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Full-Text Articles in Law

Progress Interrupted: Virginia's Hesitant Movement To Landlord-Tenant Reform, Martin D. Wegbreit Jan 2023

Progress Interrupted: Virginia's Hesitant Movement To Landlord-Tenant Reform, Martin D. Wegbreit

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

In 2018, Virginia’s eviction crisis received national attention. Over the next three legislative sessions in 2019, 2020, and 2021, more than two dozen laws were enacted—a few on a temporary basis but most on a permanent basis—to be more fair, favorable, and friendly to tenants. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in the Virginia Governor declaring a State of Emergency on March 12, 2020—the final day of the Regular Session of the Virginia General Assembly. The pandemic added urgency to an already accelerating movement toward landlord-tenant reform which had mustered bipartisan support. That progress dramatically halted in the 2022 Regular Session of …


Firearm Deaths Of American Minors: Perceptions Vs. Facts, Andrew L. Goddard Jan 2023

Firearm Deaths Of American Minors: Perceptions Vs. Facts, Andrew L. Goddard

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Firearm violence is now the leading cause of death for Americans under the age of eighteen. This article demonstrates that widely held misconceptions about the true nature and extent of this violence have led to legislative proposals narrowly tailored toward firearm violence in schools, despite facts and data showing school firearm violence to be a small fraction of the problem. These misconceptions are caused by both the narrow focus of national media attention and the deceptive propaganda of the gun industry. The article concludes by examining several bills proposed during the Virginia General Assembly session of 2022 to show how …


Ending Race-Based Pretextual Stops: Strategies For Eliminating America's Most Egregious Police Practice, Bradley R. Haywood Jan 2023

Ending Race-Based Pretextual Stops: Strategies For Eliminating America's Most Egregious Police Practice, Bradley R. Haywood

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Pretextual policing is the practice of stopping motorists or pedestrians for minor offenses like traffic infractions in hopes of learning that the person stopped has committed a more serious crime. Pretextual policing is also the main reason Black Americans are so much more likely than white Americans to be subjected to encounters with law enforcement. Shockingly, even in its most explicitly racist form, pretextual policing does not violate the Fourth Amendment’s proscription against unreasonable searches and seizures. In fact, police can pull a driver over merely because he is Black without violating the Fourth Amendment, so long as the officer …


2021 Redistricting In Virginia: Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Reforms, Alex Keena Jan 2023

2021 Redistricting In Virginia: Evaluating The Effectiveness Of Reforms, Alex Keena

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

The redistricting cycle that followed the 2020 census provided the first test of Virginia’s redistricting reforms that were enacted when voters approved the constitutional amendment in the 2020 General Election. The centerpiece of these reforms is the bipartisan Virginia Redistricting Commission, comprised of eight citizen and eight legislator members. This article details how the 2021 redistricting occurred under the new reforms, and it evaluates the maps that were ultimately approved.

While the selection of the commissioners unfolded successfully and in accordance with the law, the work of the commission was mired by partisan fighting and dysfunction. Nevertheless, a statistical analysis …


The Voting Rights Act Of Virginia: Overcoming A History Of Voter Discrimination, Senator Jennifer L. Mcclellan Jan 2023

The Voting Rights Act Of Virginia: Overcoming A History Of Voter Discrimination, Senator Jennifer L. Mcclellan

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

While Virginia is the birthplace of American democracy, it has struggled with ensuring the voting rights of all of its citizens for over 400 years. For most of that history, voting rights only expanded in Virginia in response to federal action in the wake of the Civil War, and contracted in response to federal inaction. This article chronicles the history of voting rights in Virginia, from the birthplace of American democracy in Jamestown and its influence on the United States Constitution, its efforts to expand and restrict voting rights, to becoming a leader in the South with the Voting Rights …


Virginia Tax Re-Structuring: 100 Years Ago, 50 Years Ago, And Now, Vivian E. Watts Jan 2023

Virginia Tax Re-Structuring: 100 Years Ago, 50 Years Ago, And Now, Vivian E. Watts

