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Full-Text Articles in Law

Utilizing Title Vi As A Means To Eradicate Health Discrimination, Adrian D. Samuels, Mariah L. Cole Jul 2017

Utilizing Title Vi As A Means To Eradicate Health Discrimination, Adrian D. Samuels, Mariah L. Cole

Journal of Health Disparities Research and Practice

Health disparities among people of color are persistent and detrimental to the overall wellness of these groups. Discrimination in the provision of health care services is one of the primary causes of health disparities. Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964’s availability as a tool to prevent discrimination and, in turn, disparities among these groups is underdocumented. The legislative intent of Title VI and the historical context of the law have been helpful in its use outside of the health care arena to prevent discrimination. This sheds light on the ways that the law can influence the ...


Maritime Piracy And Armed Robbery Confrontations Across The Globe: Can Crew Action Shape The Outcomes?, Justin Stewart Lewis Dec 2014

Maritime Piracy And Armed Robbery Confrontations Across The Globe: Can Crew Action Shape The Outcomes?, Justin Stewart Lewis

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Abstract

The recent tightening of military budget constraints has called into question the feasibility of costly multilateral naval intervention used to combat maritime piracy off the eastern coast of Africa. Though past studies agree that the transformation of the Somali economy and government is crucial for a long-term solution to piracy in this part of the world, short to medium-run solutions are needed to bridge the gap. Such solutions should be fiscally sensible and serve as effective deterrents, as well as be applicable in addressing the problem of piracy and maritime armed robbery in other parts of the globe.

In ...


Putting The Microscope On Crime Labs: The Effects Of Evidence Complexity And Laboratory Type On Jurors' Perceptions Of Forensic Evidence, Miliaikeala S.J. Heen Aug 2014

Putting The Microscope On Crime Labs: The Effects Of Evidence Complexity And Laboratory Type On Jurors' Perceptions Of Forensic Evidence, Miliaikeala S.J. Heen

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

An experiment was conducted to test the effects of evidence complexity and laboratory type on jurors' perceptions of forensic evidence. The study specifically focused on three types of labs: public labs, private labs, and "corporate labs." Public labs are managed by a federal, state, or local law enforcement agency, where evidence is usually analyzed internally at an agency. Private labs are those that have been formed as private businesses to provide services to federal, state, and local crime labs with overflow work. Corporate labs are managed by major retail corporations, and primarily service the needs of their store businesses, but ...


Games Of Life And Death: The Judicial Uses Of Dice In Eighteenth And Nineteenth-Century Sweden, Per Binde May 2014

Games Of Life And Death: The Judicial Uses Of Dice In Eighteenth And Nineteenth-Century Sweden, Per Binde

UNLV Gaming Research & Review Journal

Gambling studies should take a broad view of the field and consider activities that are not strictly gambling but similar to it, such as cleromancy and secular uses of drawing of lots, to give us perspective on societal and cultural aspects of gambling. This paper presents historical data on judicial uses of throwing dice in eighteenth and nineteenth-century Sweden. The focus is on cases of manslaughter with multiple perpetrators who were considered equally guilty and were forced by the criminal court to throw dice to determine who should be executed and who should receive lesser penalties. Three principles are distinguished ...


Deterring Fraud: Police Investigations Into Embezzlement, Brandon Grossman May 2014

Deterring Fraud: Police Investigations Into Embezzlement, Brandon Grossman

Theses

Embezzlement is a highly disruptive crime that comes with a large negative societal impact. This study was a secondary data analysis of embezzlement data from the Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department for the years 2012-2013. Clearance rates were calculated and analyzed for general fraud related calls for service and for embezzlement cases specifically in order to determine what clearance rates were for the Las Vegas Valley and see if they are comparable to the national average. Data was analyzed within pie and bar charts to determine if the LVMPD is effectively solving embezzlement cases and see if cases with particular ...


Commercial Sexual Exploitation Of Teens, Tamieka Meadows, Alexis Kennedy Jan 2014

Commercial Sexual Exploitation Of Teens, Tamieka Meadows, Alexis Kennedy

McNair Poster Presentations

This research explores whether commercially sexually exploited children (CSEC) abuse drugs or face greater histories of abuse than their delinquent peers. This research will evaluate whether girls who are CSEC victims experience more abuse of drugs or experience more physical, emotional, or sexual abuse. The study also explores whether CSEC victims witnessed more abuse than non-CSEC victims. A survey of needs and issues facing delinquent girls was given to 130 girls between the ages of 13 to 18. Questions asked about their drug use, abuse history, and whether they witnessed abuse. This research found that many girls who are CSEC ...


