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Full-Text Articles in Law

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs Jan 2019

Finding Law, Stephen E. Sachs

Faculty Scholarship

That the judge's task is to find the law, not to make it, was once a commonplace of our legal culture. Today, decades after Erie, the idea of a common law discovered by judges is commonly dismissed -- as a "fallacy," an "illusion," a "brooding omnipresence in the sky." That dismissive view is wrong. Expecting judges to find unwritten law is no childish fiction of the benighted past, but a real and plausible option for a modern legal system.

This Essay seeks to restore the respectability of finding law, in part by responding to two criticisms made by Erie and ...


Legislative Committee Systems: A Design Perspective, Chase Stoddard Oct 2018

Legislative Committee Systems: A Design Perspective, Chase Stoddard

Indiana Journal of Constitutional Design

Committees are the defining characteristic of the modern legislature. While the centrality and study of party politics goes back further than committee politics, the focus on committee systems emerged over the course of the twentieth century, and legislatures could not function as we understand them without this mechanism. The United States Congressional committee system is the most studied system, yet virtually every country utilizes a committee system of some sort within its legislature. Despite their ubiquity in and centrality to the operations of legislatures, committees remain insufficiently studied, especially outside of the United States. The existing body of work tends ...


“Second Looks, Second Chances”: Collaborating With Lifers On A Video About Commutation Of Lwop Sentences, Regina Austin Oct 2018

“Second Looks, Second Chances”: Collaborating With Lifers On A Video About Commutation Of Lwop Sentences, Regina Austin

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

In Pennsylvania, life means life without the possibility of parole (“LWOP”) or “death by incarceration.” Although executive commutation offers long serving rehabilitated lifers hope of release, in the past 20 years, only 8 commutations have been granted by the state’s governors. This article describes the collaboration between an organization of incarcerated persons serving LWOP and the law-school-based Penn Program on Documentaries and the Law that produced a video supporting increased commutations for Pennsylvania lifers. The article details the methodology of collaborative videomaking employed, the strategic decisions over content that were impacted by the politics of commutation, and the contributions ...


A Life Absolutely Bare? A Reflection On Resistance By Irregular Refugees Against Fingerprinting As State Biopolitical Control In The European Union, Ziang Zhou Oct 2018

A Life Absolutely Bare? A Reflection On Resistance By Irregular Refugees Against Fingerprinting As State Biopolitical Control In The European Union, Ziang Zhou

Claremont-UC Undergraduate Research Conference on the European Union

In a legally transitory category, irregular refugees- experience a double precariousness. They risk their lives to travel across treacherous seas to Europe for a better life. However, upon the long-awaited embarkation on the European land, they are exposed once again to the precariousness of the asylum application. They are “powerless”, “with no rights” and “to be sacrificed” as Giorgio Agamben and Hannah Arendt suggested in their respective understanding of a “bare life”, la nuda vita. In light of the administrative difficulties in managing asylum application, the European Union introduced the “Dublin Agreement”, which stipulates mandatory biometric data collection for irregular ...


A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. Mccoy Oct 2018

A Bit Like Cash: Understanding Cash-For-Bitcoin Transactions Through Individual Vendors, Stephanie J. Robberson, Mark R. Mccoy

Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law

As technology improves and economies become more globalized, the concept of currency has evolved. Bitcoin, a cryptographic digital currency, has been embraced as a secure and convenient type of money. Due to its security and privacy for the user, Bitcoin is a good tool for conducting criminal trades. The Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN) has regulations in place to make identification information of Bitcoin purchasers accessible to law enforcement, but enforcing these rules with cash-for-Bitcoin traders is difficult. This study surveyed cash-for-Bitcoin vendors in Oklahoma, Texas, Arkansas, Missouri, Kansas, Colorado, and New Mexico to determine personal demographic information, knowledge of ...


