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Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Precognition: Automated Digital Forensic Readiness System For Mobile Computing Devices In Enterprises, Jayaprakash Govindaraj, Robin Verma, Gaurav Gupta May 2018

Precognition: Automated Digital Forensic Readiness System For Mobile Computing Devices In Enterprises, Jayaprakash Govindaraj, Robin Verma, Gaurav Gupta

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Enterprises are facing an unprecedented risk of security incidents due to the influx of emerging technologies, like smartphones and wearables. Most of the current Mobile security systems are not maturing in pace with technological advances. They lack the ability to learn and adapt from the past knowledge base. In the case of a security incident, enterprises find themselves underprepared for the lack of evidence and data. The systems are not designed to be forensic ready. There is a need for automated security analysis and forensically ready solution, which can learn and continuously adapt to new challenges, improve efficiency and productivity ...


Understanding Deleted File Decay On Removable Media Using Differential Analysis, James H. Jones Jr, Anurag Srivastava, Josh Mosier, Connor Anderson, Seth Buenafe May 2017

Understanding Deleted File Decay On Removable Media Using Differential Analysis, James H. Jones Jr, Anurag Srivastava, Josh Mosier, Connor Anderson, Seth Buenafe

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Digital content created by picture recording devices is often stored internally on the source device, on either embedded or removable media. Such storage media is typically limited in capacity and meant primarily for interim storage of the most recent image files, and these devices are frequently configured to delete older files as necessary to make room for new files. When investigations involve such devices and media, it is sometimes these older deleted files that would be of interest. It is an established fact that deleted file content may persist in part or in its entirety after deletion, and identifying the ...


Source Anonymization Of Digital Images: A Counter–Forensic Attack On Prnu Based Source Identification Techniques, Prithviraj Sengupta, Venkata Udaya Sameer, Ruchira Naskar, Ezhil Kalaimannan May 2017

Source Anonymization Of Digital Images: A Counter–Forensic Attack On Prnu Based Source Identification Techniques, Prithviraj Sengupta, Venkata Udaya Sameer, Ruchira Naskar, Ezhil Kalaimannan

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

A lot of photographers and human rights advocates need to hide their identity while sharing their images on the internet. Hence, source–anonymization of digital images has become a critical issue in the present digital age. The current literature contains a number of digital forensic techniques for “source–identification” of digital images, one of the most efficient of them being Photo–Response Non–Uniformity (PRNU) sensor noise pattern based source detection. PRNU noise pattern being unique to every digital camera, such techniques prove to be highly robust way of source–identification. In this paper, we propose a counter–forensic technique ...


Harnessing Predictive Models For Assisting Network Forensic Investigations Of Dns Tunnels, Irvin Homem, Panagiotis Papapetrou May 2017

Harnessing Predictive Models For Assisting Network Forensic Investigations Of Dns Tunnels, Irvin Homem, Panagiotis Papapetrou

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

In recent times, DNS tunneling techniques have been used for malicious purposes, however network security mechanisms struggle to detect them. Network forensic analysis has been proven effective, but is slow and effort intensive as Network Forensics Analysis Tools struggle to deal with undocumented or new network tunneling techniques. In this paper, we present a machine learning approach, based on feature subsets of network traffic evidence, to aid forensic analysis through automating the inference of protocols carried within DNS tunneling techniques. We explore four network protocols, namely, HTTP, HTTPS, FTP, and POP3. Three features are extracted from the DNS tunneled traffic ...


An Accidental Discovery Of Iot Botnets And A Method For Investigating Them With A Custom Lua Dissector, Max Gannon, Gary Warner, Arsh Arora May 2017

An Accidental Discovery Of Iot Botnets And A Method For Investigating Them With A Custom Lua Dissector, Max Gannon, Gary Warner, Arsh Arora

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

This paper presents a case study that occurred while observing peer-to-peer network communications on a botnet monitoring station and shares how tools were developed to discover what ultimately was identified as Mirai and many related IoT DDOS Botnets. The paper explains how researchers developed a customized protocol dissector in Wireshark using the Lua coding language, and how this enabled them to quickly identify new DDOS variants over a five month period of study.


