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Full-Text Articles in Computer Engineering

Urban Underground Infrastructure Monitoring Iot: The Path Loss Analysis, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah Apr 2019

Urban Underground Infrastructure Monitoring Iot: The Path Loss Analysis, Abdul Salam, Syed Shah

Faculty Publications

The extra quantities of wastewater entering the pipes can cause backups that result in sanitary sewer overflows. Urban underground infrastructure monitoring is important for controlling the flow of extraneous water into the pipelines. By combining the wireless underground communications and sensor solutions, the urban underground IoT applications such as real time wastewater and storm water overflow monitoring can be developed. In this paper, the path loss analysis of wireless underground communications in urban underground IoT for wastewater monitoring has been presented. It has been shown that the communication range of up to 4 kilometers can be achieved from an underground ...


An Underground Radio Wave Propagation Prediction Model For Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam Apr 2019

An Underground Radio Wave Propagation Prediction Model For Digital Agriculture, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

Underground sensing and propagation of Signals in the Soil (SitS) medium is an electromagnetic issue. The path loss prediction with higher accuracy is an open research subject in digital agriculture monitoring applications for sensing and communications. The statistical data are predominantly derived from site-specific empirical measurements, which is considered an impediment to universal application. Nevertheless, in the existing literature, statistical approaches have been applied to the SitS channel modeling, where impulse response analysis and the Friis open space transmission formula are employed as the channel modeling tool in different soil types under varying soil moisture conditions at diverse communication distances ...


Underground Environment Aware Mimo Design Using Transmit And Receive Beamforming In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam Apr 2019

Underground Environment Aware Mimo Design Using Transmit And Receive Beamforming In Internet Of Underground Things, Abdul Salam

Faculty Publications

In underground (UG) multiple-input and multiple-output (MIMO), the transmit beamforming is used to focus energy in the desired direction. There are three different paths in the underground soil medium through which the waves propagates to reach at the receiver. When the UG receiver receives a desired data stream only from the desired path, then the UG MIMO channel becomes three path (lateral, direct, and reflected) interference channel. Accordingly, the capacity region of the UG MIMO three path interference channel and degrees of freedom (multiplexing gain of this MIMO channel requires careful modeling). Therefore, expressions are required derived the degrees of ...


Sort Vs. Hash Join On Knights Landing Architecture, Victor L. Pan, Felix Lin Aug 2018

Sort Vs. Hash Join On Knights Landing Architecture, Victor L. Pan, Felix Lin

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

With the increasing amount of information stored, there is a need for efficient database algorithms. One of the most important database operations is “join”. This involves combining columns from two tables and grouping common values in the same row in order to minimize redundant data. The two main algorithms used are hash join and sort merge join. Hash join builds a hash table to allow for faster searching. Sort merge join first sorts the two tables to make it more efficient when comparing values. There has been a lot of debate over which approach is superior. At first, hash join ...


Deep Neural Network Architectures For Modulation Classification Using Principal Component Analysis, Sharan Ramjee, Shengtai Ju, Diyu Yang, Aly El Gamal Aug 2018

Deep Neural Network Architectures For Modulation Classification Using Principal Component Analysis, Sharan Ramjee, Shengtai Ju, Diyu Yang, Aly El Gamal

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

In this work, we investigate the application of Principal Component Analysis to the task of wireless signal modulation recognition using deep neural network architectures. Sampling signals at the Nyquist rate, which is often very high, requires a large amount of energy and space to collect and store the samples. Moreover, the time taken to train neural networks for the task of modulation classification is large due to the large number of samples. These problems can be drastically reduced using Principal Component Analysis, which is a technique that allows us to reduce the dimensionality or number of features of the samples ...


Investigating Dataset Distinctiveness, Andrew Ulmer, Kent W. Gauen, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Zohar R. Kapach, Daniel P. Merrick Aug 2018

Investigating Dataset Distinctiveness, Andrew Ulmer, Kent W. Gauen, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Zohar R. Kapach, Daniel P. Merrick

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Just as a human might struggle to interpret another human’s handwriting, a computer vision program might fail when asked to perform one task in two different domains. To be more specific, visualize a self-driving car as a human driver who had only ever driven on clear, sunny days, during daylight hours. This driver – the self-driving car – would inevitably face a significant challenge when asked to drive when it is violently raining or foggy during the night, putting the safety of its passengers in danger. An extensive understanding of the data we use to teach computer vision models – such as ...


