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Full-Text Articles in Nanoscience and Nanotechnology

Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani Feb 2019

Development Of A Counter-Flow Thermal Gradient Microfluidic Device, Shayan Davani

Doctoral Dissertations

This work presents a novel counter-flow design for thermal stabilization of microfluidic thermal reactors. In these reactors, precise control of temperature of the liquid sample is achieved by moving the liquid sample through the thermal zones established ideally through the conduction in the solid material of the device. The goal here is to establish a linear thermal distribution when there is no flow and to minimize the temperature change at flow condition. External convection as well as internal flowinduced effects influence the prescribed thermal distribution. The counter-flow thermal gradient device developed in this study is capable of both stabilizing the ...


Development Of A Nonlinear Model For The Prediction Of Response Times Of Glucose Affinity Sensors Using Concanavalin A And Dextran And The Development Of A Differential Osmotic Glucose Affinity Sensor, Louis G. Reis Jan 2017

Development Of A Nonlinear Model For The Prediction Of Response Times Of Glucose Affinity Sensors Using Concanavalin A And Dextran And The Development Of A Differential Osmotic Glucose Affinity Sensor, Louis G. Reis

Doctoral Dissertations

With the increasing prevalence of diabetes in the United States and worldwide, blood glucose monitoring must be accurate and reliable. Current enzymatic sensors have numerous disadvantages that make them unreliable and unfavorable among patients. Recent research in glucose affinity sensors correct some of the problems that enzymatic sensors experience. Dextran and concanavalin A are two of the more common components used in glucose affinity sensors. When these sensors were first explored, a model was derived to predict the response time of a glucose affinity sensor using concanavalin A and dextran. However, the model assumed the system was linear and fell ...


Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun Oct 2016

Potential Applications For Halloysite Nanotubes Based Drug Delivery Systems, Lin Sun

Doctoral Dissertations

Drug delivery refers to approaches, formulations, technologies, and systems for transporting a drug in the body. The purpose is to enhance the drug efficacy and to reduce side reactions, which can significantly improve treatment outcomes. Halloysite is a naturally occurred alumino-silicate clay with a tubular structure. It is a biocompatible material with a big surface area which can be used for attachment of targeted molecules. Besides, loaded molecules can present a sustained release manner in solution. These properties make halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) a good option for drug delivery.

In this study, a drug delivery system was built based on halloysite ...


Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy Oct 2016

Lab-On-A-Chip Nucleic-Acid Analysis Towards Point-Of-Care Applications, Varun Lingaiah Kopparthy

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent infectious disease outbreaks, such as Ebola in 2013, highlight the need for fast and accurate diagnostic tools to combat the global spread of the disease. Detection and identification of the disease-causing viruses and bacteria at the genetic level is required for accurate diagnosis of the disease. Nucleic acid analysis systems have shown promise in identifying diseases such as HIV, anthrax, and Ebola in the past. Conventional nucleic acid analysis systems are still time consuming, and are not suitable for point-ofcare applications. Miniaturized nucleic acid systems has shown great promise for rapid analysis, but they have not been commercialized due ...


Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson Oct 2016

Generalized Partial Directed Coherence And Centrality Measures In Brain Networks For Epileptogenic Focus Localization, Joshua Aaron Adkinson

Doctoral Dissertations

Accurate epileptogenic focus localization is required prior to surgical resection of brain tissue for treatment of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy, a clinical need that is partially fulfilled to date through a subjective, and at times inconclusive, evaluation of the recorded electroencephalogram (EEG). Using brain connectivity analysis, patterns of causal interactions between brain regions were derived from multichannel EEG of 127 seizures in nine patients with focal, temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). The statistically significant directed interactions in the reconstructed brain networks were estimated from three second intracranial multi-electrode EEG segments using the Generalized Partial Directed Coherence (GPDC) and validated ...


Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka Jul 2016

Nano Clay-Enhanced Calcium Phosphate Cements And Hydrogels For Biomedical Applications, Udayabhanu Jammalamadaka

Doctoral Dissertations

Biomaterials are used as templates for drug delivery, scaffolds in tissue engineering, grafts in surgeries, and support for tissue regeneration. Novel biomaterial composites are needed to meet multifaceted requirements of compatibility, ease of fabrication and controlled drug delivery. Currently used biomaterials in orthopedics surgeries suffer limitations in toxicity and preventing infections. Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) used as bone cement suffers from limitations of thermal necrosis and monomer toxicity calls for development of better cementing biomaterials. A biodegradable/bioresorbable cement with good mechanical properties is needed to address this short coming. Metal implants used in fixing fractures or total joint replacement needs ...


Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa Jul 2016

Three-Dimensional Printing And Nanotechnology For Enhanced Implantable Materials, Karthik Kumar Tappa

Doctoral Dissertations

Orthopedic and oro-maxillofacial implants have revolutionized treatment of bone diseases and fractures. Currently available metallic implants have been in clinical use for more than 40 years and have proved medically efficacious. However, several drawbacks remain, such as excessive stiffness, accumulation of metal ions in surrounding tissue, growth restriction, required removal/revision surgery, inability to carry drugs, and susceptibility to infection. The need for additional revision surgery increases financial costs and prolongs recovery time for patients. These metallic implants are bulk manufactured and often do not meet patient's requirements. A surgeon must machine (cut, weld, trim or drill holes) them ...


Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi May 2016

Inter-Droplet Membranes For Mechanical Sensing Applications, Nima Tamaddoni Jahromi

Doctoral Dissertations

This dissertation combines self-assembly phenomena of amphiphilic molecules with soft materials to create and characterize mechanoelectrical transducers and sensors whose sensing elements are thin-film bioinspired membranes comprised of phospholipids or amphiphilic polymers. We show that the structures of these amphiphilic molecules tune the mechanical and electrical properties of these membranes. We show that these properties affect the mechanoelectrical sensing characteristic and range of operation of these membrane transducers. In the experiments, we construct and characterize a membrane-based hair cell embodiment that enables the membrane to be responsive to mechanical perturbations of the hair. The resulting oscillations of membranes formed between ...


Enhanced Bioactive Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Sonali Karnik Apr 2016

Enhanced Bioactive Scaffolds For Bone Tissue Regeneration, Sonali Karnik

Doctoral Dissertations

Bone injuries are commonly termed as fractures and they vary in their severity and causes. If the fracture is severe and there is loss of bone, implant surgery is prescribed. The response to the implant depends on the patient's physiology and implant material. Sometimes, the compromised physiology and undesired implant reactions lead to post-surgical complications. [4, 5, 20, 28] Efforts have been directed towards the development of efficient implant materials to tackle the problem of post-surgical implant failure. [ 15, 19, 24, 28, 32]

The field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine involves the use of cells to form a ...


Nanoformulation For Anticancer Drug Delivery: Enhanced Pharmacokinetics And Circulation, Gaurav Parekh Jul 2015

Nanoformulation For Anticancer Drug Delivery: Enhanced Pharmacokinetics And Circulation, Gaurav Parekh

Doctoral Dissertations

In this study, we have explored the application of the Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly technique for improving injectable drug delivery systems of low soluble anticancer drugs (e.g. Camptothecin (CPT), Paclitaxel (PTX) or Doxorubicin (DOX)). For this study, a polyelectrolyte shell encapsulates different types of drug nanocores (e.g. soft core, nanomicelle or solid lipid nanocores).The low soluble drugs tend to crystallize and precipitate in an aqueous medium. This is the reason they cannot be injected and may have low concentrations and low circulation time in the blood. Even though these drugs when present in the cancer microenvironment have high ...


Improving Practices In Nanomedicine Through Near Real-Time Pharmacokinetic Analysis, Isidro B. Magana Jan 2015

Improving Practices In Nanomedicine Through Near Real-Time Pharmacokinetic Analysis, Isidro B. Magana

Doctoral Dissertations

More than a decade into the development of gold nanoparticles, with multiple clinical trials underway, ongoing pre-clinical research continues towards better understanding in vivo interactions. The goal is treatment optimization through improved best practices. In an effort to collect information for healthcare providers enabling informed decisions in a relevant time frame, instrumentation for real-time plasma concentration (multi-wavelength photoplethysmography) and protocols for rapid elemental analysis (energy dispersive X-Ray fluorescence) of biopsied tumor tissue have been developed in a murine model. An initial analysis, designed to demonstrate the robust nature and utility of the techniques, revealed that area under the bioavailability curve ...


Nanotechnology And Additive Manufacturing Platforms For Clinical Medicine: An Investigation Of 3d Printing Bioactive Constructs And Halloysite Nanotubes For Drug Delivery And Biomaterials, Jeffery A. Weisman Oct 2014

Nanotechnology And Additive Manufacturing Platforms For Clinical Medicine: An Investigation Of 3d Printing Bioactive Constructs And Halloysite Nanotubes For Drug Delivery And Biomaterials, Jeffery A. Weisman

Doctoral Dissertations

Personalized medicine requires the development of new technologies for controlled or targeted drug delivery. Three-dimensional (3D) printing and additive manufacturing techniques can be used to generate customized constructs for bioactive compound delivery. Nanotechnology in the form of nanoparticles, used as a stand-alone construct or for material enhancements, can significantly improve established biomaterials such as PMMA based bone cements or enable new technology to have enhanced capabilities. Combinations of the technologies can be used in such applications as infectious disease treatments, chemotherapeutic targeted drug delivery or targeted delivery of nearly any bioactive compound.

