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Full-Text Articles in Law

New Kids On The Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent The Stock Market, Larissa Lee Jan 2016

New Kids On The Blockchain: How Bitcoin's Technology Could Reinvent The Stock Market, Larissa Lee

Larissa Lee

Bitcoin is the first and most successful digital currency in the world. It is polarized in the news almost daily, with either glowing reviews of the many benefits of an alternative and international currency, or doomsday predictions of anarchy, deflation, and another tulip bubble.This Article focuses on the truly innovative aspect of Bitcoin—and that which has gone mostly unnoticed since its inception—the technological platform used to transfer Bitcoin from one party to another. This technology is called the Blockchain. The Blockchain eschews a bank or other middleman and allows parties to transfer funds directly to one another ...


Laying Down The "Brics": Enhancing The Portability Of Awards In International Commercial Arbitration, Benjamin C. Mccarty Dec 2015

Laying Down The "Brics": Enhancing The Portability Of Awards In International Commercial Arbitration, Benjamin C. Mccarty

Benjamin C McCarty

The drafters of the 1958 New York Convention intended Article V(2)(b) to be interpreted narrowly, and while most pro-arbitration national courts do maintain narrowly defined areas of public policy that are sufficient for refusal of the recognition and enforcement of a foreign arbitral award, this is not always the case. Developing states and jurisdictions that maintain corrupt or inefficient judicial systems have shown a greater willingness to invoke the public policy exception for a broader, amorphous variety of reasons. This phenomenon has created a sense of unpredictability among international investors, arbitrators, and business executives as to the amount ...


Gandhi’S Prophecy: Corporate Violence And A Mindful Law For Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel Dec 2015

Gandhi’S Prophecy: Corporate Violence And A Mindful Law For Bhopal, Nehal A. Patel

Nehal A. Patel

AbstractOver thirty years have passed since the Bhopal chemical disaster began,and in that time scholars of corporate social responsibility (CSR) havediscussed and debated several frameworks for improving corporate responseto social and environmental problems. However, CSR discourse rarelydelves into the fundamental architecture of legal thought that oftenbuttresses corporate dominance in the global economy. Moreover, CSRdiscourse does little to challenge the ontological and epistemologicalassumptions that form the foundation for modern economics and the role ofcorporations in the world.I explore methods of transforming CSR by employing the thought ofMohandas Gandhi. I pay particular attention to Gandhi’s critique ofindustrialization and principle ...


Right To Cure Under The Unidroit Principles Article 7.1.4: A Historical Analysis, Gakuro Himeno Oct 2015

Right To Cure Under The Unidroit Principles Article 7.1.4: A Historical Analysis, Gakuro Himeno

Gakuro HIMENO

Riht to cure under Unidroit 7.1.4 has three sources: a) Nachtrag, b) mise en demeure and Nachfrist and c) right to cure under Uniform Commercial Code 2-508. When the UCC Committee, Section of Business law, the ABA reviewed what will become the Unidroit Principles, they found a counterpart to their own right to cure in it: Nachfrist. Then drafting a new provision upon cure was commissioned to Richard Hyland, a US professor. While this provision, rare case where Unidroit and PECL disagrees (8. 104), has long been under criticism especially by the European drafters, met with a DCFR ...


Transplanting Contractual Terms: The Influence Of The Common Law In The Civil Law Of Contracts, A View From The Periphery, Dario Laguado Oct 2015

Transplanting Contractual Terms: The Influence Of The Common Law In The Civil Law Of Contracts, A View From The Periphery, Dario Laguado

Dario Laguado

This paper suggests a model of contractual innovation that takes into account the bottom-up transplant of legal devices from the core to the periphery. This model properly weighs the tension and differences between places of production and places of reception and the process of misreading that goes along with the transplant. It serves to explain the innovation that has been produced as a result of the influence of common law contracts in Colombia and South America. Evidence shows that this model can be generally applied to the process of transplantation in many jurisdictions around the world. The main features of ...