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Virginia’s state and local financing structure is under pressure. Aged schools have fallen into disrepair in localities without a tax base to back capital improvement bonds. Virginia’s commitment in the wake of Brown v. Board of Education to fund equal public education opportunity for all has eroded. As the dominate source of local government funding, the real estate tax adds to housing costs, consuming the largest share of household budgets. This article discusses current and historic Virginia debates on tax equity, economic sustainability, program ramifications, and non-resident cost-sharing. It raises questions about the widening income gap and changes in business …


From Ban To Approval: What Virginia's Facial Recognition Technology Law Gets Wrong, Alison Powers, Korica Simon, Jameson Spivack Jan 2023

From Ban To Approval: What Virginia's Facial Recognition Technology Law Gets Wrong, Alison Powers, Korica Simon, Jameson Spivack

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Face recognition technology (FRT), in the context of law enforcement, is a complex investigative technique that includes a delicate interplay between machine and human. Compared to other biometric and investigative tools, it poses unique risks to privacy, civil rights, and civil liberties. At the same time, its use is generally unregulated and opaque. Recently, state lawmakers have introduced legislation to regulate face recognition technology, but this legislation often fails to account for the complexities of the technology, or to address the unique risks it poses. Using Virginia’s recently passed face recognition law and the legislative history behind it as an …


Prefatory Matter Jan 2023

Prefatory Matter

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

No abstract provided.


The Legislative Graveyard: A Review Of Virginia's 2022 Regular General Assembly Session, Kaylin Cecchini, Haley Edmonds Jan 2023

The Legislative Graveyard: A Review Of Virginia's 2022 Regular General Assembly Session, Kaylin Cecchini, Haley Edmonds

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

In 2019, Democrats won a majority in the House of Delegates and the Senate, and the Commonwealth was led by a Democratic Governor. The Democrats’ majority trifecta, which they had obtained for the first time since 1992, was once again lost on November 2, 2021, when Virginians voted to renew the Republican leadership in the Office of the Governor and in the House of Delegates. Under this once again bifurcated, yet unusually polarized, assembly, legislators on either side of the political aisle faced an uphill battle getting legislation passed, with the majority of bills ending in a stalemate. As a …


Letter From The Editor, Carley Ruival Jan 2023

Letter From The Editor, Carley Ruival

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

No abstract provided.


Table Of Contents Nov 2022

Table Of Contents

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Preface, Kelly O'Brien Nov 2022

Preface, Kelly O'Brien

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


In Memoriam, Marla Graff Decker Nov 2022

In Memoriam, Marla Graff Decker

University of Richmond Law Review

The career of Judge Walter S. Felton, Jr., is marked indelibly with the theme of “called to service.” First, as a Captain in the United States Army, representing wounded soldiers returning home from Vietnam. Second, as counsel to one of Virginia’s Governors, which included playing a pivotal role in leading the Commonwealth through the unprecedented national tragedy of September 11, 2001, and its aftermath. Third, as a judge and then chief judge of the Court of Appeals of Virginia. These three stages of his career highlight Judge Felton’s commitment to public service and his value to his beloved Commonwealth.


Foreword, Wendy Collins Perdue Nov 2022

Foreword, Wendy Collins Perdue

University of Richmond Law Review

No abstract provided.


Cannabis Law, Lisa Moran Mcmurdo, Steven D. Forbes, Stewart R. Pollock, Christian F. Tucker Nov 2022

Cannabis Law, Lisa Moran Mcmurdo, Steven D. Forbes, Stewart R. Pollock, Christian F. Tucker

University of Richmond Law Review

On July 1, 2021, Virginia became the sixteenth state to permit recreational use of cannabis. As of 2022, thirty-nine states have legalized the medical use of cannabis, and nineteen states and the District of Columbia have legalized the adult use of cannabis for recreational purposes. “A CBS News/YouGov poll released in April 2022 found that two-thirds of Americans want recreational [cannabis] use to be legalized under federal law and in their own state.” This Article summarizes the history of cannabis regulation and examines the current legal landscape in Virginia governing the possession, cultivation, manufacturing, and sale of cannabis.


Civil Practice And Procedure, Christopher S. Dadak Nov 2022

Civil Practice And Procedure, Christopher S. Dadak

University of Richmond Law Review

This Article discusses Supreme Court of Virginia opinions and revisions to the Code of Virginia and Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia impacting civil procedure here in the Commonwealth over the last year. The Article first addresses opinions of the supreme court, then new legislation enacted during the 2021 General Assembly Session, and finally, approved revisions to the Rules of the Supreme Court of Virginia.