Development Of A Water Quality Status And Trend Detection Tool*, Ruchir Aggarwal, Valeria Mijares, Margaret W. Gitau Aug 2017

Development Of A Water Quality Status And Trend Detection Tool*, Ruchir Aggarwal, Valeria Mijares, Margaret W. Gitau

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Water Quality Index (WQI) models have been developed since the early 1970s. They present a means by which water quality status and trends can be compared across time and space on the basis of a composite value computed using existing water quality data. There is a need for a tool that can bring the different water quality parameters together and calculate the WQIs so as to facilitate data use in predictive modeling and water quality management. We are developing a software tool that can be used by water quality managers and others with different technical backgrounds to calculate WQI of ...


Web-Based Interactive Social Media Visual Analytics, Diego Rodríguez-Baquero, Jiawei Zhang, David S. Ebert, Sorin A. Matei Aug 2017

Web-Based Interactive Social Media Visual Analytics, Diego Rodríguez-Baquero, Jiawei Zhang, David S. Ebert, Sorin A. Matei

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Real-time social media platforms enable quick information broadcasting and response during disasters and emergencies. Analyzing the massive amount of generated data to understand the human behavior requires data collection and acquisition, parsing, filtering, augmentation, processing, and representation. Visual analytics approaches allow decision makers to observe trends and abnormalities, correlate them with other variables and gain invaluable insight into these situations. In this paper, we propose a set of visual analytic tools for analyzing and understanding real-time social media data in times of crisis and emergency situations. First, we model the degree of risk of individuals’ movement based on evacuation zones ...


What Broke Where For Distributed And Parallel Applications — A Whodunit Story, Subrata Mitra Dec 2016

What Broke Where For Distributed And Parallel Applications — A Whodunit Story, Subrata Mitra

Open Access Dissertations

Detection, diagnosis and mitigation of performance problems in today's large-scale distributed and parallel systems is a difficult task. These large distributed and parallel systems are composed of various complex software and hardware components. When the system experiences some performance or correctness problem, developers struggle to understand the root cause of the problem and fix in a timely manner. In my thesis, I address these three components of the performance problems in computer systems. First, we focus on diagnosing performance problems in large-scale parallel applications running on supercomputers. We developed techniques to localize the performance problem for root-cause analysis. Parallel ...


Video Annotation By Crowd Workers With Privacy-Preserving Local Disclosure, Apeksha Dipak Kumavat Dec 2016

Video Annotation By Crowd Workers With Privacy-Preserving Local Disclosure, Apeksha Dipak Kumavat

Open Access Theses

Advancements in computer vision are still not reliable enough for detecting video content including humans and their actions. Microtask crowdsourcing on task markets such as Amazon Mechnical Turk and Upwork can bring humans into the loop. However, engaging crowd workers to annotate non-public video footage risks revealing the identities of people in the video who may have a right to anonymity.

This thesis demonstrates how we can engage untrusted crowd workers to detect behaviors and objects, while robustly concealing the identities of all faces. We developed a web-based system that presents obfuscated videos to crowd workers, and provides them with ...


Tangible Interaction As An Aid For Object Navigation In 3d Modeling, Sanmathi Dangeti Dec 2016

Tangible Interaction As An Aid For Object Navigation In 3d Modeling, Sanmathi Dangeti

Open Access Theses

This study introduced an interaction technique that used tangible interaction for 3D modeling. A hybrid interaction technique using a Kinect camera and a smartphone with a gyroscope was developed for the navigating objects in a 3D modeling software. It was then tested on 20 participants categorized as amateurs who had basic 3D/ CAD modeling experience and 20 participants categorized as the experts who had extensive experience working with the modeling software. This research study presents the need for existence of such interaction technique, gaps from the related previous studies, statistical findings from the current study and possible reasons for the ...


Haptic Foot Feedback For Kicking Training In Virtual Reality, Hank Huang, Hong Tan Aug 2016

Haptic Foot Feedback For Kicking Training In Virtual Reality, Hank Huang, Hong Tan

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

As means to further supplement athletic performances increases, virtual reality is becoming helpful to sports in terms of cognitive training such as reaction, mentality, and game strategies. With the aid of haptic feedback, interaction with virtual objects increases by another dimension, in addition to the presence of visual and auditory feedback. This research presents an integrated system of a virtual reality environment, motion tracking system, and a haptic unit designed for the dorsal foot. The prototype simulates a scenario of virtual kicking and returns haptic response upon collision between the user’s foot and virtual object. The overall system was ...