Designing Laboratories For Small Scale Digital Device Forensics, Richard P. Mislan, Tim Wedge Oct 2016

Designing Laboratories For Small Scale Digital Device Forensics, Richard P. Mislan, Tim Wedge

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The ubiquity of small scale digital devices (SSDD), the public’s ever increasing societal dependence on SSDD, and the continual presence of SSDD at all types of crime scenes, including non-technical and violent crimes, demand a formalized curriculum for the education and training of future cyber forensic examiners. This paper presents the various SSDD forensics labs currently in use and under development for future use at the Purdue University Cyber Forensics Laboratory. The primary objective of each module is to provide specific real-world cases for the learning, comprehension, and understanding of hands-on investigative techniques and methodologies. The purpose of this ...


Network Forensic Investigation Of Internal Misuse/Crime In Saudi Arabia: A Hacking Case, Abdulrazaq Al-Murjan, Konstantinos Xynos Oct 2016

Network Forensic Investigation Of Internal Misuse/Crime In Saudi Arabia: A Hacking Case, Abdulrazaq Al-Murjan, Konstantinos Xynos

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

There are ad-hoc guidelines and a limited policy on computer incident response that does not include computer forensic preparation procedures (e.g. logging incidents). In addition, these guidelines do not consider the requirement of Islamic law for admissible evidence at an organisational level in Saudi Arabia. Network forensic investigation might breach the Saudi law if they follow ad-hoc or international digital forensic standards such as Association of Chief Police Officers (ACPO) guidelines. This might put the organisation in a costly situation when a malicious employee sues an Islamic court. This is because the law of Saudi Arabia is complying with ...


Paper Session Ii: Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model, Marcus K. Rogers, James Goldman, Rick Mislan, Timothy Wedge, Steve Debrota Oct 2016

Paper Session Ii: Computer Forensics Field Triage Process Model, Marcus K. Rogers, James Goldman, Rick Mislan, Timothy Wedge, Steve Debrota

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

With the proliferation of digital based evidence, the need for the timely identification, analysis and interpretation of digital evidence is becoming more crucial. In many investigations critical information is required while at the scene or within a short period of time - measured in hours as opposed to days. The traditional cyber forensics approach of seizing a system(s)/media, transporting it to the lab, making a forensic image(s), and then searching the entire system for potential evidence, is no longer appropriate in some circumstances. In cases such as child abductions, pedophiles, missing or exploited persons, time is of the ...


Development Of A National Repository Of Digital Forensic Intelligence, Mark Weiser, David P. Biros, Greg Mosier Oct 2016

Development Of A National Repository Of Digital Forensic Intelligence, Mark Weiser, David P. Biros, Greg Mosier

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Many people do all of their banking online, we and our children communicate with peers through computer systems, and there are many jobs that require near continuous interaction with computer systems. Criminals, however, are also “connected”, and our online interaction provides them a conduit into our information like never before. Our credit card numbers and other fiscal information are at risk, our children's personal information is exposed to the world, and our professional reputations are on the line.

The discipline of Digital Forensics in law enforcement agencies around the nation and world has grown to match the increased risk ...


Designing A Data Warehouse For Cyber Crimes, Il-Yeol Song, John D. Maguire, Ki Jung Lee, Namyoun Choi, Xiaohua Hu, Peter Chen Oct 2016

Designing A Data Warehouse For Cyber Crimes, Il-Yeol Song, John D. Maguire, Ki Jung Lee, Namyoun Choi, Xiaohua Hu, Peter Chen

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

One of the greatest challenges facing modern society is the rising tide of cyber crimes. These crimes, since they rarely fit the model of conventional crimes, are difficult to investigate, hard to analyze, and difficult to prosecute. Collecting data in a unified framework is a mandatory step that will assist the investigator in sorting through the mountains of data. In this paper, we explore designing a dimensional model for a data warehouse that can be used in analyzing cyber crime data. We also present some interesting queries and the types of cyber crime analyses that can be performed based on ...