Criminal Law And Procedure, Brittany A. Dunn-Pirio, Timothy J. Huffstutter, Mason D. Williams, Robin M. Nagel, Tanner M. Russo Nov 2022

Criminal Law And Procedure, Brittany A. Dunn-Pirio, Timothy J. Huffstutter, Mason D. Williams, Robin M. Nagel, Tanner M. Russo

University of Richmond Law Review

This Article surveys recent developments in criminal procedure and law in Virginia. Because of space limitations, the authors have limited their discussion to the most significant published appellate decisions and legislation.


Taxation, Craig D. Bell Nov 2022

Taxation, Craig D. Bell

University of Richmond Law Review

This Article reviews significant recent developments in the laws affecting Virginia state and local taxation. Its Parts cover legislative activity, judicial decisions, and selected opinions and other pronouncements from the Virginia Department of Taxation (the “Tax Department” or “Department of Taxation”) and the Attorney General of Virginia over the past year. Part I of this Article addresses state taxes. Part II covers local taxes, including real and tangible personal property taxes, license taxes, and discrete local taxes. The overall purpose of this Article is to provide Virginia tax and general practitioners with a concise overview of the recent developments in …


Wills, Trusts, And Estates, Hunter M. Glenn, Allison A. Tait Nov 2022

Wills, Trusts, And Estates, Hunter M. Glenn, Allison A. Tait

University of Richmond Law Review

Between legislative and judicial activity, there have been a number of noteworthy developments and changes to the rules governing trusts and estates. Several of these developments turn on questions related to the role of fiduciaries, what responsibilities they have with respect to reporting as well as asset management, and when they can be removed. These questions concerning fiduciaries implicitly address the rights of beneficiaries and the protections available to them. New developments also will have multiple repercussions for estate planners and wealth managers. New planning strategies in response to changes in the law of undue influence may become important to …


Covid-19 And Energy Justice: Utility Bill Relief In Virginia, Joel B. Eisen Nov 2022

Covid-19 And Energy Justice: Utility Bill Relief In Virginia, Joel B. Eisen

University of Richmond Law Review

Energy justice has captured national attention as scholars have spotlighted inequities in energy production and distribution activities, energy and utility regulation, and the clean energy transition. Within this broader context, this Article reflects on the successes and setbacks for the movement toward energy justice through a case study focusing on legislative, executive, and regulatory attempts between 2020 and 2022 to provide relief for Virginia utility customers harmed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The Article begins by defining the problem of energy insecurity and demonstrating that the pandemic exacerbated existing energy insecurity for vulnerable citizens of Virginia. It then traces the efforts …


What Is The Standard For Obtaining A Preliminary Injunction In Virginia?, Stuart A. Raphael Nov 2022

What Is The Standard For Obtaining A Preliminary Injunction In Virginia?, Stuart A. Raphael

University of Richmond Law Review

A perception exists that the Supreme Court of Virginia has not articulated the legal standard for adjudicating preliminary-injunction motions in Virginia circuit courts. For decades, lawyers and legal scholars have advocated that Virginia trial judges borrow the federal preliminary-injunction standard applied in the United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit. Virginia trial courts have generally followed that advice. Virginia courts at first applied the Fourth Circuit’s Blackwelder test, which called upon judges to balance the four traditional factors and allowed a stronger balanceof-hardship showing to offset a weaker showing of likely success on the merits. After the 2008 …


Banning Noncompetes In Virginia, Christopher J. Sullivan, Justin A. Ritter Nov 2022

Banning Noncompetes In Virginia, Christopher J. Sullivan, Justin A. Ritter

University of Richmond Law Review

The past decade has seen a nationwide wave of reform in noncompete law, specifically the limitation of noncompete agreements. Since 2016, ten states—including Virginia in 2020— banned the use of noncompete agreements against certain “lowwage” employees. In order to stay ahead of this curve and ensure Virginia remains and grows as one of the top states to do business, this Article suggests that Virginia—like its neighbor, the District of Columbia, initially did in 2021—pass a complete ban of all noncompete agreements in the employment context. Such a ban would make Virginia a lucrative destination for entrepreneurs and startups by maximizing …


Richmond Law Magazine: Summer 2022, University Of Richmond Jul 2022

Richmond Law Magazine: Summer 2022, University Of Richmond

Richmond Law Magazine

The Power of Second Chances

Dispatches from Afar

A New Legacy?