A General Mitigation For Crimes Driven By Emotion?: Physiological, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson Sep 2018

A General Mitigation For Crimes Driven By Emotion?: Physiological, Personal Choice, And Normative Inquiries, Paul H. Robinson

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

It is argued here that the narrow provoked “heat of passion” mitigation available under current law ought to be significantly expanded to include not just murder but all felonies and not just “heat of passion” but potentially all emotions. The mitigation should be limited, however, to those instances in which the jury finds that a mitigation is deserved upon taking account of the extent of the internal pressure to commit the offense (the physiological inquiry), the extent of the offender’s efforts to resist that pressure (the personal choice inquiry), and the effect on community values of giving such a ...


Legal Optimism: Restoring Trust In The Criminal Justice System Through Procedural Justice, Positive Psychology And Just Culture Event Reviews, John Hollway Sep 2018

Legal Optimism: Restoring Trust In The Criminal Justice System Through Procedural Justice, Positive Psychology And Just Culture Event Reviews, John Hollway

Master of Applied Positive Psychology (MAPP) Capstone Projects

Like any complex, dynamic system, the American criminal justice system makes mistakes. Unfortunately, criminal justice organizations lack a systematic process enabling them to learn from cases of error. Ignoring or minimizing errors erodes organizational legitimacy and contributes to a downward spiral of legal cynicism that increases violent crime. This paper describes the application of positive psychology and procedural justice to restore legal optimism – confidence and trust that the criminal justice system will respond in a just fashion to criminal activity – through Just Culture Event Reviews (JCERs), non-blaming multi-stakeholder reviews of cases where the system has erred. JCERs identify contributing factors ...


Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse Sep 2018

Neurohype And The Law: A Cautionary Tale, Stephen J. Morse

Faculty Scholarship at Penn Law

This chapter suggests that for conceptual, empirical, and practical reasons, neuroscience in general and non-invasive brain imaging in particular are not likely to revolutionize the law and our conception of ourselves, but may make modest contributions to legal policy and case adjudication if the legal relevance of the science is properly understood.


Money Laundering By Politically Exposed Persons In Nigeria: Consequences And Combative Measures, Ike Onyiliogwu Aug 2018

Money Laundering By Politically Exposed Persons In Nigeria: Consequences And Combative Measures, Ike Onyiliogwu

Economic Crime Forensics Capstones

The Capstone Project will focus on money laundering in Nigeria by Politically Exposed Persons (PEPs) and the devastating negative impact on Nigeria’s progress as well as various measures that could combat it.

The Financial Action Task Force (FATF) defines money laundering as the processing of “ Criminal proceeds to disguise their illegal origin.” And PEPs as “someone who has been entrusted with a public function.” (FATF, 2018). The Nigerian government has adopted the term, “politically exposed persons” to include senior politicians and senior government officials as well as their immediate family.

According to Nigeria’s president, Muhammadu Buhari, $150 billion ...


Investigating Physicians Billing For Services Not Rendered: Fraud Detection, Interviewing And Referral To Law Enforcement, Glenn Forte Jr Aug 2018

Investigating Physicians Billing For Services Not Rendered: Fraud Detection, Interviewing And Referral To Law Enforcement, Glenn Forte Jr

Economic Crime Forensics Capstones

This qualitative study examines the role of healthcare insurance investigators related to medical fraud among physicians billing for services not rendered. Grounded in academic scholarship, industry case studies and first-hand knowledge, this study introduces methods identifying fraudulent activities, fraud detection practices and implications from discovering fraud among physicians, patients, and health insurance companies. The three types of methodologies employed provide a lens into determining misappropriation of healthcare insurance and patient monetary funds.

Healthcare fraud falls within the arena of white-collar crime. It consists of filing dishonest healthcare claims to receive a profit. Fraudulent healthcare schemes come in many forms. The ...


Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, Yao Yao, Ivelin Angelov, Jack Rasmus-Vorrath, Mooyoung Lee, Daniel W. Engels Aug 2018

Yelp’S Review Filtering Algorithm, Yao Yao, Ivelin Angelov, Jack Rasmus-Vorrath, Mooyoung Lee, Daniel W. Engels

SMU Data Science Review

In this paper, we present an analysis of features influencing Yelp's proprietary review filtering algorithm. Classifying or misclassifying reviews as recommended or non-recommended affects average ratings, consumer decisions, and ultimately, business revenue. Our analysis involves systematically sampling and scraping Yelp restaurant reviews. Features are extracted from review metadata and engineered from metrics and scores generated using text classifiers and sentiment analysis. The coefficients of a multivariate logistic regression model were interpreted as quantifications of the relative importance of features in classifying reviews as recommended or non-recommended. The model classified review recommendations with an accuracy of 78%. We found that ...


Understanding The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog In Pennsylvania, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara Aug 2018

Understanding The Sexual Assault Kit Backlog In Pennsylvania, Kallie Crawford, Lyndsie Ferrara

Graduate Student Research Symposium

According to the FBI, to date, there are more than 400,000 untested sexual assault kits nationwide. While this is a huge issue that cannot be solved overnight, continual improvements and changes are needed to reduce and hopefully eliminate the backlog.

This research examines work going on nationwide and aims to better understand the backlog issues specifically in Pennsylvania. Furthermore, the research examines a program utilized by the law enforcement community that garnered necessary resources. First, a comprehensive review of improved practices in proactive jurisdictions of Ohio, Houston, Texas, and Detroit, Michigan was conducted to identify general policies and procedures ...


Effects Of Senate Bill 4 On Wage-Theft: Why All Workers Are At Risk In Low-Income Occupations, Daniella Salas-Chacon Aug 2018

Effects Of Senate Bill 4 On Wage-Theft: Why All Workers Are At Risk In Low-Income Occupations, Daniella Salas-Chacon

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo Aug 2018

Undocumented Crime Victims: Unheard, Unnumbered, And Unprotected, Pauline Portillo

The Scholar: St. Mary's Law Review on Race and Social Justice

Abstract forthcoming


A Content Analysis Of Section 1983 Litigation Against Reserve Police Officers, Michael Broadus Aug 2018

A Content Analysis Of Section 1983 Litigation Against Reserve Police Officers, Michael Broadus

Master's Theses

Police studies have well developed a demonstrative framework for detailing risks which generate financially-detrimental civil litigation – particularly regarding 42 U.S.C. §1983. Conversely, though, police studies have given little attention to the often-used but differentially-trained reserve police officer. Primarily replicating the methodologies of Kappeler, Kappeler, and del Carmen (1993) and Ross (2000), this descriptive study sought to fill this void via a manifest content approach to purposively select a sample of Section 1983 cases decided by U.S. District Courts over a 16-year period (2001-2016) to determine: (1) if significant liability was generated by reserve officers, (2) the main ...


Delinquency Predictors: Offending To Commitment, Kaitlyn M. Pederson Aug 2018

Delinquency Predictors: Offending To Commitment, Kaitlyn M. Pederson

Boise State University Theses and Dissertations

The United States processes millions of adolescents through the juvenile court system annually. Throughout these hearings and upon adjudication, it is ultimately up to a judge to decide the juvenile’s disposition. Although research on juvenile delinquency has identified a variety of factors linked to youth offending, research is limited in terms of variables predicting a juvenile’s dispositional outcome. The current study examined number of predictive variables for youth offending to determine if they also influence a juvenile being committed to state custody in Idaho. This analysis consists of pre-screen evaluations obtained by the Idaho Department of Juvenile Corrections ...


The Role Of Health Care In Criminal Justice Reform, Julie White Jul 2018

The Role Of Health Care In Criminal Justice Reform, Julie White

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Mass incarceration continues to be problem in United States with over 2.2 million people incarcerated, costing approximately $80 billion in taxes annually. As a result of the coalescence of social policy researchers, restorative justice policies, civil rights activists, and economists, there is recognition that incarceration is not a financially sustainable ‘solution’ to crime.