A Forensic Study Of The Effectiveness Of Selected Anti-Virus Products Against Ssdt Hooking Rootkits, Sami Al-Shaheri, Dale Lindskog, Pavol Zavarsky, Ron Ruhl Jun 2013

A Forensic Study Of The Effectiveness Of Selected Anti-Virus Products Against Ssdt Hooking Rootkits, Sami Al-Shaheri, Dale Lindskog, Pavol Zavarsky, Ron Ruhl

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

For Microsoft Windows Operating Systems, both anti-virus products and kernel rootkits often hook the System Service Dispatch Table (SSDT). This research paper investigates the interaction between these two in terms of the SSDT. To investigate these matters, we extracted digital evidence from volatile memory, and studied that evidence using the Volatility framework. Due to the diversity in detection techniques used by the anti-virus products, and the diversity of infection techniques used by rootkits, our investigation produced diverse results, results that helped us to understand several SSDT hooking strategies, and the interaction between the selected anti-virus products and the rootkit samples ...


An Ontology-Based Forensic Analysis Tool, Mohammed Alzaabi, Andy Jones, Thomas A. Martin Jun 2013

An Ontology-Based Forensic Analysis Tool, Mohammed Alzaabi, Andy Jones, Thomas A. Martin

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The analysis of forensic investigation results has generally been identified as the most complex phase of a digital forensic investigation. This phase becomes more complicated and time consuming as the storage capacity of digital devices is increasing, while at the same time the prices of those devices are decreasing. Although there are some tools and techniques that assist the investigator in the analysis of digital evidence, they do not adequately address some of the serious challenges, particularly with the time and effort required to conduct such tasks. In this paper, we consider the use of semantic web technologies and in ...


First Glance: An Introductory Analysis Of Network Forensics Of Tor, Raymond Hansen Jun 2013

First Glance: An Introductory Analysis Of Network Forensics Of Tor, Raymond Hansen

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The Tor network is a low-latency overlay network for TCP flows that is designed to provide privacy and anonymity to its users. It is currently in use by many as a means to avoid censorship of both information to be shared and information to be retrieved. This paper details the architecture of the Tor network as a platform for evaluating the current state of forensic analysis of the Tor network. Specific attempts to block access to the Tor network are examined to identify (a) the processes utilized to identify Tor nodes, and (b) the resulting exposure of potentially inculpatory evidence ...


A Thematic Review Of User Compliance With Information Security Policies Literature, David Sikolia Jun 2013

A Thematic Review Of User Compliance With Information Security Policies Literature, David Sikolia

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The adoption of computer and internet technology has greatly improved the way businesses operate. However the risk to the confidentiality, integrity and availability of organizational data and systems has greatly increased too. Information security is an ever present concern for all organizations. Financial estimates of the impact of security breaches to information and technology resources range from hundreds of billions to over one trillion dollars each year worldwide (D'Arcy et al., 2011b). Organizations have therefore developed a combination of technical, administrative, and physical controls to reduce this risk (D'Arcy et al., 2011a). Administrative measures include the development of ...


Journey Into Windows 8 Recovery Artifacts, W. K. Johnson Jun 2013

Journey Into Windows 8 Recovery Artifacts, W. K. Johnson

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

One of the most difficult processes of digital forensics is to understand how new technology interacts with current technology and how digital forensic analysts can utilize current Digital Forensics technologies and processes to recover and find information hidden. Microsoft has released their new operating system Windows 8, with this new release Microsoft has added some features to the operating system that will present some interesting complications to digital forensics. Since the initial release of the Windows 8 Release Candidates there have been some research released that focus primarily on the new user created artifacts and a few artifacts that have ...