Article Iii And Seventh Amendment Challenges To Sec Administrative Proceedings After Dodd-Frank, Daniel P. Dwyer Esquire Sep 2015

Article Iii And Seventh Amendment Challenges To Sec Administrative Proceedings After Dodd-Frank, Daniel P. Dwyer Esquire

Daniel P. Dwyer Esquire

This article is a discussion of the evolution of enforcement remedies available to the United States Securities & Exchange Commission and the possibility that, with the enactment of the 2010 Dodd-Frank amendments to the securities laws, Congress encroached on Article III of and the Seventh Amendment to the Constitution. Section of 929P of Dodd-Frank, which allows the SEC to pursue monetary penalties and other forms of relief against unregulated persons in administrative proceedings, is a particular focus. The article relies on a chronological analysis of these areas of law and close case reading to reconcile the disparate and sometimes seemingly contradictory ...


Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons Sep 2015

Some Key Things Entrepreneurs Need To Know About The Law And Lawyers, Lawrence J. Trautman, Anthony Luppino, Malika S. Simmons

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

New business formation is a powerful economic engine that creates jobs. Diverse legal issues are encountered as a start-up entity approaches formation, initial capitalization and fundraising, arrangements with employees and independent contractors, and relationships with other third parties. The endeavors of a typical start-up in the United States will likely implicate many of the following areas of law: intellectual property; business organizations; tax laws; employment and labor laws; securities regulation; contracts and licensing agreements; commercial sales; debtor-creditor relations; real estate law; health and safety laws/codes; permits and licenses; environmental protection; industry specific regulatory laws and approval processes; tort/personal ...


Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are And What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman Sep 2015

Who Sits On Texas Corporate Boards? Texas Corporate Directors: Who They Are And What They Do, Lawrence J. Trautman

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

Corporate directors play an important role in governing American business, in the capital formation process, and are fundamental to the stewardship of economic growth. Texas businesses play a disproportionately important role among the states in aggregate U.S. job creation, responsible for 37% of all net new American jobs since the post 2008-2009 recovery began. It is the job of the board of directors to govern the corporation. The duties and responsibilities of a corporate director include: the duty of care; duty of loyalty; and duty of good faith. This paper results from the author’s previously assembled biographical data ...


The 2012 Saudi Arbitration Law: A Comparative Examination Of The Law And Its Effect On Arbitration In Saudi Arabia, Faris K. Nesheiwat, Ali Khasawneh Sep 2015

The 2012 Saudi Arbitration Law: A Comparative Examination Of The Law And Its Effect On Arbitration In Saudi Arabia, Faris K. Nesheiwat, Ali Khasawneh

Ferris K Nesheiwat

A major concern for any outside investor in the Middle East's largest economy is that arbitration in Saudi Arabia is notoriously complicated, time-consuming, and prone to interference by the local courts, while arbitral awards have often faced difficulties in being enforced. A new Saudi Arbitration Law was issued by Royal Decree No. M/34 on April 16th, 20124 (the “New Law”), which came into force on 9 July 2012. The New Law, which is covered in 58 Articles, is intended to alleviate many of the shortcomings of the Saudi Arbitration Law of 1983 (the “Old Law”) and strengthen investors ...


Users' Patronage: The Return Of The Gift In The "Crowd Society", Giancarlo F. Frosio Sep 2015

Users' Patronage: The Return Of The Gift In The "Crowd Society", Giancarlo F. Frosio

Giancarlo Francesco Frosio

In this work, I discuss the tension between gift and market economy throughout the history of creativity. For millennia, the production of creative artifacts has lain at the intersection between gift and market economy. From the time of Pindar and Simonides – and until the Romanticism will commence a process leading to the complete commodification of creative artifacts – market exchange models run parallel to gift exchange. From Roman amicitia to the medieval and Renaissance belief that “scientia donum dei est, unde vendi non potest,” creativity has been repeatedly construed as a gift. Again, at the time of the British and French ...


Future Strategies For Improving Consent In Electronic Contracting, Ran Bi Sep 2015

Future Strategies For Improving Consent In Electronic Contracting, Ran Bi

Ran Bi

China's economy has been running deep into an exciting phrase called “Internet +”. In North America, most businesses have online presence and conduct numerous transactions online. Unprecedentedly, electronic contracts have been governing more Individuals and corporations’ legal relationships in a growing proportion of businesses and everyday life.

E-contracts, usually with no physical architecture, are easy to “sign”—people just click one or two icons on a computer / smartphone screen after “reading” (scroll down) the contents. However, e-contracts are standard form contracts which are provided by vendors1. Users2 are easy to become victims of exploitative terms, because their consent has been ...


