, The Benefits And The Risks, Guy Kochlani Oct 2010

Women And Pornography: The Reasons, The Benefits And The Risks, Guy Kochlani

Guy Kochlani

This Article examines the reasons why women enter the porn industry, the benefits of joining it and its risks. Specifically, this Article concentrates on the five major reasons why women enter the porn industry: 1) physical/sexual/mental abuse (reasons for building self-confidence and feeling important); 2) financial (last resort to earn money in a short time frame or building a business empire); 3) fame (believes that this is a stepping stone into Hollywood); 4) nymphomania (sexual addiction); and 5) human trafficking (forced in becoming a sex slave). In addition, this Article will lay out the benefits of entering such ...


The Fiduciary Theory Of Governmental Legitimacy And The Natural Charter Of The Judiciary, Luke A. Wake Oct 2010

The Fiduciary Theory Of Governmental Legitimacy And The Natural Charter Of The Judiciary, Luke A. Wake

Luke A. Wake

In legal academia, there are various claims as to the proper role of the courts and the standard of review to be employed in evaluating claims of right. These competing judicial philosophies have been the subject of great debate in recent years. Yet underlying these debates is the question of rights and whether men are entitled, in justice, to assurances of personal autonomy, or whether the concept of rights is a mere legal fiction.

In a recent article in the Journal of Law and Philosophy, Evan Fox-Decent argues that individuals are entitled, at a minimum, to certain guarantees of bodily ...


A Sword And A Shield: The Uses Of Law In The Bush Administration, Mary L. Dudziak Oct 2010

A Sword And A Shield: The Uses Of Law In The Bush Administration, Mary L. Dudziak

University of Southern California Legal Studies Working Paper Series

The Bush administration has been criticized for departures from the rule of law, but within the administration law was not ignored. Instead it was seen variously as a tool and as a potential threat to the operation of the executive branch. Two narratives compete for attention. In an era when the legality of torture was openly debated, the deployment of law in wartime seemed the most immediate issue. At the same time, however, a decades-long conservative movement to change American law was both significantly furthered and complicated, as Supreme Court appointments moved the Court to the right, but the lack ...


Hate Funeral Protests? Then Ignore Them, Alan E. Garfield Oct 2010

Hate Funeral Protests? Then Ignore Them, Alan E. Garfield

Alan E Garfield

No abstract provided.


Patriotism For Profit And Persuasion: The Trademark, Free Speech, And Governance Problems With Protection Of Governmental Marks In The United States, Malla Pollack Oct 2010

Patriotism For Profit And Persuasion: The Trademark, Free Speech, And Governance Problems With Protection Of Governmental Marks In The United States, Malla Pollack

Malla Pollack

“Governmental marks” are words or phrases which involve the identity of a social group that is partly defined in terms of its citizenship in a government-institution. The power to name a social group (especially one from which exit is difficult) confers enormous power over the group’s members. Legally classifying such words as trademarks commodifies them, increasing the namer’s power: both by giving the word monetary value and by providing the mark-holder with the legal right to prevent others from manipulating the word’s meaning.

Destination marketing employing governmental marks has become ubiquitous. The municipal governments of both New ...


Social Security, Modes Of Communication For Blind And Visually Impaired Persons And The Rehabilitation Act – American Council Of The Blind V Astrue, Mel Cousins Sep 2010

Social Security, Modes Of Communication For Blind And Visually Impaired Persons And The Rehabilitation Act – American Council Of The Blind V Astrue, Mel Cousins

Mel Cousins

This note examines a recent District Court decision in which the plaintiffs successfully challenged the adequacy of modes of communication by the Social Security Administration in its notices and other correspondence to blind and visually impaired persons. The case shows the potential of the Rehabilitation Act to improve services to persons with disabilities.


Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis And Equal Protection In Kentucky – Cain V Lodestar Energy, Gardner V Vision Mining And Martinez V Peabody Coal, Mel Cousins Sep 2010

Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis And Equal Protection In Kentucky – Cain V Lodestar Energy, Gardner V Vision Mining And Martinez V Peabody Coal, Mel Cousins

Mel Cousins

This note discusses a number of recent decisions of the Kentucky courts concerning coal workers pneumoconiosis and equal protection. The Kentucky Court of Appeals has recently found unconstitutional a special ‘consensus’ procedure by which coal workers affected by pneumoconiosis were required to prove their claim for workers compensation. The case is currently under appeal to the Kentucky Supreme Court.


A New Clear And Present Danger: Security, Freedom And Ordered Liberty On The Home Front During The War Against Terrorism, Beau James Brock Sep 2010

A New Clear And Present Danger: Security, Freedom And Ordered Liberty On The Home Front During The War Against Terrorism, Beau James Brock

Beau James Brock

Regardless of the foreign policy rationalizations for failing to respond to Osama Bin Laden’s declaration of war against the United States prior to September 11th, we are faced with a de facto state of war, for over a full decade now, that will require an ever vigilant and determined commitment in order to secure the domestic security of our land. The use of available technology to break through our opponents’ intelligence networks has been a vital instrument of victory in past wars and will be in this struggle we now face. But, where is the line marking appropriate federal ...


Executing Foster V. Neilson: Enforcing Treaties Against The States, David Sloss Sep 2010

Executing Foster V. Neilson: Enforcing Treaties Against The States, David Sloss

David Sloss

In Medellin v. Texas, the Supreme Court held that Article 94 of the United Nations Charter is non-self-executing. In so holding, the Court applied the “intent-based” doctrine of self-execution. Conventional wisdom traces that doctrine to an 1829 opinion by Chief Justice Marshall in Foster v. Neilson. The conventional wisdom is wrong. Marshall applied the “two-step” approach to self-execution, not the modern intent-based doctrine. The two-step approach distinguishes clearly between questions of international and domestic law. International law governs the content and scope of the United States’ treaty obligations. Domestic law determines which government officers are responsible for domestic treaty implementation ...