Chemotherapeutic or antibiotic enhanced 3D printing filaments were ...


Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova Jul 2014

Thermoelectric Elisa For Quantification Of 8ohdg In A Microfluidic Device, Gergana Nestorova

Doctoral Dissertations

This research demonstrates the feasibility of a novel method for performing thermoelectric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in a microfluidic device. The feasibility of the thermoelectric ELISA is demonstrated by measuring the concentration of 8-hydroxy 2-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG) in urine samples from amyloid precursor protein (APP) transgenic mice. The detection method is based on formation of a complex between 8OHdG and anti-8OHdG capture antibody conjugated to biotin. The complex is immobilized over the measuring junctions of a thermopile via biotin streptavidin interaction. The concentration of the analyte is determined by using enzyme linked secondary IgG antibody specific to the primary one. The ...


Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput May 2013

Femtosecond Laser Patterned Templates And Imprinted Polymer Structures, Deepak Rajput

Doctoral Dissertations

Femtosecond laser machining is a direct-write lithography technique by which user-defined patterns are efficiently and rapidly generated at the surface or within the bulk of transparent materials. When femtosecond laser machining is performed with tightly focused amplified pulses in single-pulse mode, transparent substrates like fused silica can be surface patterned with high aspect ratio (>10:1) and deep (>10 μm) nanoholes. The main objective behind this dissertation is to develop single-pulse amplified femtosecond laser machining into a novel technique for the production of fused silica templates with user-defined patterns made of high aspect ratio nanoholes. The size of the nanoholes ...


Intrinsic Mode Function Synchronization Measures For The Anticipation Of Seizures In Epilpsy, Daniel William Moller Apr 2013

Intrinsic Mode Function Synchronization Measures For The Anticipation Of Seizures In Epilpsy, Daniel William Moller

Doctoral Dissertations

Epileptic seizures affect as many as 50 million people and often occur without warning or apparent provocation. We explore the applicability of noise-assisted Ensemble Empirical Mode Decomposition (EEMD) for patient-specific seizure anticipation synchronization measures as applied to the EEMD intrinsic mode function (IMF) output. Intracranial EEG data were obtained from pre-surgical monitoring at the Epilepsy Center of the University Hospital of Freiburg. Data from twenty patients were analyzed. For each recorded channel, non-overlapping time windows were submitted to the EEMD algorithm, producing twelve levels of IMFs. IMF synchronization measures (mean and maximum coherence, mean and maximum cross-correlation, correlation coefficient and ...


The Effect Of Network Transitions On Spontaneous Activity And Sycnhrony In Devloping Neural Networks, Jude P. J. Savarraj Apr 2013

The Effect Of Network Transitions On Spontaneous Activity And Sycnhrony In Devloping Neural Networks, Jude P. J. Savarraj

Doctoral Dissertations

Connectivity patterns of developing neural circuits and the effects of its dynamics on network behavior, particularly the emergence of spontaneous activity and synchrony, are not clear. We attempt to quantify anatomical connectivity patterns of rat cortical cultures during different stages of development. By culturing the networks on dishes embedded with micro electrode arrays, we simultaneously record electrical activity from multiple regions of the developing network and monitor its electrical behavior, particularly its tendency to fire spontaneously and to synchronize under certain conditions. We investigate possible correlations between changes in the network connectivity patterns and spontaneous electrical activity and synchrony. Cocultures ...


Ultrasonication Assisted Layer-By-Layer Technology For The Preparation Of Multi-Functional Anticancer Drugs Paclitaxel And Lapatinib, Xingcai Zhang Jan 2013

Ultrasonication Assisted Layer-By-Layer Technology For The Preparation Of Multi-Functional Anticancer Drugs Paclitaxel And Lapatinib, Xingcai Zhang

Doctoral Dissertations

In this dissertation, ultrasonication assisted Layer-by-Layer (LbL) technology for the preparation of multifunctional poorly water-soluble anticancer drug nanoparticles, paclitaxel and lapatinib, has been developed. Many FDA approved drugs are very low soluble in water; therefore, it is very difficult to load and control their release and targeting efficiently, which greatly confines their application. The development of this method will pave the way for the development and application of those low soluble anticancer drugs.