Advancing The Science And Practice Of Health Care For Justice-Involved Individuals, Dyana Nickl Jun 2018

Advancing The Science And Practice Of Health Care For Justice-Involved Individuals, Dyana Nickl

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

Our nation’s correctional population is about 6.6 million including those individuals supervised by probation and/or parole agencies, according to the latest figures from the U.S. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Over two million of those are incarcerated and in the custody of a state or federal prison or local jail. It has been reported time and time again that inmates have greater health needs than those living in the community, including higher rates of Hepatitis C, HIV/AIDS, mental health issues and substance use disorder. There is still much we can improve upon in the way we ...


Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran Jun 2018

Islamic Terrorism In The United States – The Association Of Religious Fundamentalism With Social Isolation & Paths Leading To Extreme Violence Through Processes Of Radicalization., Shay Shiran

Student Theses

This exploratory study focuses on identifying motivations for religious terrorism and Islamic terrorism in the United States in particular. Terrorism is a crime of extreme violence with the end purpose of political influence. This crime is challenging to encounter for its multi-faced characteristics, the unusual motivations of its actors, and their semi-militant conduct. The hypothesis of this study asserts that religious terrorists are radicalized by passing from fundamental to extreme devout agendas, caused by isolation from the dominant society, and resulted in high potential to impose those agendas by extreme violence. Under the theoretical framework of subculture in criminology, this ...


Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri Jun 2018

Bait Questions As Source Of Misinformation In Police Interviews: Does Race Or Age Of The Suspect Increase Jurors' Memory Errors?, Matilde Ascheri

Student Theses

Bait questions—hypothetical questions about evidence, often used by detectives during interrogations—can activate the misinformation effect and alter jurors’ perceptions of the evidence of a case. Here, we were interested in investigating whether mock jurors’ implicit biases could amplify the magnitude of the misinformation effect. We accomplished this by manipulating the age and race of the suspect being interrogated. As an extension of Luke et al. (2017), we had participants read a police report describing evidence found at a crime scene, then read a transcript of a police interrogation where the detective used bait questions to introduce new evidence ...


Social Work Students’ Attitudes And Beliefs About Mental Health Courts, Nicholas Bettosini, Conrad Paul Akins-Johnson Jun 2018

Social Work Students’ Attitudes And Beliefs About Mental Health Courts, Nicholas Bettosini, Conrad Paul Akins-Johnson

Electronic Theses, Projects, and Dissertations

Mental Health Courts (MHCs) are a diversion program for mentally ill offenders in lieu of incarceration. The Substance Abuse and Mental Services Administration (SAMHSA) developed these specialized court programs in the 1990’s to assist mentally ill offenders in overcoming barriers to treatment. While new laws have begun to change the way mentally ill offenders are viewed from a law enforcement standpoint, social workers’ attitudes and beliefs about these programs have not been studied. This quantitative study’s purpose was to examine Master of Social Work (MSW) Graduate students’ attitudes and beliefs of mentally ill offenders and MHCs. Social work ...


Volume 1, Issue 2 May 2018

Volume 1, Issue 2

International Journal on Responsibility

Contents:

3 – 5 Howard Zehr, Restorative Justice and the Gandhian Tradition.

6 – 26 Richard E. Rubenstein, Responsibility for Peacemaking in the Context of Structural Violence.

27 – 64 Marc Pufong, Terror, Insecurity, State Responsibility and Challenges: Yesterday and Today?

65 – 77 Ron Kraybill, Responsibility, Community and Conflict Resolution in an Age of Polarization.

78 – 96 John Fairfield, Beyond non-violence to courtship.

97 – 98 Call for papers for forthcoming issues of the International Journal on Responsibility and instructions for authors.