A Historical Comparative Analysis Of Executions In The United States From 1608 To 2009, Emily Jean Abili Dec 2013

A Historical Comparative Analysis Of Executions In The United States From 1608 To 2009, Emily Jean Abili

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The death penalty has been a contested issue throughout American history. The United States has been executing offenders since Jamestown became a colony in 1608 (Allen & Clubb, 2008). Since that time, many issues have been raised about the death penalty including whether or not it is moral, discriminatory, or a deterrent.

This study examines the history of executions, including lynchings, in the United States from 1608 to 2009 using a variety of sociological theories on law and society. Some of the research questions that guide this project are:

* What is the nature of change in the relative prevalence of legal ...


Testing Orthodox Utilitarian And Extrajudical Determinants Of Incarceration In The U.S. At The State-Level, 1980-2005, Pavel V. Vasiliev Aug 2013

Testing Orthodox Utilitarian And Extrajudical Determinants Of Incarceration In The U.S. At The State-Level, 1980-2005, Pavel V. Vasiliev

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This project is a theory-driven secondary data analysis of state-level incarceration trends in the U.S. between 1980 and 2005. I replicate and advance Smith's (2004) study of the relationship between the socioeconomic, demographic, political, electoral, and criminal justice factors and incarceration rates at the state level. The purpose of this project is to determine the empirical validity of the major explanations of the incarceration trends in the U.S. I advance Smith's (2004) study using important novel elements. First, I extend the scrutinized historic period by a decade by compiling time-series data for 1980-2005. Second, I employ ...


Team Policing Revisited: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation In Las Vegas, Nevada, Natalie Nicole Martinez May 2013

Team Policing Revisited: A Quasi-Experimental Evaluation In Las Vegas, Nevada, Natalie Nicole Martinez

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

In 1967, the President's Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice recommended team policing, which involves the decentralization of patrol officers and investigators to the same, defined geographical area, as a way to more effectively organize police officers and improve crime control. Despite initial enthusiasm from police officers and administrators, team policing quickly faded from use during the 1970s because its design was incompatible with the centralized model of policing prevalent at that time. However, the implementation of community-oriented policing, which promotes various organizational changes and the use of problem-focused strategies, has changed police departments in recent years ...


Legal Representation In The Chinese Criminal Court, Yudu Li, Hong Lu Apr 2012

Legal Representation In The Chinese Criminal Court, Yudu Li, Hong Lu

Graduate Research Symposium (GCUA)

Abstract: Legal representation plays an important role in criminal sentencing decisions. China has recently stipulated a mandatory legal representation clause for all offenders facing capital charges in its Criminal Procedural Law (1996). This study uses data generated from criminal court case documents involving three serious violent crimes: murder, intentional assault, and robbery. All these crimes carry a maximum of sentence of death. The study examines whether and under what conditions legal representation has an effect on criminal sentencing decisions in China. While the overall multi-regression model did not find that having a legal representation significantly reduces the criminal sentence, a ...


Driving Forces: Police Fatalities, Carol Servino Apr 2011

Driving Forces: Police Fatalities, Carol Servino

Graduate Research Symposium (GCUA)

Law enforcement is an inherently risky occupation. The number of traffic-related fatalities for law enforcement officers in the U.S. during the past 13 years has been increasing; however, the number of fatalities for the general population in motor vehicle traffic incidents declined during the same time period.

The federal government reports that federal motor vehicle safety standards aswell as behavioral and vehicle safety programs implemented by state and local law-enforcement agencies contributed to the downward trend for the general public.

What accounts for the pattern and problem with police driving-related deaths?


Facebook And The Police: Communication In The Social Networking Era, Mari Sakiyama, Deborah K. Shaffer, Joel D. Lieberman Apr 2011

Facebook And The Police: Communication In The Social Networking Era, Mari Sakiyama, Deborah K. Shaffer, Joel D. Lieberman

Graduate Research Symposium (GCUA)

An increasing number of police departments are using Facebook to communicate with the public. As with any emerging communications technology, there is considerable variation in the usage of this medium. This study reports the results of a content analysis designed to determine how police departments are using Facebook.


Should Primates Have Legal Rights?, Hannah Barten, Zhimin Chen Apr 2011

Should Primates Have Legal Rights?, Hannah Barten, Zhimin Chen

Festival of Communities: UG Symposium (Posters)

A primate having legal rights is a controversial topic these days. Many other countries around the world support the idea of great apes having legal rights, because we for one are one of the five great primates. Others do not support this trending topic as much as others. These types of people believe that great apes such as chimpanzees are superb testing animals for medical purposes, because of the fact that they are closely related to mankind. Organizations such as Great Ape Protection, work towards protecting the rights of these great apes since they cannot speak for themselves. In many ...