In the first part of this dissertation, the first approach for powerful ultrasonication, the top-down approach (sonicating bulk drug crystals in polyelectrolyte solution), was successfully applied for ...


Oscillator-Based Neuronal Modeling For Seizure Progression Investigation And Seizure Control Strategy, Wu Chen Oct 2012

Oscillator-Based Neuronal Modeling For Seizure Progression Investigation And Seizure Control Strategy, Wu Chen

Doctoral Dissertations

The coupled oscillator model has previously been used for the simulation of neuronal activities in in vitro rat hippocampal slice seizure data and the evaluation of seizure suppression algorithms. Each model unit can be described as either an oscillator which can generate action potential spike trains without inputs, or a threshold-based unit. With the change of only one parameter, each unit can either be an oscillator or a threshold-based spiking unit. This would eliminate the need for a new set of equations for each type of unit. Previous analysis has suggested that long kernel duration and imbalance of inhibitory feedback ...


Role Of Ammonia In The Activiation Of Methanol Dehydrogenase/Cytochrome C(L) Enzyme, Ancy Kunjumon Oct 2011

Role Of Ammonia In The Activiation Of Methanol Dehydrogenase/Cytochrome C(L) Enzyme, Ancy Kunjumon

Doctoral Dissertations

Recent advancement in enzyme catalysis has opened ways to design efficient biocatalysts, bio-sensors and bio-fuel cells. An in-depth knowledge about the mechanism of the reaction taking place within the enzymes is of great importance to achieve these goals. In this dissertation, various computation methods are applied to investigate the mechanism behind enzyme catalysis in the presence of compounds called activators.

Methanol dehydrogenase (MDH) is a well-known bio-catalyst that can oxidize excess of methanol from the environment to formaldehyde. The enzyme works well within the bacterial environment, but under in vitro, it loses activity. Ammonia is used as an activator to ...


Passive Micromixers And Organic Electrochemical Transistors For Biosensor Applications, Senaka Krishna Kanakamedala Oct 2011

Passive Micromixers And Organic Electrochemical Transistors For Biosensor Applications, Senaka Krishna Kanakamedala

Doctoral Dissertations

Fluid handling at the microscale has greatly affected different fields such as biomedical, pharmaceutical, biochemical engineering and environmental monitoring due to its reduced reagent consumption, portability, high throughput, lower hardware cost and shorter analysis time compared to large devices. The challenges associated with mixing of fluids in microscale enabled us in designing, simulating, fabricating and characterizing various micromixers on silicon and flexible polyester substrates. The mixing efficiency was evaluated by injecting the fluids through the two inlets and collecting the sample at outlet. The images collected from the microscope were analyzed, and the absorbance of the color product at the ...


Nanofabrication Of Halloysite-Pcl Composite Scaffolds And Functionalization Of Titanium For Tissue Regeneration, Shraddha Parshottambhai Patel Jul 2011

Nanofabrication Of Halloysite-Pcl Composite Scaffolds And Functionalization Of Titanium For Tissue Regeneration, Shraddha Parshottambhai Patel

Doctoral Dissertations

Major medical needs may be achieved through regenerative medicine. Nanotechnology has triggered a research revolution in many important areas such as the biomedical sciences and bioengineering at the molecular level which has grown significantly due to the availability of new analytical applications and tools based on nanotechnology. Clinical conditions and diseases being targeted by nanotechnology research include burns, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, implant failure, improved wound healing, birth defects, osteoporosis and congestive heart defects. Therapeutic use of growth factors and drugs to stimulate the production and/or function of endogenous cells represents a key area of regenerative medicine ...


Surface Morphology Of Platelet Adhesion Influenced By Activators, Inhibitors And Shear Stress, Melanie Groan Watson Oct 2010

Surface Morphology Of Platelet Adhesion Influenced By Activators, Inhibitors And Shear Stress, Melanie Groan Watson

Doctoral Dissertations

Platelet activation involves multiple events, one of which is the generation and release of nitric oxide (NO), a platelet aggregation inhibitor. Platelets simultaneously send and receive various agents that promote a positive and negative feedback control system during hemostasis. Although the purpose of platelet-derived NO is not fully understood, NO is known to inhibit platelet recruitment. NO's relatively large diffusion coefficient allows it to diffuse more rapidly than platelet agonists. It may thus be able to inhibit recruitment of platelets near the periphery of a growing thrombus before agonists have substantially accumulated in those regions.

Results from two studies ...