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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy Oct 2016

Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola in 2013, highlight the need for fast and accurate diagnostic tools to combat the global spread of the disease. Detection and identification of the disease-causing viruses and bacteria at the genetic level is required for accurate diagnosis of the disease. Nucleic acid analysis systems have shown promise in identifying diseases such as HIV, anthrax, and Ebola in the past. Conventional nucleic acid analysis systems are still time consuming, and are not suitable for point-ofcare applications. Miniaturized nucleic acid systems has shown great promise for rapid analysis, but they have not been commercialized due ...


Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun Oct 2016

Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery.

In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite ...


Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson Oct 2016

Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson

Doctoral Dissertations

Accurate epileptogenic focus localization is required prior to surgical resection of brain tissue for treatment of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, a clinical need that is partially fulfilled to date through a subjective, and at times inconclusive, evaluation of the recorded electroencephalogram (EEG). Using brain connectivity analysis, patterns of causal interactions between brain regions were derived from multichannel EEG of 127 seizures in nine patients with focal, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The statistically significant directed interactions in the reconstructed brain networks were estimated from three second intracranial multi-electrode EEG segments using the Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GPDC) and validated ...


Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka Jul 2016

Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka

Doctoral Dissertations

Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs ...


Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa Jul 2016

Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa

Doctoral Dissertations

Orthopedic and oro-maxillofacial implants have revolutionized treatment of bone diseases and fractures. Currently available metallic implants have been in clinical use for more than 40 years and have proved medically efficacious. However, several drawbacks remain, such as excessive stiffness, accumulation of metal ions in surrounding tissue, growth restriction, required removal/revision surgery, inability to carry drugs, and susceptibility to infection. The need for additional revision surgery increases financial costs and prolongs recovery time for patients. These metallic implants are bulk manufactured and often do not meet patient's requirements. A surgeon must machine (cut, weld, trim or drill holes) them ...


Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi May 2016

Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation combines self-assembly phenomena of amphiphilic molecules with soft materials to create and characterize mechanoelectrical transducers and sensors whose sensing elements are thin-film bioinspired membranes comprised of phospholipids or amphiphilic polymers. We show that the structures of these amphiphilic molecules tune the mechanical and electrical properties of these membranes. We show that these properties affect the mechanoelectrical sensing characteristic and range of operation of these membrane transducers. In the experiments, we construct and characterize a membrane-based hair cell embodiment that enables the membrane to be responsive to mechanical perturbations of the hair. The resulting oscillations of membranes formed between ...


Enhanced Bioactive Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Sonali Karnik Apr 2016

Enhanced Bioactive Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Sonali Karnik

Doctoral Dissertations

Bone injuries are commonly termed as fractures and they vary in their severity and causes. If the fracture is severe and there is loss of bone, implant surgery is prescribed. The response to the implant depends on the patient's physiology and implant material. Sometimes, the compromised physiology and undesired implant reactions lead to post-surgical complications. [4, 5, 20, 28] Efforts have been directed towards the development of efficient implant materials to tackle the problem of post-surgical implant failure. [ 15, 19, 24, 28, 32]

The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involves the use of cells to form a ...