Tying And Bundled Discounts: An Equilibrium Analysis Of Antitrust Liability Tests, Melanie S. Williams Sep 2015

Tying And Bundled Discounts: An Equilibrium Analysis Of Antitrust Liability Tests, Melanie S. Williams

Melanie S. Williams

Courts have struggled with determining when bundled discounts constitute unlawfully anticompetitive behavior. The current circuit split reflects an absence of consensus. This lack of legal guidance creates uncertainty in the market, with firms being given inconsistent – and sometimes contradictory - standards on how to avoid antitrust liability.

For the most part, we consider a standard paradigm for analyzing bundled discounts. Suppose that there are two firms. Firm 1 produces a monopoly product, A, and also another product, B, which competes with another version of B produced by Firm 2. The concern is the extent to which the price paid for A ...


Dismissing Provenance: The Use Of Procedural Defenses To Bar Claims In Nazi-Looted Art And Securitized Mortgage Litigation, Christian J. Bromley Sep 2015

Dismissing Provenance: The Use Of Procedural Defenses To Bar Claims In Nazi-Looted Art And Securitized Mortgage Litigation, Christian J. Bromley

Christian J Bromley

The litigation surrounding an estimated 650,000 works looted by the Nazis in the Second World War and the millions of securitized mortgages foreclosed in the wake of the Great Recession converge on a fundamental legal principle: who really holds rightful title? Seemingly worlds apart, these separate yet remarkably similar forms of property challenge the American judiciary to allocate property rights between adversaries steadfast in their contention of rightful ownership. The legal fulcrum in this allocation often rests not on the equity or righteousness of either parties’ claim—whether museum versus heir or bank versus former homeowner—but instead on ...


E-Commerce, Cyber, And Electronic Payment System Risks: Lessons From Paypal, Lawrence J. Trautman Aug 2015

E-Commerce, Cyber, And Electronic Payment System Risks: Lessons From Paypal, Lawrence J. Trautman

Lawrence J. Trautman Sr.

By now, almost without exception, every business has an internet presence, and is likely engaged in e-commerce. What are the major risks perceived by those engaged in e-commerce and electronic payment systems? What potential risks, if they become reality, may cause substantial increases in operating costs or threaten the very survival of the enterprise? This article utilizes the relevant annual report disclosures from eBay (parent of PayPal), along with other eBay and PayPal documents, as a potentially powerful teaching device. Most of the descriptive language to follow is excerpted directly from eBay’s regulatory filings. My additions include weaving these ...


Conflicted Counselors: Retaliation Protections For Attorney-Whistleblowers In An Inconsistent Regulatory Regime, Jennifer M. Pacella Aug 2015

Conflicted Counselors: Retaliation Protections For Attorney-Whistleblowers In An Inconsistent Regulatory Regime, Jennifer M. Pacella

Jennifer M. Pacella, Esq.

Attorneys, especially in-house counsel, are subject to retaliation by employers in much the same way as traditional whistleblowers, often experiencing retaliation and loss of livelihood for reporting instances of wrongdoing about their clients. Although attorney-whistleblowing undoubtedly invokes ethical concerns, attorneys who “appear and practice” before the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”) are required by federal law to act as internal whistleblowers under the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (“SOX”) and report evidence of material violations of the law within the organizations that they represent. An attorney’s failure to comply with these obligations will result in SEC-imposed civil penalties and disciplinary action. Recent ...


Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg Aug 2015

Democratizing Startups, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

The Jumpstart Our Business Startups Act of 2012 intends to “help entrepreneurs raise the capital they need to put Americans back to work and create an economy that’s built to last.” The goal is to “democratize startups” by making capital available to diverse entrepreneurs in new geographies. Yet the net effect of securities regulations and market conditions is the opposite. Startup companies are encouraged to stay private so capital is consolidating in large, mature firms instead of recycling into new startups. Evidence of consolidation is that once-rare “Unicorns” (billion-dollar startups) now number over 111. More money is going into ...