Prefatory Matter May 2022

Prefatory Matter

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

No abstract provided.


Symposium Transcript May 2022

Symposium Transcript

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

No abstract provided.


Forty Years Of Environmental Justice: Where Is The Justice?, Jon A. Mueller, Taylor Lilley May 2022

Forty Years Of Environmental Justice: Where Is The Justice?, Jon A. Mueller, Taylor Lilley

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Environmental Justice (or“EJ”) has been recognized as a concept since

at least 1982. After decades of incremental and ineffective efforts by the federal

government, it has become clear that EJ must evolve beyond the concept

stage if it is to be an effective vehicle for social and legal change. At its heart,

EJ is a function of social inequities and environmental harms, and the disproportionate

correlation between those components can no longer be ignored

by state and federal actors. The way forward must be paved with practical

legal solutions and affirmative application of regulatory authority. This

article examines the history …


Deconstructing Inequality: Cumulative Impacts, Environmental Justice, And Interstate Redevelopment, Lemir Teron May 2022

Deconstructing Inequality: Cumulative Impacts, Environmental Justice, And Interstate Redevelopment, Lemir Teron

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

The siting and development of Interstate 81 in Syracuse, New York, similar

to highway projects across the nation, lead to the displacement of Black

Syracusans

and has exposed thousands of remaining residents at heightened

environmental harm. As the interstate is slated to be redeveloped due to age

and safety issues, national attention has focused on the highway as a potential

exemplar for similar projects across the United States. Federal law mandates

that environmental impact analysis be conducted, and due to the prevalence

of marginalized populations, environmental justice impacts are a

critical feature in this assessment. This article evaluates both the …


Armoring The Just Transition Activist, Abigail Fleming, Catherine Dremluk May 2022

Armoring The Just Transition Activist, Abigail Fleming, Catherine Dremluk

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

The fossil fuel energy system, reinforced by oppressive policies and practices,

has disproportionately harmed poor people, Indigenous people, and

Brown and Black people and driven the global climate crisis. A just transition,

which displaces fossil fuels and redistributes renewable energy resources,

requires policies that are rooted in equity and shift power back to

the hands of the most vulnerable. Just Transition Activists, leaders, organizers,

and changemakers in the just transition movement, must develop transformative

skillsets necessary to radically reimagine our world and dismantle

the current unequal system of law and policy. This analysis explores the

skills, attributes, beliefs, and attitudes …


Examining The Relationship Between Environmental Justice And The Lack Of Diversity In Environmental Organizations, Haley Walter May 2022

Examining The Relationship Between Environmental Justice And The Lack Of Diversity In Environmental Organizations, Haley Walter

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

This article highlights the ongoing lack of diversity in each of the

three major types of environmental organizations—conservation and

preservation organizations, governmental agencies, and environmental

grantmaking foundations—and assesses how this lack of diversity

has historically marginalized people of color. Assessing the history of

how the environmental movement has marginalized people of color is

key because from this marginalization grew the rise of the environmental

justice movement and recognition from the legal system of environmental

issues that disproportionately impacted people of color. Last,

this article presents solutions on how environmental organizations can

increase and retain diversity in their staff and leadership …


Expanding American Indian Land Stewardship: An Environmental Solution For A Country In Crisis, Haley Edmonds May 2022

Expanding American Indian Land Stewardship: An Environmental Solution For A Country In Crisis, Haley Edmonds

Richmond Public Interest Law Review

Land is the central foundation around which all life is formed. Therefore,

societies must have a stable connection with the land in order to be structurally

sound. If this connection is weak or inflexible, every building-block of

civilization laid on top of it will inevitably crumble. Some societies have established

stable relationships with the land by working around and responding

to nature’s rhythms in order to satisfy their needs. Whereas other societies

have ignored nature’s intricacies and instead have tried to strong-arm

nature into yielding to their whims. These two diametrically

opposed approaches to conceiving of humans’ relationship with the …