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2001

Intellectual Property Law

Institution
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Articles 31 - 55 of 55

Full-Text Articles in Law

Owning Words In Cyberspace: The Accidental Trademark Regime, David Franklyn Jan 2001

Owning Words In Cyberspace: The Accidental Trademark Regime, David Franklyn

Publications

The domain name system presents challenges to trademark law that are unique-in both kind and degree-and that promise to have long lasting effects. Because the domain name system is essentially non-legal in character and international in scope, it is not subject to the dictates of any particular legal sovereign. Conformity with trademark law is further frustrated by the fact that the domain name system was initially developed without any thought of its potential effects on trademark rights or traditional trademark regimes. All of these factors render it particularly difficult to control as a cultural force.

The remainder of this Article ...


Process Considerations In The Age Of Markman And Mantras, Craig Allen Nard Jan 2001

Process Considerations In The Age Of Markman And Mantras, Craig Allen Nard

Faculty Publications

This article asserts that although notions of uniformity and certainty have always been part of patent law parlance, since the Federal Circuit's decision in Markman v. Westview Instruments, Inc., these noble ends have achieved mantra status. In Markman, the Federal Circuit, in the name of uniformity and certainty, characterized claim interpretation as a question of law subject to de novo review, thus positioning itself as the arbiter of claim meaning. If the Federal Circuit is unwilling to exercise greater obeisance toward district court claim interpretations, this article argues that to achieve uniformity and certainty in the context of de ...


Preserving The Public Trust In State-Owned Intellectual Property: A Recommendation For Legislative Action, Sharon Sandeen Jan 2001

Preserving The Public Trust In State-Owned Intellectual Property: A Recommendation For Legislative Action, Sharon Sandeen

Faculty Scholarship

Whether a state chooses to dedicate its intellectual property to the public domain or derive revenue from the licensing of its rights, absent express authority on the subject there is uncertainty. State employees who are aware of the existence of state-owned intellectual property are not certain how it should be managed or if they are authorized to expend state resources to pursue infringement claims. Individuals and entities who wish to use state-owned intellectual property do not know how to obtain permission for such use and without permission they cannot be certain that they will not be sued for infringement. Without ...


State Accountability For Violations Of Intellectual Property Rights: How To "Fix" Florida Prepaid (And How Not To), Mitchell N. Berman Jan 2001

State Accountability For Violations Of Intellectual Property Rights: How To "Fix" Florida Prepaid (And How Not To), Mitchell N. Berman

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

No abstract provided.


The Uncertain Future Of Fair Use In A Global Information Marketplace, Marshall Leaffer Jan 2001

The Uncertain Future Of Fair Use In A Global Information Marketplace, Marshall Leaffer

Articles by Maurer Faculty

The author of this article forecasts an increasingly troubled future, if not the demise of the doctrine of fair use in copyright law. Legal developments, both at home and abroad, driven by technological change, and the push toward the international harmonization of legal norms, threaten the very survival of fair use. Given these realities the doctrine will, of necessity, be reconceptualized Although fair use values will always be inscribed in copyright law, these values will have their practical manifestation in decentralized form, and effectuated, in large part, through industry agreement. They will exist in conjunction with certain bright line exceptions ...


Patent Law In The Age Of The Invisible Supreme Court, Mark D. Janis Jan 2001

Patent Law In The Age Of The Invisible Supreme Court, Mark D. Janis

Articles by Maurer Faculty

This article examines the permanence of the U.S. Supreme Court's retreat to the peripheries of patent law after the creation of the Federal Circuit, and explores the roles that the Supreme Court might imagine for itself in contemporary patent law. For discussion purposes, the article describes two hypothetical models for Supreme Court decisionmaking in patent cases: an aggressive interventionist model and an extreme non-interventionist model. After considering the shortcomings of both models, the article proposes an intermediate, managerial model. The managerial model rejects the proposition that the Court should intervene in patent cases to correct perceived substantive errors ...