The Customary Practice Of Gerawee In Afghanistan: A Case For Transitioning To Real Equity-Based Finance, Haroun Rahimi Aug 2015

The Customary Practice Of Gerawee In Afghanistan: A Case For Transitioning To Real Equity-Based Finance, Haroun Rahimi

Haroun Rahimi

The customary practice of Gerawee, in principle, refers to a specific form of synthetic loan. It is a pledge-lease transaction that enables owners of immovable properties to obtain financing based on the market value of those properties in exchange for either paying regular payments in form of rent or transferring the right to lease those properties to a financer. The practice has been developed to help debtors and creditors avoid the prohibition of interest bearing loans under Shari’ah. Despite the efforts of some Muslim jurists to justify the practice under Shari’ah, it is widely criticized. In particular, Afghan ...


An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez Jun 2015

An Approach To The Regulation Of Spanish Banking Foundations, Miguel Martínez

Miguel Martínez

The purpose of this paper is to analyze the legal framework governing banking foundations as they have been regulated by Spanish Act 26/2013, of December 27th, on savings banks and banking foundations. Title 2 of this regulation addresses a construct that is groundbreaking for the Spanish legal system, still of paramount importance for the entire financial system insofar as these foundations become the leading players behind certain banking institutions given the high interest that foundations hold in the share capital of such institutions.


Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont Jun 2015

Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont

Rick Beaumont

No abstract provided.


Deliberative Engagement Within The World Trade Organization: A Functional Substitute For Authoritative Interpretations, Cosette D. Creamer, Zuzann Godzimirska Jun 2015

Deliberative Engagement Within The World Trade Organization: A Functional Substitute For Authoritative Interpretations, Cosette D. Creamer, Zuzann Godzimirska

Cosette D Creamer

The transition from the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade dispute settlement proceedings to the Dispute Settlement Mechanism (DSM) of the World Trade Organization represented a notable instance of judicialization within international economic governance, in that it significantly increased the independence of the DSM from direct government control. Since they began ruling on trade conflicts in 1995, the WTO’s adjudicative bodies have enjoyed a greater degree of interpretive autonomy than initially intended by states parties. This development largely stems from deadlock within the political organs of the Organization resulting in non-use of one of the primary means of legislative ...


Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont May 2015

Avenues To Foreign Investment In China’S Shipping Industry—Have Lease Financing Arrangements And The Free Trade Zones Opened Markets For Foreign Non-Bank Investment?, Rick Beaumont

Rick Beaumont

No abstract provided.


Resituating The Automatic Stay Within The Federal Common Law Of Bankruptcy, Daniel J. Sheffner Apr 2015

Resituating The Automatic Stay Within The Federal Common Law Of Bankruptcy, Daniel J. Sheffner

Daniel Sheffner

Many bankruptcy judges and practitioners make broad references to the equitable powers of bankruptcy courts. Bankruptcy courts, they exclaim, are “courts of equity” and so may do as “equity” requires. One often-cited source of bankruptcy courts’ apparently vast equitable and supplemental powers is § 105(a) of the Bankruptcy Code. Section 105(a) empowers bankruptcy courts to “issue any order, process, or judgment that is necessary or appropriate to carry out the provisions of” the Code. Section 105(a) has been cited as the basis for re-imposing the Bankruptcy Code’s automatic stay once the stay has been terminated or otherwise ...


Through The Looking Glass: Series Llcs In 2015, Allen Sparkman Apr 2015

Through The Looking Glass: Series Llcs In 2015, Allen Sparkman

Allen Sparkman

This Article examines the development of Series LLCs, reviews the existing series LLC legislation, discusses possible uses of Series LLCS, analyzes areas of uncertainty with respect to Series LLCs, and makes recommendation for the future development of the Series LLC concept.


Hardship: A Remedy For Changed Circumstances In International Commercial Contracts, Raul Henrique Pereira De Souza Fleury Mar 2015

Hardship: A Remedy For Changed Circumstances In International Commercial Contracts, Raul Henrique Pereira De Souza Fleury

Raul Henrique Pereira de Souza Fleury

Long-term commercial transactions can transform into an agreement far different than the anticipated by the parties due to unforeseeable circumstances. In the international field such possibility is greater. This places a hard burden to business persons around the globe, since their mutual purpose is to see their business transaction achieve its goal. In trying to assess and manage the potential negative effects of changed circumstances, international business practice had developed the hardship clause. This article focus on the historical origin and development of the hardship clause, its requirements, the adoption of similar remedies by domestic legislation, and how it has ...