Using Ubiquitous Data To Improve Smartwatches' Context Awareness, Yuankun Song Aug 2016

Using Ubiquitous Data To Improve Smartwatches' Context Awareness, Yuankun Song

Open Access Theses

Nowadays, more and more data is being generated by various software applications, services and smart devices every second. The data contains abundant information about people’s daily lives. This research explored the possibility of improving smartwatches’ context awareness by using common ubiquitous data. The researcher developed a prototype system consisting of an Android application and a web application, and conducted an experiment where 10 participants performed several tasks with the help of a smartwatch. The result showed a significant improvement of the smartwatch’s context awareness running the prototype application, which used ubiquitous data to automatically execute proper actions according ...


Interactive Logical Analysis Of Planning Domains, Rajesh Kalyanam Aug 2016

Interactive Logical Analysis Of Planning Domains, Rajesh Kalyanam

Open Access Dissertations

Humans exhibit a significant ability to answer a wide range of questions about previously unencountered planning domains, and leverage this ability to construct “general-purpose'' solution plans for the domain.

The long term vision of this research is to automate this ability, constructing a system that utilizes reasoning to automatically verify claims about a planning domain. The system would use this ability to automatically construct and verify a generalized plan to solve any planning problem in the domain. The goal of this thesis is to start with baseline results from the interactive verification of claims about planning domains and develop the ...


Monitoring Dbms Activity To Detect Insider Threat Using Query Selectivity, Prajwal B. Hegde Aug 2016

Monitoring Dbms Activity To Detect Insider Threat Using Query Selectivity, Prajwal B. Hegde

Open Access Theses

The objective of the research presented in this thesis is to evaluate the importance of query selectivity for monitoring DBMS activity and detect insider threat. We propose query selectivity as an additional component to an existing anomaly detection system (ADS). We first look at the advantages of working with this particular ADS. This is followed by a discussion about some existing limitations in the anomaly detection system (ADS) and how it affects its overall performance. We look at what query selectivity is and how it can help improve upon the existing limitations of the ADS. The system is then implemented ...


Energy Efficiency In Data Collection Wireless Sensor Networks, Miquel Andres Navarro Patino Apr 2016

Energy Efficiency In Data Collection Wireless Sensor Networks, Miquel Andres Navarro Patino

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation studies the problem of energy efficiency in resource constrained and heterogeneous wireless sensor networks (WSNs) for data collection applications in real-world scenarios. The problem is addressed from three different perspectives: network routing, node energy profiles, and network management. First, the energy efficiency in a WSN is formulated as a load balancing problem, where the routing layer can diagnose and exploit the WSN topology redundancy to reduce the data traffic processed in critical nodes, independent of their hardware platform, improving their energy consumption and extending the network lifetime. We propose a new routing strategy that extends traditional cost-based routing ...


Learning In Vision And Robotics, Daniel P. Barrett Apr 2016

Learning In Vision And Robotics, Daniel P. Barrett

Open Access Dissertations

I present my work on learning from video and robotic input. This is an important problem, with numerous potential applications. The use of machine learning makes it possible to obtain models which can handle noise and variation without explicitly programming them. It also raises the possibility of robots which can interact more seamlessly with humans rather than only exhibiting hard-coded behaviors. I will present my work in two areas: video action recognition, and robot navigation. First, I present a video action recognition method which represents actions in video by sequences of retinotopic appearance and motion detectors, learns such models automatically ...


Grounding Robot Motion In Natural Language And Visual Perception, Scott Alan Bronkowski Apr 2016

Grounding Robot Motion In Natural Language And Visual Perception, Scott Alan Bronkowski

Open Access Dissertations

The current state of the art in military and first responder ground robots involves heavy physical and cognitive burdens on the human operator while taking little to no advantage of the potential autonomy of robotic technology. The robots currently in use are rugged remote-controlled vehicles. Their interaction modalities, usually utilizing a game controller connected to a computer, require a dedicated operator who has limited capacity for other tasks.

I present research which aims to ease these burdens by incorporating multiple modes of robotic sensing into a system which allows humans to interact with robots through a natural-language interface. I conduct ...