Protecting The Performers: Setting A New Standard For Character Copyrightability, Mark Bartholomew Jan 2001

Protecting The Performers: Setting A New Standard For Character Copyrightability, Mark Bartholomew

Journal Articles

Copyright law protects expressions of ideas, but not the idea itself. Legal disputes over characters arise in the continuum between an idea for a character that has not been expressed at all, and an idea that has been given complete form and shape. The inconsistent common law tests developed to assess character copyrightability demonstrate the difficulty in pinpointing where the dividing line between an undeveloped idea and a sufficiently expressed character should be set. This Article offers a new paradigm for determining character copyrightability, particularly in the case of characters shaped through live performance, that tracks the Hegelian concept of ...


International And Comparative Law Perspectives On Internet Patents, Toshiko Takenaka Jan 2001

International And Comparative Law Perspectives On Internet Patents, Toshiko Takenaka

Articles

This commentary will focus on the participants' proposals relative to the laws of other countries. Particularly, assuming that the same proposals were to be made in an international negotiation, my commentary reflects potential reactions and responses from Japanese and European delegates.


Piracy, Prejudice, And Perspectives: An Attempt To Use Shakespeare To Reconfigure The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, Peter K. Yu Jan 2001

Piracy, Prejudice, And Perspectives: An Attempt To Use Shakespeare To Reconfigure The U.S.-China Intellectual Property Debate, Peter K. Yu

Faculty Scholarship

Since the mid-1980s, the U.S.-China intellectual property conflict has entered into the public debate. It was frequently debated in Congress and was widely covered by the mass media. Despite the importance of this issue, the debate thus far has been one-sided, focusing primarily on the unfair competition aspect. While there are undeniably some greedy Chinese who are eager to free ride on the creative efforts of Western authors and inventors, greed alone cannot explain the century-old U.S.-China intellectual property conflict. To understand the roots of this conflict, one must focus on the significant political, social, economic ...


Protection Of Traditional Knowledge, Srividhya Ragavan Jan 2001

Protection Of Traditional Knowledge, Srividhya Ragavan

Faculty Scholarship

Knowledge has been the most coveted possession of mankind since the industrial revolution. The industrial boom after the World Wars has highlighted the importance of the so-called intellectual knowledge. Recently, the importance of knowledge that has been in the public domain (and, therefore, accessible) has come into question. The pattern of evolution of society, has been marked by a process by which the societies in developed countries have moved towards a more technological orientation. Consequentially, some traditional knowledge, including traditional practices, has been left behind and newer practices that are better, or at least considered better, are being used. Knowledge ...


Collusion And Collective Action In The Patent System: A Proposal For Patent Bounties, John R. Thomas Jan 2001

Collusion And Collective Action In The Patent System: A Proposal For Patent Bounties, John R. Thomas

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Persistent commentary contends that the Patent Office is issuing patents that appropriate public domain concepts at an alarming frequency. Complaints of low patent quality enjoy growing resonance with regard to business methods, computer software, and other inventions for which patents were not traditionally sought. In this article, Professor Jay Thomas explains how the judiciary's lenient view of patentable subject matter and utility standards, along with miserly congressional funding policies, have rendered the Patent Office an increasingly porous agency. Professor Thomas next reviews existing proposals for improving patent quality, including the conventional wisdom that adoption of an opposition system will ...


Fair Use Infrastructure For Rights Management Systems, Dan L. Burk, Julie E. Cohen Jan 2001

Fair Use Infrastructure For Rights Management Systems, Dan L. Burk, Julie E. Cohen

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

In this paper, we consider whether rights management systems can be supported by legal and institutional infrastructures that enable appropriate public access to the works secured by these technologies. We focus primarily on the design challenges posed by the fair use doctrine, which historically has played a central role in preserving such access. Throughout the paper, however, we also use the term "fair use" to refer more generally to the variety of limiting doctrines within copyright law that serve this goal. We begin in Part II by reviewing the contours of the fair use doctrine and the legal and policy ...


Antitrust And Intellectual Property: Unresolved Issues At The Heart Of The New Economy, Robert Pitofsky Jan 2001

Antitrust And Intellectual Property: Unresolved Issues At The Heart Of The New Economy, Robert Pitofsky

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

The New Economy differs in degree rather than kind from the "old" economy. Part II of this discussion examines the key differences that define the New Economy. Part Ill turns to several implications of those differences as they pertain to antitrust enforcement. I argue that the differences do not justify sweeping generalizations that antitrust enforcement has no place in the New Economy, but do require antitrust enforcement to make adjustments and exercise sensitivity towards intellectual property issues on a case-by-case basis. The goal of a coherent overall competition policy, in deciding both what conduct to enforce against and what remedies ...