Broad Shareholder Value And The Inevitable Role Of Conscience, Paul D. Weitzel, Zachariah J. Rodgers Mar 2015

Broad Shareholder Value And The Inevitable Role Of Conscience, Paul D. Weitzel, Zachariah J. Rodgers

Paul D. Weitzel

This article proposes an integrative solution to the modern debate on corporate purpose, the question of whether directors and officers must solely maximize profits or whether they may consider the effects on employees, the environment or the community. Many find pure profit maximization unseemly and suggest alternative theories, typically arguing that corporations owe a duty to a broader range of stakeholders. This position is inconsistent with the case law and unnecessary to allow conscience in the board room. We resolve the issue more simply by acknowledging that the purpose of a corporation is to promote the shareholders’ interests, which includes ...


Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii Mar 2015

Broker-Dealer: A Fiduciary By Any Other Name?, William Alan Nelson Ii

William Alan Nelson II

Broker-dealers, unlike investment advisers, are not regulated as fiduciaries when providing investment advice, even though broker-dealers are holding themselves out as financial advisors and offering virtually identical services to investors. The lack of consistent regulation of financial service providers arises from the structure in which advice historically has been delivered. Financial services regulation since the Great Depression has developed along roughly dual tracks: laws governing the sale of financial products, which may or may not require that the products be suitable for the customer, and laws governing investment advice, which impose a fiduciary requirement on the adviser to act solely ...


Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg Feb 2015

Bridgefunding Is Crowdfunding For Startups Across The Private Equity Gap, Seth C. Oranburg

Seth C Oranburg

Title III of the JOBS Act of 2012, which attempts to encourage entrepreneurship by allowing startups and small business to sell stock to the general public over the Internet through “crowdfunding,” is completely backwards. Its ceiling should be a floor—the $1 million limit should be inverted. By capping startups at raising $1 million from crowdfunding, the JOBS Act does not address the private equity gap, a fundamental problem in startup markets, and exposes unsophisticated investors to risk and fraud. This Article presents a regulatory framework premised on “bridgefunding,” an approach that this article develops to protect new investors by ...


Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson Feb 2015

Examining Success, Jonathan C. Lipson

Jonathan C. Lipson

Chapter 11 of the Bankruptcy Code presumes that managers will remain in possession and control of a corporate debtor. This presents an obvious agency problem: these same managers may have gotten the company into trouble in the first place. The Bankruptcy Code thus includes checks and balances in the reorganization process, one of which is supposed to be an “examiner,” a private individual appointed to investigate and report on the debtor’s collapse.

We study their use in practice. Extending prior research, we find that examiners are exceedingly rare, despite the fact that they should be “mandatory” in large cases ...


Flexible Finality In Bankruptcy: The Right To Appeal A Denial Of Plan Confirmation, Joseph L. Nepowada Feb 2015

Flexible Finality In Bankruptcy: The Right To Appeal A Denial Of Plan Confirmation, Joseph L. Nepowada

Joseph L Nepowada

This Article examines the current state of the law interpreting what “finality” means in context of a bankruptcy proceeding and what effect that interpretation has on the appealability of certain orders, such as the denial of plan confirmation under a Chapter 13 bankruptcy proceeding. The article highlights nine courts of appeals and their decisions concerning the appealability of a denial of a plan confirmation and it is apparent that the courts are split with three courts of appeal allowing a debtor to appeal a denial of plan confirmation as a matter of right, while six courts of appeal will deny ...


Worlds Colliding: Competition Policy And Bankruptcy Fire Sales, Max Huffman Feb 2015

Worlds Colliding: Competition Policy And Bankruptcy Fire Sales, Max Huffman

Max Huffman

Modern business bankruptcies commonly involve mergers and acquisitions pursued as “fire sales.” The bankruptcy forum and the unique incentives bankruptcy creates allow those acquisitions to take place with reduced constituent involvement and regulatory oversight. Those fire sale transactions may present antitrust concerns where they lead to undue concentration in the relevant marketplace. This paper studies the poorly explored tension between bankruptcy law, which favors mergers and acquisitions as value-maximizing propositions and creates opportunity for fire sales, and antitrust law, which disfavors combinations leading to undue concentrations of economic power. The substantial tension manifests both as a matter of substantive law ...