User-Centric Workload Analytics: Towards Better Cluster Management, Suhas Raveesh Javagal Apr 2016

User-Centric Workload Analytics: Towards Better Cluster Management, Suhas Raveesh Javagal

Open Access Theses

Effective management of computing clusters and providing a high quality customer support is not a trivial task. Due to rise of community clusters there is an increase in the diversity of workloads and the user demographic. Owing to this and privacy concerns of the user, it is difficult to identify performance issues, reduce resource wastage and understand implicit user demands. In this thesis, we perform in-depth analysis of user behavior, performance issues, resource usage patterns and failures in the workloads collected from a university-wide community cluster and two clusters maintained by a government lab. We also introduce a set of ...


A Faster Version Of Louvain Method For Community Detection For Efficient Modeling And Analytics Of Cyber Systems, Sunanda Vivek Shanbhaq Apr 2016

A Faster Version Of Louvain Method For Community Detection For Efficient Modeling And Analytics Of Cyber Systems, Sunanda Vivek Shanbhaq

Open Access Theses

Cyber networks are complex networks with various hosts forming the entities of the network and the communication between them forming the edges of the network. Most cyber networks exhibit a community structure. A community is a group of nodes that are densely connected with each other as compared to other nodes in the network. Representing an IP network in the form of communities helps in viewing the network from different levels of granularity and makes the visualization of the network cleaner and more pleasing to the eye. This will help significantly in cyber attack detection in large scale cyber networks ...


Generalized Techniques For Using System Execution Traces To Support Software Performance Analysis, Thelge Manjula Peiris Dec 2015

Generalized Techniques For Using System Execution Traces To Support Software Performance Analysis, Thelge Manjula Peiris

Open Access Dissertations

This dissertation proposes generalized techniques to support software performance analysis using system execution traces in the absence of software development artifacts such as source code. The proposed techniques do not require modifications to the source code, or to the software binaries, for the purpose of software analysis (non-intrusive). The proposed techniques are also not tightly coupled to the architecture specific details of the system being analyzed. This dissertation extends the current techniques of using system execution traces to evaluate software performance properties, such as response times, service times. The dissertation also proposes a novel technique to auto-construct a dataflow model ...


Gpu/Cpu Performance Of Image Processing Tasks For Use In The Cam 2 System, Jonathan Cottom, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Young-Sol Koh Aug 2015

Gpu/Cpu Performance Of Image Processing Tasks For Use In The Cam 2 System, Jonathan Cottom, Yung-Hsiang Lu, Young-Sol Koh

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

Over the past several years, graphics processing units (GPU) have increasingly been viewed as the future of image processing engines. Currently, the Continuous Analysis of Many CAMeras (CAM2) project performs its processing on CPUs, which will potentially be more costly as the system scales to service more users. This study seeks to analyze the performance gains of GPU processing and evaluate the advantage of supporting GPU-accelerated analysis for CAM2 users. The platform for comparing the CPU and GPU performance has been the NVIDIA Jetson TK1. The target hardware implementation is an Amazon cloud instance, where final cost analysis ...


Implementation Of A Speech Recognition Algorithm To Facilitate Verbal Commands For Visual Analytics Law Enforcement Toolkit, Shubham S. Rastogi, David L. Wiszowaty, Hanye Xu, Abish Malik, David S. Ebert Aug 2015

Implementation Of A Speech Recognition Algorithm To Facilitate Verbal Commands For Visual Analytics Law Enforcement Toolkit, Shubham S. Rastogi, David L. Wiszowaty, Hanye Xu, Abish Malik, David S. Ebert

The Summer Undergraduate Research Fellowship (SURF) Symposium

The VALET (Visual Analytics Law Enforcement Toolkit) system allows the user to visualize and predict crime hotspots and analyze crime data. Police officers have difficulty in using VALET in a mobile situation, since the system allows only conventional input interfaces (keyboard and mouse). This research focuses on introducing a new input interface to VALET in the form of speech recognition, which allows the user to interact with the software without losing functionality. First an Application Program Interface (API) that was compatible with the VALET system was found and initial code scripts to test its functionality were written. Next, the code ...


Two Correspondence Problems Easier Than One, Aaron Michaux, Zygmunt Pizlo May 2015

Two Correspondence Problems Easier Than One, Aaron Michaux, Zygmunt Pizlo

MODVIS Workshop

Computer vision research rarely makes use of symmetry in stereo reconstruction despite its established importance in perceptual psychology. Such stereo reconstructions produce visually satisfying figures with precisely located points and lines, even when input images have low or moderate resolution. However, because few invariants exist, there are no known general approaches to solving symmetry correspondence on real images. The problem is significantly easier when combined with the binocular correspondence problem, because each correspondence problem provides strong non-overlapping constraints on the solution space. We demonstrate a system that leverages these constraints to produce accurate stereo models from pairs of binocular images ...