Patent Scope And Innovation In The Software Industry, Julie E. Cohen, Mark A. Lemley Jan 2001

Patent Scope And Innovation In The Software Industry, Julie E. Cohen, Mark A. Lemley

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

Software patents have received a great deal of attention in the academic literature. Unfortunately, most of that attention has been devoted to the problem of whether software is or should be patentable subject matter. With roughly eighty thousand software patents already issued, and the Federal Circuit endorsing patentability without qualification, those questions are for the history books. The more pressing questions now concern the scope to be accorded software patents. In this Article, we examine the implications of some traditional patent law doctrines for innovation in the software industry. We argue that patent law needs some refinement if it is ...


Challenges Of The New Economy: Issues At The Intersection Of Antitrust And Intellectual Property, Robert Pitofsky Jan 2001

Challenges Of The New Economy: Issues At The Intersection Of Antitrust And Intellectual Property, Robert Pitofsky

Georgetown Law Faculty Publications and Other Works

There is wide agreement that the last decade or so has presented an unusually lively and challenging period for antitrust analysis. Among many reasons we can point to are deregulation and problems of transition to a free market (telecommunications and electricity production offer leading examples), developments in procedural cooperation and possible substantive convergence in response to the increasing globalization of competition and enforcement approaches, and priorities in addressing an unprecedented merger wave. An additional challenge involves the application of established antitrust principles to the growing high-tech sector of the economy. It is that application of antitrust law to the new ...


Berne Without Borders: Geographic Indiscretion And Digital Communications, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2001

Berne Without Borders: Geographic Indiscretion And Digital Communications, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

This lecture examines the role of borders in the Berne Convention at the time of the treaty's first passage in 1886, and today. The later 19th century was an era of increasing commerce and communication among countries whose domestic production and reproduction of works of authorship had vastly increased, thanks in part to new technologies, such as photography, lithography, and high-speed printing. But at that time, the frontiers between nations often frustrated authors' hopes for control over, or at least compensation for, the international exploitation of their works. Authors' rights ceased at their national boundaries; the world beyond foreboded ...


Toward Supranational Copyright Law? The Wto Panel Decision And The "Three-Step Test" For Copyright Exceptions, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2001

Toward Supranational Copyright Law? The Wto Panel Decision And The "Three-Step Test" For Copyright Exceptions, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

A dispute resolution panel of the World Trade Organization in June 2000 held the United States in contravention of its obligation under art. 13 of the TRIPs accord to "confine limitations or exceptions to exclusive rights to certain special cases which do not conflict with a normal exploitation of the work and do not unreasonably prejudice the legitimate interests of the right holder." In the dispute resolution proceeding, initiated by the European Union at the behest of the Irish performing rights organization, the contested exception, enacted in the 1998 "Digital Millennium Copyright Act," exempted a broad range of retail and ...


State Accountability For Violations Of Intellectual Property Rights: How To “Fix” Florida Prepaid (And How Not To), Ernest A. Young, Mitchell N. Berman, R. Anthony Reese Jan 2001

State Accountability For Violations Of Intellectual Property Rights: How To “Fix” Florida Prepaid (And How Not To), Ernest A. Young, Mitchell N. Berman, R. Anthony Reese

Faculty Scholarship

In its Florida Prepaid and College Savings Bank decisions of two terms ago, the Supreme Court raised significant barriers to Congress's ability to subject the states to damages liability in federal intellectual property suits. These decisions provoked extensive academic commentary and have also sparked efforts in Congress and at the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office to amend the federal intellectual property laws to ensure that state governments will remain accountable for violations of federal rights. This article explores how such legislation might best be shaped in order to withstand constitutional challenge.

Satisfactory treatment of the issue requires examination ...