An Image Forensic Scheme With Robust And Fragile Watermarking For Business Documents, Sai Ho Kwok Jun 2013

An Image Forensic Scheme With Robust And Fragile Watermarking For Business Documents, Sai Ho Kwok

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

This paper proposes an image forensic scheme with both robust and fragile watermarking techniques for business documents. Through a dual watermarking approach, the proposed scheme can achieve image forensics objectives of (a) identification of source; (b) authentication of documents; and (c) locating the tempered areas of documents due to attacks. An example is presented to prove the concepts of the proposed scheme.

Keywords: Image Forensics, Fragile and Robust Watermarking, Business Document.


Significance Of Semantic Reconciliation In Digital Forensics, Nickson M. Karie, H. S. Venter Jun 2013

Significance Of Semantic Reconciliation In Digital Forensics, Nickson M. Karie, H. S. Venter

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Digital forensics (DF) is a growing field that is gaining popularity among many computer professionals, law enforcement agencies and other stakeholders who must always cooperate in this profession. Unfortunately, this has created an environment replete with semantic disparities within the domain that needs to be resolved and/or eliminated. For the purpose of this study, semantic disparity refers to disagreements about the meaning, interpretation, descriptions and the intended use of the same or related data and terminologies. If semantic disparity is not detected and resolved, it may lead to misunderstandings. Even worse, since the people involved may not be from ...


System-Generated Digital Forensic Evidence In Graphic Design Applications, Enos Mabuto, Hein Venter Jun 2013

System-Generated Digital Forensic Evidence In Graphic Design Applications, Enos Mabuto, Hein Venter

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Graphic design applications are often used for the editing and design of digital art. The same applications can be used for creating counterfeit documents such as identity documents (IDs), driver’s licences, passports, etc. However, the use of any graphic design application leaves behind traces of digital information that can be used during a digital forensic investigation. Current digital forensic tools examine a system to find digital evidence, but they do not examine a system specifically for the creating of counterfeit documents created through the use of graphic design applications. The paper in hand reviews the system-generated digital forensic evidence ...


Money Laundering Detection Framework To Link The Disparate And Evolving Schemes, Murad Mehmet, Duminda Wijesekera, Miguel F. Buchholtz Jun 2013

Money Laundering Detection Framework To Link The Disparate And Evolving Schemes, Murad Mehmet, Duminda Wijesekera, Miguel F. Buchholtz

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Money launderers hide traces of their transactions with the involvement of entities that participate in sophisticated schemes. Money laundering detection requires unraveling concealed connections among multiple but seemingly unrelated human money laundering networks, ties among actors of those schemes, and amounts of funds transferred among those entities. The link among small networks, either financial or social, is the primary factor that facilitates money laundering. Hence, the analysis of relations among money laundering networks is required to present the full structure of complex schemes. We propose a framework that uses sequence matching, case-based analysis, social network analysis, and complex event processing ...


Identifying Peer-To-Peer Traffic On Shared Wireless Networks, Simon Piel, Ej Jung Jun 2013

Identifying Peer-To-Peer Traffic On Shared Wireless Networks, Simon Piel, Ej Jung

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Tracing contraband downloads leads investigators to an IP address, and in turn Internet Service Providers (ISP) can provide a physical location using this IP address. However, most homes and offices share this IP address among many computers using wireless networks. In other words, there needs to be another investigation to find out which computer was responsible for contraband downloads. To make matters worse, these shared wireless networks often have vulnerabilities in access control such as using WEP or using weak passwords. In such cases, any computer in range, not necessarily at the given physical address, could be responsible. We use ...