Contents, Adfsl May 2018

Contents, Adfsl

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Front Matter, Adfsl May 2018

Front Matter, Adfsl

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

No abstract provided.


Women’S Health Must Be A Criminal Justice Concern, Robert Delanders May 2018

Women’S Health Must Be A Criminal Justice Concern, Robert Delanders

Commonwealth Medicine Publications

One of the most compelling arguments for improvements to healthcare for individuals who are incarcerated is the fact that “[a]t least 95% of all state prisoners will be released…”1 Further, pursuant to a 2014 study by the Sentencing Project, more than 215,332 women and girls are now incarcerated in the U.S.2 This figure represents both a record percentage of the total prison population in the U.S. and an eight-fold rise in the incarceration of females since 1980.3 Critically, more than two thirds of these women are mothers and 60% of these women have ...


Trans Women In Incarceration: Housing, Healthcare, And Humanity, Stanislaw Bielous May 2018

Trans Women In Incarceration: Housing, Healthcare, And Humanity, Stanislaw Bielous

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

This paper seeks to analyze the experience of male-to-female transgender inmates housed in men’s prisons and to propose housing and healthcare policies with humanity and safety for all in mind. To do this, the paper examines gender dysphoria and its treatments, transgender prisoners’ increased risk of victimization, current housing placement policies, and lastly, transgender prison healthcare practices. Ultimately, this paper proposes the use of fair and adequately trained panel-based placement teams, the provision of comprehensive mental and physical health care and the establishment of impartial grievance procedures.


Increasing Police Accountability And Improving Use Of Force Policies In The United States, Leica Kwong May 2018

Increasing Police Accountability And Improving Use Of Force Policies In The United States, Leica Kwong

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

Communities, and their respective police departments, have significant impacts on the social and legal matters they are involved with, making it crucial for both parties to strive to maintain strong, collaborative relationships. Positive interactions between police and the public are therefore extremely vital and beneficial to all involved. Police officers should be held accountable for their transgressions and subject to transparency for their on-duty actions through legal records. Several issues lie in the policies and procedures which requires more attention in its analysis. Changing policies and procedure in the United States regarding police use of force to remedy inconsistencies calls ...


Medical Apartheid: A Book Review, Carmen Kennedy May 2018

Medical Apartheid: A Book Review, Carmen Kennedy

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

No abstract provided.


Domestic And International Firearm Laws: Can Implementation Be Used To Nationally Decrease Firearm Violence And Mass Shootings, Kenneth Banuelos May 2018

Domestic And International Firearm Laws: Can Implementation Be Used To Nationally Decrease Firearm Violence And Mass Shootings, Kenneth Banuelos

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

The issue of firearm violence in the United States is highly controversial, as there are sound arguments on both sides of the discussion. Advocates of stricter gun laws often refer to both international and domestic examples that highlight the effectiveness of more restrictive firearm policies. Japan and Australia are two such countries that are continually referred to when a tragedy, such as a mass shooting, occurs in the United States and initial reactions often emphasis a need for fewer guns in the general public. Opposition to the proposed reforms of firearm policies cite the importance of the Second Amendment which ...


The Victimization Of The Misconceived: The Mentally Ill In The Criminal Justice System, Margarita Trejo May 2018

The Victimization Of The Misconceived: The Mentally Ill In The Criminal Justice System, Margarita Trejo

Themis: Research Journal of Justice Studies and Forensic Science

It is unfortunate to say that the number of people who suffer from a serious mental illness has been drastically increasing in the criminal justice system since the late 1960s. This drastic change has captivated the minds of the public, forced them to develop a fallacious stereotype, and labeled the mentally ill population as wrongdoers. This image, however, is inaccurate. In reality, these people are the victims of a broken system. This paper establishes the victimization that a person with a serious mental illness experiences as they are processed through the criminal justice system. The following elaborates how victimization is ...