International Dispute Settlement At The Trademark-Domain Name Interface, Laurence R. Helfer Jan 2001

International Dispute Settlement At The Trademark-Domain Name Interface, Laurence R. Helfer

Faculty Scholarship

This essay identifies some of the emerging legal issues relating to the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy ("UDRP"), a new anational online dispute settlement system established by a private, non-profit corporation, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers in late 1999.

The UDRP creates a fast and inexpensive mechanism for trademark owners to recapture domain names held by persons who, in bad faith, register and use domain names that are confusingly similar to those marks. The UDRP is worthy of serious study for at least two reasons. First and foremost, the process by which the UDRP was created ...


Designing Non-National Systems: The Case Of The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, Laurence R. Helfer, Graeme B. Dinwoodie Jan 2001

Designing Non-National Systems: The Case Of The Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy, Laurence R. Helfer, Graeme B. Dinwoodie

Faculty Scholarship

The article critically assesses the Uniform Domain Name Dispute Resolution Policy (UDRP) as a potential model for solving the immense legal challenges presented by transborder activity. Inaugurated in late 1999 by the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN), the UDRP creates a fast, inexpensive online mechanism for trademark owners to recapture domain names held by persons who, in bad faith, register and use domain names that are confusingly similar to those marks. At present, the UDRP applies only to a narrow segment of disputes between trademark owners and domain name registrants. But the UDRP has been heralded by ...


The Dynamic Analytics Of Property Law, Michael A. Heller Jan 2001

The Dynamic Analytics Of Property Law, Michael A. Heller

Faculty Scholarship

The standard property trilogy of private, commons, and state has become so outdated that it now impedes imagination and innovation at the frontiers of ownership. This essay suggests two approaches – creating new ideal types and synthesizing existing ones – that may help update our static property metaphors. Using these dynamic approaches to property analytics, legal theory can move beyond polarizing oppositions that have made jurisprudential debates unsolvable and rendered concrete problems invisible.


Judicial Review Of Icann Domain Name Dispute Decisions, 18 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 35 (2001), David E. Sorkin Jan 2001

Judicial Review Of Icann Domain Name Dispute Decisions, 18 Santa Clara Computer & High Tech. L.J. 35 (2001), David E. Sorkin

Faculty Scholarship

No abstract provided.


Copyright And Control Over New Technologies Of Dissemination, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2001

Copyright And Control Over New Technologies Of Dissemination, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

The relationship of copyright to new technologies that exploit copyrighted works is often perceived to pit copyright against progress. Historically, when copyright owners seek to eliminate a new kind of dissemination, and when courts do not deem that dissemination harmful to copyright owners, courts decline to find infringement. However, when owners seek instead to participate in and be paid for the new modes of exploitation, the courts, and Congress, appear more favorable to copyright control over that new market. Today, the courts and Congress regard the unlicensed distribution of works over the Internet as impairing copyright owners' ability to avail ...


Can Copyright Become User-Friendly? Essay Review Of Jessica Litman, Digital Copyright, Prometheus Books 2001, Jane C. Ginsburg Jan 2001

Can Copyright Become User-Friendly? Essay Review Of Jessica Litman, Digital Copyright, Prometheus Books 2001, Jane C. Ginsburg

Faculty Scholarship

Professor Litman has written Digital Copyright for the general public, though lawyers, and especially copyright lawyers, would do well to read it. Professor Litman's message is straightforward: Copyright law is too complicated and counterintuitive. It has been written by and for copyright lawyers who represent many, but not all, of the players. Those left out include developers of new ways of communicating copyrighted works, and, most importantly, end users. But nowadays, copyright directly affects end users in ways more pervasive than could have been expected in the analog world. If copyright law doesn't make sense to those who ...


Information Technology And Non-Legal Sanctions In Financing Transactions, Ronald J. Mann Jan 2001

Information Technology And Non-Legal Sanctions In Financing Transactions, Ronald J. Mann

Faculty Scholarship

This Essay investigates the effect of advances in information technology on the private institutions that businesses use to resolve information asymmetries in financing transactions. The first part of the Essay discusses how information technology can permit direct verification of the information, obviating the problem entirely; the Essay discusses the example of the substitution of the debit card for the check, which provides an immediate payment that obviates the need for the merchant to consider whether payment will be forthcoming when the check is presented to the bank on which it is drawn.

The second part of the Essay discusses how ...