On Resolving The Cloud Forensics Conundrum, John Bagby Jun 2013

On Resolving The Cloud Forensics Conundrum, John Bagby

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The “cloud” is idiom for an ill-defined set of online services. The cloud simultaneously offers IT savings and promises advances in functionality (e.g., ubiquity). However, the cloud also imposes poorly understood burdens on security and it may provoke injustice. Thus, the cloud presents a durable and seemingly irreconcilable conundrum for the digital forensics communit(ies). First, cloud proponents make efficiency promises for cloud services (SaaS, IaaS, PaaS). These translate well into the digital forensics domain. Indeed, the cloud may enable crowd sourcing of investigatory data vastly lowering costs of dispute resolution. For example, cloud-based litigation war rooms may reduce ...


Cybercrime And Punishment: An Analysis Of The Deontological And Utilitarian Functions Of Punishment In The Information Age, Karim Jetha Jun 2013

Cybercrime And Punishment: An Analysis Of The Deontological And Utilitarian Functions Of Punishment In The Information Age, Karim Jetha

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

This conceptual piece analyzes the role of criminal punishment and the nature of cyber crime to investigate whether the current punishment schemes are appropriate given the deontological and utilitarian goals of punishment: retribution, deterrence, incapacitation, and rehabilitation. The research has implications for policymaking in cybercriminal law.

Keywords: cybercrime, criminal law, punishment, retribution, deterrence, information economics


The Development Of Computer Forensic Legal System In China, Yonghao Mai, K. P. Chow, Rongsheng Xu, Gang Zhou, Fei Xu, Jun Zhang Jun 2013

The Development Of Computer Forensic Legal System In China, Yonghao Mai, K. P. Chow, Rongsheng Xu, Gang Zhou, Fei Xu, Jun Zhang

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

The computer forensic discipline was established around 2000 in China, which was further developed along with Chinese judicial appraisal system in 2005. The new criminal and civil procedure laws of the People’s Republic of China was enacted on 1 Jan 2013. The new laws specified electronic data is legal evidence and has great impact on the current practice on handling electronic evidence. This paper introduces the electronic data and electronic evidence examination procedure in mainland China, the general concept of computer forensic legal system, the management of computer judicial experts, the management of computer judicial expertise institutions.

Keywords: China ...


Digital Evidence Education In Schools Of Law, Aaron Alva, Barbara Endicott-Popovsky May 2012

Digital Evidence Education In Schools Of Law, Aaron Alva, Barbara Endicott-Popovsky

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

An examination of State of Connecticut v. Julie Amero provides insight into how a general lack of understanding of digital evidence can cause an innocent defendant to be wrongfully convicted. By contrast, the 101-page opinion in Lorraine v. Markel American Insurance Co. provides legal precedence and a detailed consideration for the admission of digital evidence. An analysis of both cases leads the authors to recommend additions to Law School curricula designed to raise the awareness of the legal community to ensure such travesties of justice, as in the Amero case, don’t occur in the future. Work underway at the ...


After Five Years Of E-Discovery Missteps: Sanctions Or Safe Harbor?, Milton Luoma, Vicki Luoma May 2012

After Five Years Of E-Discovery Missteps: Sanctions Or Safe Harbor?, Milton Luoma, Vicki Luoma

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

In 2003 the Zubulake case became the catalyst of change in the world of e-discovery. In that case Judge Shira Scheindlin of the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York set guidelines for e-discovery that served as the basis for amending the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (FRCP) in December 2006. The amendments incorporated a number of concepts that were described by Judge Scheindlin in the Zubulake case. ( Zubulake v. UBS Warburg LLC, 2003) Since the Zubulake case and the FRCP amendments, numerous cases have interpreted these rules changes, but one of the main points of ...