Assessing The Impact Of Police Order Maintenance Units On Crime: An Application Of The Broken Windows Hypothesis, Steven Andrew Pace May 2010

Assessing The Impact Of Police Order Maintenance Units On Crime: An Application Of The Broken Windows Hypothesis, Steven Andrew Pace

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

High levels of violent crime and disorder area concentrated within certain neighborhoods of northwest Las Vegas, Nevada. In April 2009 a police order-maintenance unit designed to reduce minor and major offenses was initiated in these areas. Drawing on the Broken Windows Hypothesis, the unit combined detailed crime analysis with extensive police efforts to address specific community problems. This paper discusses the implementation and impact of the police order-maintenance unit during its operation.


Sex, Drug Courts, And Recidivism, Doria Nour Dandan May 2010

Sex, Drug Courts, And Recidivism, Doria Nour Dandan

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Research studies have identified gender differences in the drug abusing patterns and treatment needs of men and women. Even so, studies on the drug court model have not assessed drug court effectiveness across sex. Using secondary data collected from the Ada County Drug Court, the recidivism rates of drug court participants (n=259) and probationers (n=235) were analyzed. Drug court participants were found to be less likely to recidivate compared to probationers, which supports previous research on drug court effectiveness. Regression analyses failed to find an interaction between group membership and sex, thereby indicating that the effect of the ...


Blameworthiness And Dangerousness: An Analysis Of Violent Female Capital Offenders In The United States And China, Courtney Lahaie Apr 2010

Blameworthiness And Dangerousness: An Analysis Of Violent Female Capital Offenders In The United States And China, Courtney Lahaie

Graduate Research Symposium (GCUA)

The United States and China represent two of the leading nations that retain the death penalty in both law and practice. Research suggests that judges’ sentencing decisions are based primarily on two factors, blameworthiness and dangerousness. Studies involving gender and sentencing in capital punishment cases tend to provide inconsistent findings. The current study uses case narratives to examine the direct and conjunctive effects of various factors on the sentencing decisions of violent female capital offenders in the United States and China. The findings suggest that the concepts of blameworthiness and dangerousness are distinctly defined in the United States and China ...


Adjustment To Correctional Confinement: Investigating The Correlates Of Violence And Disorder In A Jail Environment, Fred W. Meyer Iii Apr 2010

Adjustment To Correctional Confinement: Investigating The Correlates Of Violence And Disorder In A Jail Environment, Fred W. Meyer Iii

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This study examines the individual- and institutional-level variables that are correlated with violence and disorder within a jail facility. Previous research indicates that deviant behavior is one of the main challenges that negatively impacts the safe and effective management of correctional facilities. While many studies have been conducted on prison populations, few studies have focused upon jail populations. Using official institutional data, this study explores the factors associated with general infractions and violent misconduct among a stratified random sample of inmates (n=447) incarcerated during a one year period in a large county jail facility. The logistic regression and conjunctive ...


Attitudes Towards Megan's Law And Juvenile Sex Offenders, Debra Lee Cochrane Apr 2010

Attitudes Towards Megan's Law And Juvenile Sex Offenders, Debra Lee Cochrane

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Sex offender registration laws are very controversial. All fifty states require adult sex offenders to register. Twenty-eight states have extended registration and community notification requirements to juveniles (Hiller, 1998). These states seem to have failed to look at the uniqueness of juvenile sex offending. Juveniles have a very low recidivism rate and complex issues of culpability from age-of-consent laws. Applying Megan's Law to juveniles could have considerable negative consequences for juveniles' social development, particularly because one of the main stipulations of the law requires the juvenile to notify their school. Rehabilitation is a key factor of the juvenile justice ...


Not Undertaking The Almost-Impossible Task: The 1961 Wire Act’S Development, Initial Applications, And Ultimate Purpose, David G. Schwartz Jan 2010

Not Undertaking The Almost-Impossible Task: The 1961 Wire Act’S Development, Initial Applications, And Ultimate Purpose, David G. Schwartz

Library Faculty Publications

For a Camelot-era piece of legislation, the Wire Act has a long and unintended shadow. Used haltingly in the 1960s, when the Wire Act failed to deliver the death blow to organized crime, 1970’s Racketeer-Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act (RICO) became a far better weapon against the mob. Yet starting in the 1990s, the Wire Act enjoyed a second life, when the Justice Department used to it prosecute operators of online betting Web sites that, headquartered in jurisdictions where such businesses were legal, took bets from American citizens. The legislative history of the Wire Act, however, suggests that it ...