Assessment Of High-Fidelity Collision Models In The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method, Andrew Brian Weaver Apr 2015

Assessment Of High-Fidelity Collision Models In The Direct Simulation Monte Carlo Method, Andrew Brian Weaver

Open Access Dissertations

Advances in computer technology over the decades has allowed for more complex physics to be modeled in the DSMC method. Beginning with the first paper on DSMC in 1963, 30,000 collision events per hour were simulated using a simple hard sphere model. Today, more than 10 billion collision events can be simulated per hour for the same problem. Many new and more physically realistic collision models such as the Lennard-Jones potential and the forced harmonic oscillator model have been introduced into DSMC. However, the fact that computer resources are more readily available and higher-fidelity models have been developed does ...


Improving Capacity-Performance Tradeoffs In The Storage Tier, Eric P. Villasenor Apr 2015

Improving Capacity-Performance Tradeoffs In The Storage Tier, Eric P. Villasenor

Open Access Dissertations

Data-set sizes are growing. New techniques are emerging to organize and analyze these data-sets. There is a key access pattern emerging with these new techniques, large sequential file accesses. The trend toward bigger files exists to help amortize the cost of data accesses from the storage layer, as many workloads are recognized to be I/O bound. The storage layer is widely recognized as the slowest layer in the system. This work focuses on the tradeoff one can make with that storage capacity to improve system performance. ^ Capacity can be leveraged for improved availability or improved performance. This tradeoff is ...


Architectural Techniques To Extend Multi-Core Performance Scaling, Hamza Bin Sohail Apr 2015

Architectural Techniques To Extend Multi-Core Performance Scaling, Hamza Bin Sohail

Open Access Dissertations

Multi-cores have successfully delivered performance improvements over the past decade; however, they now face problems on two fronts: power and off-chip memory bandwidth. Dennard's scaling is effectively coming to an end which has lead to a gradual increase in chip power dissipation. In addition, sustaining off-chip memory bandwidth has become harder due to the limited space for pins on the die and greater current needed to drive the increasing load . My thesis focuses on techniques to address the power and off-chip memory bandwidth challenges in order to avoid the premature end of the multi-core era. ^ In the first part ...


Trajectory Generation For Lane-Change Maneuver Of Autonomous Vehicles, Ashesh Goswami Apr 2015

Trajectory Generation For Lane-Change Maneuver Of Autonomous Vehicles, Ashesh Goswami

Open Access Theses

Lane-change maneuver is one of the most thoroughly investigated automatic driving operations that can be used by an autonomous self-driving vehicle as a primitive for performing more complex operations like merging, entering/exiting highways or overtaking another vehicle. This thesis focuses on two coherent problems that are associated with the trajectory generation for lane-change maneuvers of autonomous vehicles in a highway scenario: (i) an effective velocity estimation of neighboring vehicles under different road scenarios involving linear and curvilinear motion of the vehicles, and (ii) trajectory generation based on the estimated velocities of neighboring vehicles for safe operation of self-driving cars ...


Recursive Tree Traversal Dependence Analysis, Yusheng Weijiang Apr 2015

Recursive Tree Traversal Dependence Analysis, Yusheng Weijiang

Open Access Theses

While there has been much work done on analyzing and transforming regular programs that operate over linear arrays and dense matrices, comparatively little has been done to try to carry these optimizations over to programs that operate over heap-based data structures using pointers. Previous work has shown that point blocking, a technique similar to loop tiling in regular programs, can help increase the temporal locality of repeated tree traversals. Point blocking, however, has only been shown to work on tree traversals where each traversal is fully independent and would allow parallelization, greatly limiting the types of applications that this transformation ...


Digital Provenance - Models, Systems, And Applications, Salmin Sultana Oct 2014

Digital Provenance - Models, Systems, And Applications, Salmin Sultana

Open Access Dissertations

Data provenance refers to the history of creation and manipulation of a data object and is being widely used in various application domains including scientific experiments, grid computing, file and storage system, streaming data etc. However, existing provenance systems operate at a single layer of abstraction (workflow/process/OS) at which they record and store provenance whereas the provenance captured from different layers provide the highest benefit when integrated through a unified provenance framework. To build such a framework, a comprehensive provenance model able to represent the provenance of data objects with various semantics and granularity is the first step ...