A Case Study Of The Challenges Of Cyber Forensics Analysis Of Digital Evidence In A Child Pornography Trial, Richard Boddington May 2012

A Case Study Of The Challenges Of Cyber Forensics Analysis Of Digital Evidence In A Child Pornography Trial, Richard Boddington

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Perfunctory case analysis, lack of evidence validation, and an inability or unwillingness to present understandable analysis reports adversely affect the outcome course of legal trials reliant on digital evidence. These issues have serious consequences for defendants facing heavy penalties or imprisonment yet expect their defence counsel to have clear understanding of the evidence. Poorly reasoned, validated and presented digital evidence can result in conviction of the innocent as well as acquittal of the guilty. A possession of child pornography Case Study highlights the issues that appear to plague case analysis and presentation of digital evidence relied on in these odious ...


Facilitating Forensics In The Mobile Millennium Through Proactive Enterprise Security, Andrew R. Scholnick May 2012

Facilitating Forensics In The Mobile Millennium Through Proactive Enterprise Security, Andrew R. Scholnick

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

This work explores the impact of the emerging mobile communication device paradigm on the security-conscious enterprise, with regard to providing insights for proactive Information Assurance and facilitation of eventual Forensic analysis. Attention is given to technology evolution in the areas of best practices, attack vectors, software and hardware performance, access and activity monitoring, and architectural models.

Keywords: Forensics, enterprise security, mobile communication, best practices, attack vectors.


Multi-Parameter Sensitivity Analysis Of A Bayesian Network From A Digital Forensic Investigation, Richard E. Overill, Echo P. Zhang, Kam-Pui Chow May 2012

Multi-Parameter Sensitivity Analysis Of A Bayesian Network From A Digital Forensic Investigation, Richard E. Overill, Echo P. Zhang, Kam-Pui Chow

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

A multi-parameter sensitivity analysis of a Bayesian network (BN) used in the digital forensic investigation of the Yahoo! email case has been performed using the principle of ‘steepest gradient’ in the parameter space of the conditional probabilities. This procedure delivers a more reliable result for the dependence of the posterior probability of the BN on the values used to populate the conditional probability tables (CPTs) of the BN. As such, this work extends our previous studies using singleparameter sensitivity analyses of BNs, with the overall aim of more deeply understanding the indicative use of BNs within the digital forensic and ...


Ipad2 Logical Acquisition: Automated Or Manual Examination?, Somaya Ali, Sumaya Alhosani, Farah Alzarooni, Ibrahim Baggili May 2012

Ipad2 Logical Acquisition: Automated Or Manual Examination?, Somaya Ali, Sumaya Alhosani, Farah Alzarooni, Ibrahim Baggili

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Due to their usage increase worldwide, iPads are on the path of becoming key sources of digital evidence in criminal investigations. This research investigated the logical backup acquisition and examination of the iPad2 device using the Apple iTunes backup utility while manually examining the backup data (manual examination) and automatically parsing the backup data (Lantern software - automated examination). The results indicate that a manual examination of the logical backup structure from iTunes reveals more digital evidence, especially if installed application data is required for an investigation. However, the researchers note that if a quick triage is needed of an iOS ...


Cloud Forensics Investigation: Tracing Infringing Sharing Of Copyrighted Content In Cloud, Yi-Jun He, Echo P. Zhang, Lucas C.K. Hui, Siu Ming Yiu, K.P. Chow May 2012

Cloud Forensics Investigation: Tracing Infringing Sharing Of Copyrighted Content In Cloud, Yi-Jun He, Echo P. Zhang, Lucas C.K. Hui, Siu Ming Yiu, K.P. Chow

Annual ADFSL Conference on Digital Forensics, Security and Law

Cloud Computing is becoming a significant technology trend nowadays, but its abrupt rise also creates a brand new front for cybercrime investigation with various challenges. One of the challenges is to track down infringing sharing of copyrighted content in cloud. To solve this problem, we study a typical type of content sharing technologies in cloud computing, analyze the challenges that the new technologies bring to forensics, formalize a procedure to get digital evidences and obtain analytical results based on the evidences to track down illegal uploader. Furthermore, we propose a reasoning model based on the probability distribution in a Bayesian ...