Participatory Evaluation Of The Tribal Victim Assistance Programs At The Lummi Nation And Passamaquoddy Tribe, Ada Pecos Melton, Michelle Chino Aug 2009

Participatory Evaluation Of The Tribal Victim Assistance Programs At The Lummi Nation And Passamaquoddy Tribe, Ada Pecos Melton, Michelle Chino

Community Health Sciences Faculty Publications

The high rate of crime in American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) communities and/or against AI/AN people reflected in numerous studies in the last three decades, demonstrates the need for victim assistance programs in Indian Country to help victims cope with and heal from violent crime (Wolk 1982; Allen 1985; Sacred Shawl Women’s Society, no date; McIntire 1988; DeBruyn, Lujan & May 1995; Norton & Manson 1995; Fairchild et. al 1998; Greenfield & Smith 1999; Alba, Zieseniss, et al 2003; Perry 2004). The U.S. Department of Justice, Office for Victims of Crime (OVC) became aware of the lack of resources available to AI/AN crime ...


Targeting Youth—Hit Or Miss? Juvenile Certification In Clark County, Nevada Examined, Brittnie Turquoise Watkins May 2009

Targeting Youth—Hit Or Miss? Juvenile Certification In Clark County, Nevada Examined, Brittnie Turquoise Watkins

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Juvenile certification is the method by which a juvenile may be removed from juvenile court jurisdiction and placed in the adult criminal court jurisdiction. In many cases, juvenile courts exercise judicial certifications, in which a judge determines if the case will be heard in juvenile or adult court. Many factors influence a judge's determination of certification outcomes. Legal factors include dangerousness, amenability, and maturity of the youth. Extra-legal factors include race and sex. Although judges are believed to be impartial, prior research has found that these bias factors may influence outcomes. This study assesses what factors are influential in ...


Examining The Impact Of Drug Court Participation For Moderate And High Risk Offenders, Kara Kobus May 2009

Examining The Impact Of Drug Court Participation For Moderate And High Risk Offenders, Kara Kobus

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of drug court participation among moderate and high risk offenders. While studies have found that intensive programs, such as drug courts, are more effective when focusing their services on high risk offenders, few studies have examined the relationship between offender risk and drug court effectiveness. Using the Level of Service Inventory-Revised (LSI-R) as a measure of offender risk, the study employed a quasi-experimental design to compare outcomes of drug court participants (n=228) and a matched sample of probationers (n=252). The analyses showed that drug court participants had lower ...


An Assessment Of Proposed Sex Offender Mobility And Residency Restrictions In Nevada, Samantha Dawn Beecher May 2009

An Assessment Of Proposed Sex Offender Mobility And Residency Restrictions In Nevada, Samantha Dawn Beecher

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

This research explores the impact of sex offender exclusion zones and residency restrictions proposed by Nevada Senate Bill 471. This law would prohibit sex offenders from being within 500 feet of places where children congregate and living within 1,000 feet of these places. Analyses conducted using Geographic Information Systems demonstrate the degree to which offender mobility, housing, employment, and access to social services may be restricted should the law be adopted and enforced. Data are also used to assess the potential impact of the law on victimization patterns. Policy implications, data limitations, and suggestions for future research are discussed.


A Validation Study Of Risk Management Systems, Bridget Kelly Jan 2009

A Validation Study Of Risk Management Systems, Bridget Kelly

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

The purpose of this study was to examine the predictive validity of Risk Management Systems (RMS) as a risk assessment instrument. To date, a published validation study does not exist for the RMS. The study employs secondary data analysis to examine the predictive validity of RMS recidivism and violence scores on three outcomes: arrest, unsuccessful termination from supervision, and technical violations. The study sample consisted of 830 probationers from the United States Probation Office, District of Nevada. The analyses showed that RMS recidivism and violence scores were moderately predictive of all three outcomes.


Probation Violators: An Examination Of Felony Male Adult Probation Violators In The State Of Nevada, Stefanie Wilson Palacio May 2005

Probation Violators: An Examination Of Felony Male Adult Probation Violators In The State Of Nevada, Stefanie Wilson Palacio

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

No abstract provided.


Racial Profiling And Mandatory Data Collection In Nevada: How Will Law Enforcement Respond?, Gregory M. Roehm Jan 2003

Racial Profiling And Mandatory Data Collection In Nevada: How Will Law Enforcement Respond?, Gregory M. Roehm

UNLV Theses, Dissertations, Professional Papers, and Capstones

Selected Nevada law enforcement officers participated in the mandatory collection of traffic stop data in the calendar year 2002. The requirement was a temporary one-year study mandated by the 2001 Nevada Legislature. The primary objective of this paper is to provide insight into the behavioral response of law enforcement with respect to mandatory data collection. Data for this study was obtained from the use of a self-administered mail survey from law enforcement officers from five of the nine Nevada police agencies required to collect traffic stop data. Responses from 399 Nevada law enforcement officers surveyed (A response rate of 65 ...